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same vowel sound with the plural article les, and the pronouns ces, mes, tes, ses. Describing the final m and n, in p. 6, he observes that they have generally a nasal sound resembling ang or ong: a remark very likely to encourage a common English vice in pronouncing French, and to mislead a learner who may not happen to have cast his eye upon a note in p. 23, which quite incidentally mentions that the tongue does not touch the palate in the pronunciation of the nasal 11' In mingled with these tables of words, occasionally a year with the title, “ No Class. These anomalous col!:*:nna, to titute as they are of any elucidation, will not a litt the inquisitive pupil. It is, also, a serious defect thor has given no information on the phen'," tj.

Tent in French words of two or more syllables.

i fie accent in our common English sense of the term, the

in or stress of the voice on a particular syllable. This is

ut on which our countrymen, in learning French, p.

the need of some instruction, but on which few of the orary elementary books afford any.

Art. VII. Rules for pronouncing and reading the French Language.

By the Rev. Israel Worsley. 12mo, pp. 66. price 2s. Longman and Co. 1814. THIS little volume, with a title so unassuming, has the rare.

' merit of performing more than it promises. Besides the Rules of Pronunciation and Accent, which are short, easy, and, in general, perspicuous, the Author has drawn up a List of Particles, comprising Articles, Pronouns, Adverbs, Conjunotions, and Prepositions; and these he has followed by a concise but, to a person acquainted with general grammar, sufficient display of the Verbs, Regular, Irregular, Impersonal, and Reflective.

The general fault of French grammars, is that they are swelled to a large bulk, with a variety of matter, which to a young person of previous good education, is unnecessary and even impertinent. Mr. W.'s book is not of this description. It is such an assistance as is needful for one who has made a tolerable progress in Latin, to enable him to acquire a speedy and accurate facility in reading French authors : and if he cair obtain the lessons of a native for a few months, provided the pupil has voluble organs and is attentive, he will pronounce and speak, as well as silentiy read, the language in a respectablo

With this view, we hope that this little work will meet what it deserves, extensive approbation and adoption. It is really lamentable to observe wliat a tedious and oppressive business the learning of French is cominonly made; which, to

2 P 2


a boy who has passed decently through a classical school, is scarcely more than child's play. In a modest and sensible preface, Mr. W. gives this account of the origin of his work.

• When engaged, during many years of my life, in teaching our own language to the natives of France, from observing the analogies and the discrepancies of the two languages, I was induced to draw up, for the use of my scholars, some observations on our pronunciation; which I found of essential use, in enabling them to obtain a very accurate pronunciation in a short time. On

my returp to my native country, I adopted a similar plan with my English scholars, who were to learn French ; and, finding it answer my expectations, am induced to send the following pages to the press, as well for my own use in a populous neighbourhood, where they may be in request, as to offer them to the use of other persons, who may be disposed to adopt them, in their respective seminaries.' p. iv.

We have noticed a few errors of the printer, and some slight omissions; which the Author will probably correct and supply in another edition. We apprehend that the sound of yeu in yeux, is not justly represented by that of yu in the English word yule : and we think that a description of the organic vocal formation of the vowel u and the nasal power of m and n, is capable of being intelligibly conveyed in words, and would materially assist an English pupil in acquiring a promptitude in the enunciation of those sounds.

Art, Vili. 1. The Arithmetical Preceptor, or a complete Treatise of

Arithmetic, Theoretical and Practical. In six parts. Designed , not only for the use of Schools, but for those young persons, who not having the benefit of a Master, are yet desirous of becoming acquainted with such parts of Arithmetic as may enable them when commencing business to transact their Accounts. To which is added a Treatise on Magic Squares, containing several new Rules for their Construction, all of which are accurately demonstrated. By Joseph Youle, Master of the Boys' Charity School, Sheffield ; and late Teacher of the Mathematics, Warsop, Notts. 12mo. pp. xxvi. 485. Price 8s. boards. London. Longman and Co:

1813. 2. The Expeditious Arithmetician ; or, Preceptor's Arithmetical

Class Book : containing Six separate Sets of Original Questions, to exemplify and illustrate an Important Improvement in the Practice of teaching the first Five Rules of Arithmetic, Simple and Compound, by peculiar methods not in use, and by which accuracy and expedition are attained with unusual facility in a far greater degree than by any other hitherto invented. By B. Denby and J. Leng, Hull. 12mo. pp. xii. 179. Seven separate parts, . .

, price 7s. London. Crosby and Co. 1814. EACH of these creatises may have its uses; the first, however,

is the most seutific and exteusive. Mr. Youle treats first

of arithmetic in whole numbers; 2dly, of vulgar fractions 3dly, of decimals and the extraction of roots; 4thly, of logarithms, with compound interest and annuities. This part also includes a table of logarithis extending to 10,000. The 5th part contains a copious series of practical questions; and the 6th exhibits the demonstration of the rules.

This treatise is methodically and judiciously arranged. The Author is precise and correct in his definitions, accurate, so far as we have had opportunity of examining, in the working of his examples, perspicuous in his directions, and often happy in his notes and illustrations. The demonstrations he has given, are, in the main, neat and satisfactory; and the supplementary treatise on magic squares and circles will doubtless both excite and gratify the curiosity of youths in the foremost arithmetical classes.

In the event of a new edition, bowever, we think Mr. Youle might introduce a few improvements. He might, for example, give the best approximating rules for the cube root, and for roots in general. He might also employ the period instead of the comma, to separate the integer from the decimal numbers. Instead of directing the pupil to convert circulating decimals to vulgar fractions previously to multiplying and dividing, he might lay before him the comprehensive general rules of Mr. James Lamb, of Sproatley, near Hull, published at page 56 of Whiting's ? Mathematical Delights; ' 'a, work with which we conjecture, from the turn given to some of Mr. Youle's questions, he is acquainted. As it is, this gentleman's work indicates skill, judgement, and care ; and we have no doubt that it will be advantageously introduced into many schools.

The Class-book of Messrs. Denby and Leng is of humbler pretensions, since it does not go beyond the rules of Reduction. The objects of the Authors are to furnish the preceptor with a great variety of examples (amounting, indeed, to more than 2000, divided into six methodised classes), and to communicate to him easy and expeditious methods of determining the answers to those questions, without having recourse to a' Key.' In these methods the labour seldom exceeds that of adding together two lines comprised in the question the answer of which is required. The thought is certainly ingenious; and though · not altogether new, deserves commendation and encouragement. The labour of preparing more than 2000 questions, such that their answers may be found by these simple expedients, must have been very great. We sincerely hope it will meet with an appropriate reward : and we are decidedly of opinion that in large schools the fundamental rules of arithmetic would be much more effectually, if not more expeditiously, taught, by the aid of these class-books,' than by the plans devised by Bell and Lancaster. When we say this, we by no means intend to censure those excellent modes of instruction. We regard them as most powerful engines of intellectual and moral improvement; but cannot shut our eyes to the possibility of their being misemployed. We are not advocates for the grinding of corn in a powder mill ; or the manufacturing of cordage in a silk-looin.



Art. IX. Discourses, for Domestic Use. By Henry Lacey. In

two volumes, crown 8vo. pp. 302 and 318, price 10s. Southampo'

ton, Baker ; Longman and Co. London, 1813. ALMOST every minister seems to consider himself both qua

lified and compelled to print some of his Discourses. With the reservation, however, of those which have been delivered on extraordinary occasions, such as fast-days, and days of thanksgiving; or for national victories, or the death of illustrious or pious persons ; there appears so little to recommend this species of composition to the attention of the public, that we have sometimes been led to suppose, that when a preacher has determined to become the author of a volume of sermons, he must be induced to hesitate in fixing his preference, bewildered amidst the varying claims of the many productions of this nature, which a Dissenter of any reputation must have prepared.

Every other literary labourer usually writes with a decided reference, in the first instance, to the ultimate publication of his works : the bistorian, always; the poet, perhaps, in most instances; the biographer and the essayist, nearly without exception. But there are two departments of literature in which such a reference is fatal to the simplicity and appropriateness of the whole :- the writing of letters ; and the study required for the pulpit. A correspondent who embodies his sentiments with the express design of exhibiting them to the public eye, is little fitted to enter into the private endearments of easy and familiar intercourse with his friend. A preacher, in the preparation of his ordinary but important instructions, should not suffer himself to indulge an appeal to any other tribunal than the Judgement Seat of Christ. He who has his eye fixed on a remote object, will but indistinctly perceive another that is near, as the perceptive power of that organ requires an adjustment adapted to each in regard to its distance. The minister who preserves a constant regard to public applause, or even to usefulness as a writer for the press, is not likely to keep, with all the clearness which the awful nature of the subject demands, his attention occupied with the necessities, the afflictions, or any other circumstances of his own flock, and of the present hour. We




may, therefore, conclude that most of the sermons that receive the honour of publication, are merely selected from others of nearly equal merit; and that the authors of them are determined in theirchoice, by accidental rather than anticipated causes; while it is owing probably to this very circumstance that they are in general compositions of so little interest, that as Florian said of the pastorals of former days, we are nauseated at the mention of them. Even as specimens of genius, it is not proper or desirable that they should, by rising above mediocrity in elegance or force of language, or remarkable peculiarity of conception, be calculated to procure much honour; the noblest that were ever delivered, having been “not in excellency of speech or of wisdom, nor in the words which man's wisdom teacheth.” That must indeed be a mind of no ordinary complexion (though such there have undoubtedly been and still are) which, with all the simplicity of an address to the uninstructed majority of our congregations, can unite vigour, novelty, and correctness, sufficient to ensure the approbation of the coldly judging and fastidious reader. Besides, a sermon is too short; and almost

. of necessity too formal, as well as too narrowly circumscribed by scriptural and theological allusions ; either to become a work of great value, or to be productive of much pleasure. A volume of sermons is so indefinite in its object and professions, as scarcely to afford materials for anxious curiosity to become acquainted with its contents; whereas the novel, the poem, the historical, or the biographical memoir, fixes attention on

one certain object, which becomes to us the theme of momentary importance, and excites the most impatient eagerness to know all which it has to reveal. For these reasons, it might not, perhaps, be ill-grounded advice, were we to recommend those persons whose profession leads them to this employment, to publish whatsoever they regard as likely to prove beneficial to mankind, in almost any other form; as it is hardly possible that they should fix on one, which will give rise to so much disgust, and hold out so little probability of real excellence or acknowledged and general success.

Sermons for the family, however, are judged by a different standard : they seek not the reputation of learning, but the benefit of the young and the ignorant. Children and servants are the persons for whom their instructions are principally intended ; and the measure of their excellence must be made conformable to the measure of the capacities of those classes of readers. Plain good sense, scriptural truth in striking forms of expression, a relation to the more private and social duties of Christians, with a character and scope of feeling, which are suited to the repose of a Lord's Day evening, and in a private family, are their most legitimate recommendations: and the


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