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“And underneath are the Everlasting Arms." STORIES of the war are some- the higher side of English strivwhat out of fashion. Peace, ings and all that England has and all therein is, is the balm stood for in the world, it is well that the world wants. But to“ sit up and take notice,” as stories of human nature should modern slang would express it. never come amiss, especially The story was told to Mr when human nature transcends Breasted himself in Turkey by itself, and this is a story

a story a Turkish officer, who stated which, if I can tell it to its that he was present. And the end, should "touch

touch strong story is so against everything men's hearts with glory till Turkish and against even the they weep."

zeal of Islam, that it has the I came across the story this ring of truth. Opportunity year up the Nile, when the was at hand for me also to poor squabble over Tutankh- test the truth, or at any rate amen, dead and gone, was at the probability, and I have its height. It was told me by been able to do so. The story Mr James Breasted, the Pro- is as essentially proved as any. fessor of History at Chicago thing short of an official exUniversity, sitting over the amination of witnesses in Turluncheon-table with Dr Oscar key can make it, though a Straus, erstwhile United States portion of the ancillary inciMinister at Constantinople. dents have been filled in from When 80 famous a historian imagination, and knowledge of as Mr James Breasted tells the terrain. It relates to those you an anecdote, and withal early days of the war when one who knows and appreciates Turkey, mad with the doings





of the previous ten years, Then “the storm-tossed ships anxious to catch as on which the Grand Army modern nation, and to free had never looked," 1 but which herself from all the trammels stood between him ' and the of capitulations and foreign dominion of the world,” held financiers and the like, threw them land - bound, to be desherself into the arms of the troyed at leisure by the British Central Powers. Indeed, it Force that had followed him, seems very probable, as evi- though he himself escaped from dence comes from the desks them and his own army secretly. where it has lain, that this The making of the Canal had programme had been prepared but emphasised conditions, and months before the war, and as in 1801, so in 1882 and on that the period of hesitation several other occasions, a force was but a cloak to preparation, from India had joined a force of which the forces of the Sultan from the United Kingdom, to were sadly in want. However protect what a German writer that may be, by the end of has termed “the spine of the October 1914, Turkey plunged Empire." into the maelstrom of general All during that hot summer war.

the Canal and the desert That she was likely to do so of Sinai that spread between was sufficiently evident to the it and the Turkish frontier British Government, and ever was carefully and systematisince the outbreak of war cally patrolled. The anomaly their great anxiety had been of our position there did not adequately to protect the Canal, make for simplification of war without detaining more troops measures and war control of in Egypt than were actually the travellers. It was not necessary for the task.

The till the declaration of war by troops for that purpose were Turkey that anything very to be Indian brigades, mingled definite could be done to reguto some extent with the units of larise the position of Egypt. the Territorial Force of England But since the Khedive was in that Lord Kitchener had used Constantinople when war was to free the Regular units com- declared, and elected to stay prising the overseas garrisons. there, the knot was cut by

Egypt bad ever been a strat- declaring his uncle, Prince egic point for modern England. Hussein Hamel Pasha, Sultan, It will be remembered how, free of Turkish suzerainty, and when Napoleon moved there protected by Great Britain. suddenly in 1799 to cut Eng- From August to November land from the East and bear 1914 the troops on the Canal up Citoyen Tippu, his ally, the kept watch and ward along British perforce followed him the bank, with Turkish troops -horse, foot, and artillery. crossing into the Egyptian pro

1 Mahan.

vince of Sinai, yet with no Egypt to make it worth while Turkish declaration of war-an to reverberate to the drum of unsatisfactory situation that Islam or the intrigues of Berlin. was only one degree less desir- The roll and echo of the able than actual war, while all drum, moreover, disturbed but the while German and Turkish few of the Indian Moslems. propagandists strove to ger. The glamour of loyalty to the minate the seeds of trouble in English Crown, which since the herent in the British occupation Crown took over the rule has of Egypt. Out into the deserts been só remarkable a feature, of Sin and Paran and over the burnt steady in their breastsWilderness of Shur the patrols a real and enduring enthusiasm of the Indian units guarding stirred at times to an almost the Canal pushed day in day religious fervour. There is no out during that long summer real occasion for enmity among of ’14, while such defences as the Ahl--kitab, the People of time and resources permitted the Book, be it Testament or were erected along the Canal Koran. When His Majesty itself.

King Edward lay at death's Then it was that in October door, just before his CoronaTurkey at last nailed her col- tion, and all England held their ours to the mast of the Central breath, a famous old Indian Powers, and declared war on Sirdar of Afghan descent atGreat Britain, her preparations tended the intercession service fairly ready, as, incidentally, at St Paul's. When it was were by this time those of over, he said with emphatic Britain.

fervour to those with him, With the declaration of war “Be of good cheer; he surely the situation on the Canal be- will not die.” Some weeks later came definite. Our patrols one of those who had been came into contact with Turkish present said, Why were you so patrols and armed Bedouins, and certain that the King would revarious small affairs took place. cover 1” And the old man said,

Germany and Turkey con- “Sahib, as you knelt in prayer, fidently hoped to trade on the I saw a figure in white come well-known discontent in politi- among you and hold out his cal circles in Egypt with the hands, which were bleeding. British occupation. The Drum I felt it must be Jesus bin Ecclesiastic was set a-rolling. Miriam, and I knew." A Jehad, a holy war for the And it was in something of faith of the Prophet, was pro- that spirit that the Indian claimed from the mosques and troops went to France and kept minarets of Turkey, "glory for watch on the Canal, and it was all, and heaven for those who in the glory of that spirit that bleed." By this time, however, the point of this story lies. the British garrisons in Egypt So in Egypt for the moment were strong, and there was not there was no flame to fan, sufficient dislike of England in while it was long before the

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efforts of the Turk to raise the dreary fiery summer of '15. Senussi on us bore fruit.

Constant minor alerts took November came and went, place, and the Turks even and Christmas and the New dragged mines across Shur and Year passed, with no more Paran to throw them into the than a few affairs of patrols. Canal, actually sinking one Yet rumours came of Turkish passing ship thereby. massings on the coasts of Beer- The British were now much sheba, and of railway activities exercised to keep enemy agents in Palestine. Then at last in and spies out of the country, February the expected came while Bedouins and other emisto pass in an attack on the saries from Sinai were notoriCanal, organised by Djemal ously crossing the Canal o'

' Pasha and that fine German nights at will.

Some bright soldier, Colonel Kress von Kres- lad, however, remembered the

, senstein. By careful and sys- story of the gentleman (a friend, tematic organisation of trans- I think, of Mr Soapey Sponge) port and battalion equipment, who raked his drive before and of wells in the desert, he going out, so that he might actually brought within strik- know on his return what visiing distance of the Canal close tors his wife had had in his on 20,000 men, which was four absence. It was decided to times as much as the number create what was known as “the considered possible.

swept track"the whole length of But the race is not always the Canal on the eastern bank. to the swift nor the battle to. So henceforth each afternoon the strong. The Turks reached various pairs of camels drew the Canal banks, launched their wide harrows with brushwood steel pontoons that they had attached along the length of laboriously brought from Beer- the great Canal for close on a sheba, and failed. One boat- hundred miles. Each morning load got across, to be shot or soon after day break officers captured; the others were de inspected each portion of the stroyed by the fire of the long track to see if there had Indian troops holding the west- been any come and go in ern bank of the Canal. Some- the night, and whence and thing failed in the attacking where it trended. By this drive of the Turk. A counter- means any villages concerned attack by a couple of battalions were discovered, and so forth. already across the Canal rolled As in war so in love, ruse and up the whole Turkish line, and counter-ruse, and the devil take for some reason that is not yet the hindmost. There was more fully clear, the Turkish columns than one spy whom the swept beat à retreat as orderly as track relegated to the lot of their advance.

the hindermost. The watch and ward along The comparative quiet that the sand dunes kept on day followed Von Kressenstein's in day out all through that first attack was due to the

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Gallipoli pressure, and trained Glory for all, and heaven troops were required elsewhere. for those who bleed.' And Neither British

Turk men in Egypt were listening, wanted enterprise on a large and perhaps the Soudan would scale, though, while the latter give a sign. never let the Canal alone, the So the order came down to former were for the moment the Canal, “Be more vigilant. thrice happy if they could No more mines must get near parallel the old tag of the the Canal," and the troops Northern States, All quiet were set to patrol get more along the Potomac," and no closely and still more arduously. sign of Jackson on the raid. The Bikaneer Camel Corps made But Turkish parties frequently long circuits, and put out standapproached the Canal, and ing patrols, and infantry patrols knew exactly what was going on, would tramp out over the sandlying up by day in the desert. dunes to keep touch with them.

The finding of mines in the Not far from El Quantara the Canal and half - launched on posts were held by one of the the Canal bank, with the old-fashioned reliable battalions tell-tale smudge on the swept from the Punjab-a battalion track, in the parlance of the first raised during the Great day, "put the wind up” the Mutiny to tramp Delhi-wards Egyptian High Command. At and take the birthright that all costs must the Canal be the Bengal Army had thrown saved from a block. It was away for less than a mess of known that the Turk was pottage. And the wise heads slowly making a railway - line that had formed such batand motor - road across Sinai talions had mingled the races canalwards from Beersheba ; in class companies, knowing it was imperative that no how greatly could class rivalry march should be stolen. But be interwoven with regimental aeroplanes were

than efficiency and inter-company short ; they were at this time emulation. So Dogra and Sikh practically non-existent with and Pathan and faithful sturdy this force, and the sea planes Mussulmans from the Punjab, had left for Gallipoli. The of Rajput origin, whom the Canal was short of eyes. proselytising faith had made

And all the while the Holy its own, formed the four double War was being preached from companies. Those same wise the mosques and minarets of beads had also known that Islam in Turkey, Away on the with a class company system Western deserts the Senussi there was some chance of talewere awakening to the call. bearing, 80 that the British With the muezzins' adjuration, officer might know what differ

Prayer is better than sleep! ent companies might be thinkPrayer is better than sleep!” ing or even talking of.

. that broke the silence of night, At any rate, at El Quantara came the added cadence, and holding the outposts was


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