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well-proportioned figures, mild countenances, a nose slightly aquiline, long braided hair, and white garments; and their legend designates them as the race of men, that is to say, the Egyptians. The second three have a very different appearance their skin inclines to yellow or tawney, the nose is much curved, they have black thick beards, and short garments, and bear the name of Namou (Asiatics). The next three are. Negroes, designated by the name of Nahasi. The last three have skins of what we call flesh-colour, of the most delicate whiteness, the nose straight or slightly arched, blue eyes, fair or red beards, tall and very slender figures; they are clothed in oxhides with the hair on, and are real savages, tattooed in various parts of the body. They are called Tamhou (Europeans)."
There are constructed, or constructing, 3508 miles of canal and rail-road in the United States; mostly by the public authorities; not more than one-fourth by companies. Our American friends naturally vaunt themselves a little on their achievements. "Our population of twelve millions," says the American Quarterly Review, "have attempted one-fourth more than England with twenty-three millions, and infinitely more than the population of the continent of Europe: according to the population, we are doing nearly as much again as England; and New York has done proportionably to her population eight times as much England. But notwithstanding so much is done and doing, we feel that the spirit of the country is only just awakened; we speak confidently of more than doubling all this within the next ten years. These efforts are developing our coal, iron, and other resources; founding upon them arts, manufactures, and commerce; amalgamating the people, and imparting to them a community of interest, and a celerity of movement, that will insure to us wealth, a polish, and a political influence worthy of such a people, possessing such a country.”
Dr. Franklin, in his will, left 10007. sterling to the city of Philadelphia, to be lent to young married artificers in small sums, to assist them in business. calculated that, at the end of one hundred years, it would amount to 131,000%. sterling-100,000. of which he appropriated to supply the city with water, and the balance to go on another one hundred years, when the capital would be 4,081,000l. which he also appropriated; but the present whole nominal amount is only a few
thousand pounds, and a very large proportion of this sum will never be repaid.
The American Sunday-school Union has published a life of Mr. Legh Richmond, for Sunday-school libraries. It is not an abridgment of Mr. Grimshawe's Memoirs, but a new work compiled from the memoirs and other documents.
A gentleman at Bennington, Vermont, writes: "Twelve merchants in this town all there are-signed a writing yesterday, pledging themselves to purchase no more ardent spirit, and to sell no more, when the small quantity now on hand is expended. Thus is the plague stayed."
Attempts are making to introduce waltzing into Philadelphia-the city of Penn !- This is of a piece with the introduction of masquerades and French operas in New York.
A large number of people assembled at Greensburgh in West-Chester county to witness the ceremonies at the erection of a monument to the memory of Isaac Van Wart, one of the three captors of the unhappy Major André. The inscription states that Van Wart, who was an elder cf Greensburgh church, "lived the life and died the death of a Christian ;" and panegyrises him and his friends as having "nobly disdained to release their captive and sell their country for large bribes of gold." It is mournful that such things were; and it is doubly mournful that at this distance of time there are those who seem to embrace every occasion for renew.. ing those unhappy animosities which every good man would wish to bury in oblivion.
The following characteristic account is given of General Washington's first appearance in public after his retirement from office. "He attended the inauguration of the elder Adams, in the simple garb of a Virginia planter-a great coat buttoned up to the chin, with buckskins and white top boots. But neither the splendour of the foreign ambassadors, nor the distinction with which the chief magistracy of the Union invested the new president could divert from him the public attention. All eyes were fixed on him even during the ceremony of the inauguration; and when it was over, he left the party, and withdrew to his private lodgings; the whole multitude following him with acclamations."
A work is in the press entitled Personal Narrative of J. Stephanini. The author is a young Greek, who escaped a few years since from Turkish captivity; and his object in publishing this book is to raise money sufficient to ransom his mother
two brothers and two sisters, who are still held in captivity by the Turks in Albania. He is the son of a wealtby merchant at Patras, and was in that city when the first insurrection was made against the Turks, in April 1821. He was taken prisoner, severely beaten so as narrowly to escape with his life, and afterwards sold in the market to a Turkish master, from whom, after undergoing great privations on account of religion, he effected his escape in an Italian merchant vessel: and, after numerous vicissitudes, arrived in America. CANADA.
The Roman Catholics have lately erected a cathedral at Montreal, which is said to excel in architectural skill, size, and beauty of design any church on that side of the Atlantic. It is 256 feet in length, and 123 in breadth, and contains five altars. Let Protestants redouble their vigilance if they are idle, there are those who are not.
The government of Bombay has lately issued an order to forbid the practice of impressing native porters and guides by English officers and travellers. It is pleas
ing to witness the endeavours of the government of India at home and abroad to support the rights and promote the welfare of the natives: is it not then strange anomaly, that nothing effectual has been done to put a stop to the atrocities alluded to by one of our correspondents in the present Number, and which it is proved might be easily and effectually abolished? The burning alive of hundreds of women is surely as important a matter for the interference of government as the forced requisition of coolies. We do well to rescue the natives from the oppressions of our own countrymen; but how little do we do to deliver them from the overbearing tyranny of their own spiritual bondage and wicked customs!
It is stated that Japanese translators are rendering Dr. Morrison's Chinese Dictionary into the Japanese dialect, and that the work pleases the natives so much, that it has become common at Nangasaki to write a column of characters, with their definitions, on fans, as a present to friends.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Church Reform. By a Churchman. 6s. 6d.
Family Classical Library. Vol. I. 4s. 6d. Christian Education. By E. Biber. Henry and Antonio, or the Proselytes, from the German of Dr. Beetchneider. By the Rev. M. Morgan. 6s. 6d.
Rudiments of Music. By D. E. Ford. Is. The Right of the Church of England to her Endowments.
Examination of Recent Works on Church Reform.
Apology for the Church of Ireland. By the Rev. H. Newland. 5s.
Infanticide in India. By the Rev. J. Peggs. Is. 6d.
The Spirit of Philosophy. By the Rev. J. Davies. ls.
Memoirs of Professor J. Martyn, and the Rev. Professor T. Martyn. By the Rev. G. G. Gorham. 10s. 6d.
A Glance at London, Brussels, and Paris. By a Provincial Scotsman.
POPERY IN NEW ENGLAND. "THE Romish Church," says the Christian Sentinel," is making great exertions to extend its influence through this country; and it may soon become a question of some importance, whether the divisions and struggles of the various sects of Protestants do not afford to the Papal See facilities for the execution of its purposes, by which, if it be faithful to the character it has ever borne, it will not be slow to profit. Who would have believed it? What would the father pilgrims have done, if they could have looked into the futurity of two centuries? The Roman-Catholic Church, in New-England, with its houses of worship surmounted by the cross, its hours of mass announced by the pealing bell, its bishop, and its mummery! Who would have believed it? What would the monks of the fifteenth century have said could they have foreseen a Sunday-school where Catholic children were taught to read the Bible, and a weekly journal devoted to the vindication of Catholic principles? Strange to tell, all these wonders have come to pass. Here, in the capital of Puritanic New-England, all these may be found. We lifted our eyes in amazement, when a few weeks ago we met with a little paper, called "The Catholic Press," published in Hartford; and much did we marvel, to learn that in Connecticut, the very citadel of stern Protestantism such a thing should have dared to shew itself. But with greater astonishment did we contemplate the title of a full quarto sheet, which fell into our hands last evening. "The Jesuit!" printed in this good city
of Boston, and to be issued weekly. What the friends of Rome or their indefatigable bishop expects to accomplish, we know not, and have not sufficiently recovered from our surprise to form any speculation on the subject; so that we can only notify our readers of the fact, that they may se preparing for whatever shall follow."
The Maryland Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church closed its annual session with a second fruitless attempt to elect a bishop. It however adjourned in harmony; thus forming a pleasing contrast to some of the scenes which have wounded the peace of the Church, and particularly to the late unhappy controversy in Philadelphia, on the election of an assistant bishop. We declined the request of some friends on both sides, who wished us to review the pamphlets which passed on that occasion, and which, omitting the vehement personal reflections that deformed them, were only a renewal, with bitterer words, of the controversies in our own church. We conjure our episcopalian friends in the United States, by the love they bear to our common Christianity, and our common church, to refrain from hostilities which injure both. Their vine is too tender to bear such tempests. must confess that the working of the system of the election of bishops, by bullots of lay and clerical votes, does not make us anxious, defective as is our own system, to see it in action among ourselves.
There is no public Intelligence of any importance from any quarter.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Y. Z.; THEOGNIS; Y. S.; S.; A. Y.; CLERICUS SENIOR; VINDEX ; J. J. ; F. E. A.; A SUBSCRIBER; J. P.; J. F. ; J. B.; W. H. N.; A. R. C.; S. B.; A. G.; As ATTACHED READER; are under consideration.
We agree with several of our Correspondents that the Toleration Act of 1812, does not sanction Mr. Sergeant Frith's application of it to the meetings of charitable societies. The act has reference only to assemblies convened for religious worship; not to the incidental use of a prayer at any other meeting.
If the Correspondent who asks if we will be the last to recommend the formation of Temperance Societies, had consulted our volumes, he would find that we were probably the first in this country to urge the measure. See our Indexes for the last four years.
The present Number was printed up to the last leaf by the 15th of the month, on account of the Appendix. Various Correspondents will hence perceive why their communications and announcements are deferred.
Theognis will find a notice of Pitcairn's Island in our Number for April.
A constant reader forgot to send his name and address with his request. He had, however, better apply to his own bookseller.
SUPPLEMENT TO RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY.
MR. Dudley's letters prove the wide extension and invaluable benefits of local institutions at home, for the circulation of the oracles of God. Abroad we learn with pleasure that Switzerland is becoming saturated with Bibles, and, in numerous instances, free from Apocryphal mixture. The affecting statement respecting the persecutions in India will, we trust, meet the eye of those who will be able and willing to prevent such occurrences in future. Surely Christianity ought not to be the only unprotected religion in the British dominions.
The people of Hayti, being free, cultivate, it seems, what they want, and think less of sugar and coffee, for which we, in our patronage of slavery and cart-whips, refuse them a market; for which their good sense or dire necessity they are styled an incorrigibly idle and barbarian rabble. The Reporter successfully defends them against this and other defamatory charges. Even if things were as bad in Hayti as the objectors to freedom aver, the fact would only prove the more forcibly the deeply-rooted evils of the system from which they have escaped. The baneful effects of slavery do not wear out in a day. The newly emancipated Israelites being educated in slavery were, though blessed with Divine laws, sacred institutions, and food from heaven, servile enough to wish in their impatience for the leeks and onions and garlick of Egypt; but Moses did not lead them back to their task-masters, to bitter stripes and interminable labours, as our modern pro-slavery advocates would gladly lead the Haytians if they could only get them to consent to it. But they will strive in vain : the Haytians, poor half-witted Negroes as they are, are free and contented; they have a code of laws which they consider adapted to their wants; their property is protected; civilization and education are on the advance; and they will not be tempted by the savoury baits of the onions and garlick, modernised into sugar and coffee, to sell themselves back to slavery, or to allow other nations to oppress them into it. We learn from the Reporter, that a "Watchman" is abroad in our own colonies. It had been better for humanity that slavery should have been, as we trust it will yet be, put down promptly and legislatively without the excitements which may attend popular discussion on the subject in a slave colony: but as the planters refuse this, they have only themselves to blame if a flame should spread which though they virtually kindled they will not be able to extinguish.
LONDON HIBERNIAN SOCIETY.
Let our readers peruse these interesting Extracts, and then decide whether a society, the labours of which have been so eminently blessed for the best welfare of Ireland ought to languish in debt, especially at a time when its labours are so much required as at present. It has 1352 schools; 76,444 pupils; 67 inspectors and Scripture readers.
The remainder of the appended documents; namely, the abstract of the Report of the Bible Society, the Reformation-Society Extracts, and the truly affecting "statement on the profanation of the Lord's Day," are stitched up with the Appendix, published with the present Number.
CHRISTIAN OBSERVER FOR 1829,
BEING THE TWENTY-NINTH VOLUME.
THE CATHOLIC QUESTION.
WE stated in our Number for April, the impracticability of our giving
even a sketch of the Debates on the Catholic Question in the current Numbers of our work, and our intention of probably devoting to it the whole of our Appendix. A measure of such momentous and permanent consequence we thought ought not to pass by without an adequate record in our pages, were it only to afford our readers and their children the facility of referring back to the Debates in future years, when it may not be convenient to obtain ready access to a voluminous file of old newspapers, or to publications expressly devoted to the subject.
We shall not re-open at present the question of the late measure as a matter of discussion, but simply of history. Whether it was wise and just and Christian and necessary, or quite the contrary, and what have been or may be its results, are not the subject of our present pages. We are not indifferent to these momentous points: very far from it: but our immediate task is simply to record the late parliamentary proceedings, which, whether for good or evil, are of vast, and must be of lasting, importance. May the Lord our God look down and visit the vine which he has planted in these realms! May he shelter it from the attacks of Popery and Infidelity, of false doctrine and superstition, and cause it to bring forth increasingly the hallowed fruits of pure religion, to his glory, and the spiritual welfare of the nations!
The penal laws against Papists in this country were for a long period very severe. They may be traced back to the accession of Queen Elizabeth, when the Reformed faith was in extreme hazard, Popery possessing great power, and having reCHRIST, C;
cently displayed its characteristic virulence in the Marian persecutions. Far from wondering that our Protestant legislature under Queen Elizabeth resorted to measures of defence, we ought rather to admire their Christian forbearance in refraining from retaliation. Had they been inclined to severity, Popery had set them a bitter example.
The two statutes passed in the first year of Elizabeth, usually called the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity, were the groundwork_of the defensive laws against the Papists. The former act rendered it necessary for persons holding ecclesiastical appointments and offices under the Crown to renounce all foreign spiritual as well as temporal jurisdiction; and made it treasonable, for the third offence, to maintain the supremacy of the bishop of Rome. The provisions of the latter are familiar to most readers, as the act itself is prefixed to the Book of Common Prayer. This act operated as an interdiction of Roman-Catholic worship, though it probably still continued to be practised in secret, notwithstanding