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sent from either of the established churches of Great Britain. Now when it is considered that one of these communions is Episcopal and Liturgical, and the other Presbyterian and Anti-liturgical; to say nothing of what is called the ultraCalvinism of the Scotch Confession, and of its other points of discrepancy from the Thirty-nine Articles and external discipline of the south ern establishment, and its unmea sured denunciation of that establishment in its official documents, it is certainly an effort to draw matter of consistent accusation from these various and distant sources. They do not rise, like Bruce's springs of the Nile, within a few yards of each other, and by a speedy confluence uniting in the same stream; but from fountains bubbling up in different regions, and supplying waters of distinct qualities, while the rivers, thus originated, flow separately, and are regarded as the boundaries of tribes by no means disposed to form alliances, but rather engaged in endless warfare; for we suppose that Episcopalians and Presbyterians would be considered a sort of natural foes, the French and English of the ecclesiastical world. We should, indeed, be ourselves exceedingly happy to witness the final close of such hostilities; and would that peace were restored in our spiritual Zion: but we cannot very clearly understand Mr. Irving's anxiety to make the same man faithful to two sides; fitting to the same head, the quaint cap of John Knox and the mitre of a bishop; investing the same arms with lawn sleeves of one colour, and stuff ones of another; and, thus arrayed, proceeding to join the masked multitudes under the character of a reformer; frowning reproof alternately upon the right and the left hand groupes, as they severally smiled at his array and angry bearing.
But Mr. Irving's element is-we were going to say-intolerance. If we have faltered in making this assertion, we are nevertheless pre
pared to aver, that his treatment of our religious societies might, for its indiscriminate and unkind hostility, have issued from a Papal or Socinian partisan. He is, indeed, the Ishmael of the Christian world, his hand being against every man : and if the parallel reach farther, he has himself extended it, by provoking all hands against himself; for it is difficult to say what class has escaped the edge of his cimeter. Has Mr. Irving yet to learn the distinction between the principles, regulations, and general management of any given institution, and the imperfection or inconsistency of certain among its agents? His rule, if applied to the two establishments from which, with all their varieties. in doctrine and discipline, it seems to be equally criminal to dissent, is, in its own nature suicidal. For, certainly, he brings such heavy accusation against the ministers of these sister, or half-sister churches, as would practically snap the links which now bind him and his followers to either communion; each of them, by his own account, being very badly administered. it is to be an impetuous reformer; to pull down a building, in the act of repairing it. Mr. Irving is too well acquainted with the history of his own church not to be aware of the spiritual decay and desolation to which it was lowered, even so lately as the days of Witherspoon *; and why did not that excellent man, and such as he, desert it? But if intolerance be too hard a word to designate our author's character, it shall be softened down to dissatisfaction; an emotion by no means confined to men of his excitability. In such a world as this, how few things cross our way, but what we wish, in some points, to be altered to the pattern existing in our own imagination! There is an ideal
See his Ecclesiastical Characteristics,
and Serious Apology for that performance; both published in his works without a date, but written, we believe, about the middle of the last century.
perfection in every mind, which ruminates on the infinitely diversified imperfection discernible all around; and as no two minds will quite agree in their estimates of the evil done, or the good which might be done, a wise man will soon be cured of expecting much beyond a general gratification in what is actually achieved. He will never be able to crane up even the best of mankind, when acting in masses, to his wishes; and he will, on the other hand, be checked by reflections on the wide interval stretching between his own theories, and the theorist's practical consistency. Now Mr. Irving seems to be always beating the bushes, to start a fresh object of dissatisfaction. He is, for example, highly displeased with the revival of sound divinity in the Glasgow editions of theological works; because they are prefaced by some of our living, popular writers *, as though recommendations of this kind were one of the mischievous novelties of the day. Mr. Irving cannot surely be ignorant that long before he or his reviewers were born, such things were in being; and flourished on either side of the Tweed, and in the comparatively infant churches of America.
(To be continued.)
Miscellaneous Sermons preached in the Parish Church of Cheltenham, By the Rev. FRANCIS CLOSE, A. M. Perpetual Curate. 1 Vol. 8vo. London. 1829.
MR. Close's name is so intimately connected with the active pastoral and public labours of a parochial minister in one of our gayest scenes
P. 478. Did Mr. Irving forget that
his revered friend, Dr. Chalmers, added his name to those of Wilberforce, Montgomery, Foster, Simeon, Wilson, and others, on this criminal occasion; nay, that he himself prefaced the Life of Bernard Gilpin and Bishop Horne's Commentary on the Psalms?
of fashionable resort, that it would not have been any disparagement to his diligence or talents, if, engrossed in the more pressing duties of his important sphere, he had not been able to find either leisure or inclination for devoting himself to the service of the church by means of the press. We have understood that his ministerial labours have been greatly blessed of God, to the spiritual benefit of many of his auditors, stated and fluctuating; that his efforts have proved highly beneficial for the promotion of the great religious institutions which adorn our age and country; and that his zeal and piety in opposing the gaieties and immoralities of a luxurious Bethesda, especially the race-course, have in numerous instances been productive of much good. To these local services in the work of his Divine Master, he has added the publication of the present volume of discourses, in addition to those which have before issued from his pen. Considering the influence which Mr. Close's station affords him over the minds of many who may attend his ministry, during a temporary residence either for health or amusement in his vicinity, we cannot regret that he has availed himself of the wide diffusion of the press, to address his occasional, as well as his parochial hearers, in a volume so full of sound and valuable Christian instruction as that before us. Many such persons, we would hope, will be induced to read and meditate upon these excellent discourses, and thus, by the blessing of God, for ever have reason to be grateful for an occasional sojourn in a spot of public resort, where, while they sought, perhaps, only the balmy air, the invigorating waters, or the volatile recreations of the place, they heard words which, by the influence of the Holy Spirit, weaned them from the vanities of the world, to seek durable riches and righteousness.-It is but justice to Mr. Close to say, that both the topics chosen by him, and his method of
discussing and applying them, are excellently calculated to subserve this end. Instead of giving, in proof of this remark, a dry index of titles, and a few abrupt extracts, we have copied the first discourse at large, as a family sermon, thus affording our readers themselves the best opportunity for forming their own judgment of the author's style and
doctrine. May the blessing of God rest upon all his arduous labours, and not least upon this truly pastoral and Christian volume, which, while it is highly creditable in point of literature, is most truly commendable for its zealous and heart-searching appeals to the heart and conscience of the reader.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
GREAT BRITAIN. WORKS preparing for publication, and in the press :-A Topographical and Historical Account of Methodism in Yorkshire; -The History of the Roman-Catholic Question; by J. Bedford ;-An Analysis of Burnet on the Articles, with Notes; by T. Newland, A.B.;- The Siege of Derry; by the Rev. J. Graham.
Orford.-The University Prizes this year were adjudged as follows:-Latin verse, J. E. Wilmot, of Balliol; English Essay, G. Denison, of Oriel. Latin Essay, W. Sewell, of Exeter; English verse, T. Claughton of Trinity. Theological Prize, on the Causes of the Persecutions of the Christians in the first Centuries, W. Jacobson, of Lincoln's Inn.-The subjects for next year, are, Latin verse, Tyrus; English Essay, The Character of Socrates; Latin Essay, "Utrum apud Græcos, an apud Romanos magis exculta fuerit civilis scientia;" English verse, The African Desert; Theological Prize, "Whether the doctrine of a God, differing in his nature from all other beings, was held by any heathen nation or sect of philosophers before the birth of Christ."
A return has been laid before parliament of the publications in progress by the commission for public records. The works printed, or in contemplation, will form the most ample collection of documents ever projected. They comprise more than half a score great public works; the expense of one of which only, the Rolis of Parliament, is estimated at 45,000, and several others also are extremely costly. This munificent gift will be of great value to posterity.
An ancient manuscript chronicle, in the
Harleian Library, has been published in the last volume of the Archæologia, in which occurs a passage which curiously illustrates Shakespeare's remark on the death of Cardinal Beaufort, "He dies, and makes no sign." The priest who attended the death-bed of Edward the Third is stated in this chronicle to have addressed the monarch as follows: "Because your voice faileth, lift up your eyes unto the Lord, that we may see you both penitent and asking mercy: presently he lifted up both his eyes and his hands to heaven, drawing sighs as it were from the bottom of his heart, no doubt signs of his repentance. Then the priest admonished him, that forasmuch as he had unjustly punished his servants, he would repent him, and shew the aforesaid signs, which devoutly he did."
A case was lately argued before the Court of King's Bench, in which the court decided that the sale of an advowson while the incumbent was in a dying state (in the instance in question he died the very day of the sale) was simoniacal; but the House of Lords has reversed the decision. The reversal opens a wide door to new abuses, though indeed the whole system of buying and selling ecclesiastical offices is a most disgraceful abuse.
A magnificent collection of the late Mr. West's paintings, comprising one hundred and eighty-one lots, was lately sold by auction for the sum of about 19,000l. Most of the pictures sold for much less than the artist could have obtained in his lifetime; for instance, his picture of "Christ rejected," for which he is stated to have refused 8000 guineas, sold for 3000/.
At the recent sale of Dr. Hibbert's valuable library, the celebrated Polyglot 3 X
Bible of Cardinal Ximenes was sold to Mr. Payne for 5251. In addition to its adventitious value as having belonged to the cardinal, it is remarkably beautiful for its vellum and printing.
A recent report of the commissioners of revenue states, that the daily business of the General Post-office in London, comprises 35,000 letters received, and 40,000 sent, making 23,000,000 letters annually. The numbers of newspapers daily, is from 25,000 to 500,000. revenue is 300,000l. per annum, of which there have been only 2001. lost in a quarter of a century.
The inhabitants of Swaffham have cleared their town of vagrant beggars, by withholding pecuniary relief in such cases from the parish funds, and urging the inhabitants to give them, instead of money, a ticket to the overseers, to inquire into their case. A book is stated to have been taken from a vagrant in that neighbourhood, in which were found entries of donations amounting to 188., collected by him in less than half a year. The Chris tian must not be led by such statements to shut his heart or close his hand rather let him open both more widely, after the pattern of his Divine Exemplar; but he should also remember that his substance is a talent to be laid out to the best advantage, and to be strictly accounted for, and not to be squandered in indolent indiscriminate doles, to clamorous impostors, instead of being carefully bestowed after due investigation on those who really need the aid of Christian charity.
The projected Clerical Provident Society to which we lately alluded, has been formed under the auspices of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and a most respectable body of prelates, noblemen, and other well-known friends of the Established Church. The objects of the society are to assist the poorer clergy in illness and old age, and their families at their death. It grants life insurances not exceeding 500.; the terms for which are much the same as at the insurance offices. It also offers a small annuity for the remainder of his life, to a clergyman upon his attaining the age of sixty-five or seventy years; the terms for which are
calculated upon the average scale of mortality. It also insures a sum of money to the child of a clergyman on his attaining the age of fourteen or twenty-one years. But the peculiar feature of the institution is, that it offers assistance to a clergyman in sickness, to the extent of the usual emoluments of a curacy, on his paying a specific sum, or an annual premium according to his age, regulated by Mr. Beecher's calculation of the average of health and sickness. The utility of such an institution has been often urged upon the members of the clerical body, and we shall rejoice to learn that it has been found as efficient as its conductors anticipate. It is as yet, as regards some of its features, an untried experiment; the average law of sickness not having hitherto been determined in the case of the clergy as in the case of the labouring classes, whose numbers are much larger, and whose habits are more alike.
A late Number of the Archives du Christianisme gives, with much eulogy, a translation of the substance of the papers in our last volume on the Causes of Want of Success in the Ministry of the Church of England, many of which the conductors of the Archives consider apply with even more force to the Protestant church in France. We fear they apply too much to all Christian churches. The conductors of the Archives, however, elsewhere state, that "so frequent are the instances of true conversion to God in France in the present day, that they should find it difficult to reckon up those which have occured even in the circle of their own connexion."
The Society for Elementary Instruction was formed in the year 1814; it has been patronized or discountenanced by the successive administrations which have succeeded each other, according to their respective political and ecclesiastical views. The ultra-royalists had nearly at one time extinguished it; but so greatly has it of late revived, that it had this year tripled its number of members: it corresponds with nearly three hundred schools and twenty-two local societies.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Sanctification of the Spirit unto ObediBy the Rev. T. Brock. Discourses on the Farables. By the Rev. J. Knight. 12s.
The Christian Peace-Offering. By the Hon. and Rev. A. P. Percival. The Meditations of Isaac. By the Rev. E. Scobell.
The German Pulpit. 10s. 6d.
British Reformers. Vol. V. Containing the Writings of the Rev. J. Knox. 4s. 8d. The Preacher's Manual. By the Rev. S. T. Sturtevant. 2 vols. 11s. 6d. Baxter's Saint's Rest abridged. By J. Crewdson. Is. 6d.
Sermons. By the Rev. R. Burrowes, Dean of Cork. 12s.
The Apocrypha of the Book of Daniel, translated from the Latin Vulgate. By L. Howard.
Scripture Evidence for Christ's speedy return in Glory on Earth. By J. A. Begg. 2s.
The "Morning Repast," or Texts of Scripture for daily Use, with Meditations and Hymns. By a Lady. Is. 6d.
A Manual of Prayers and Family Devotions for the Religious Cottager.
The Christian Minister. 2s. 6d. The Infant Christian's First Catechism. By a Lady. 3d.
The Nature and Duration of the Papal Apostasy. By the Rev. R. Vaughan. 2s. 6d.
Memoir of Miss Campbell, of Roseneath. 6s.
Lectures on Biblical Criticism. By W. Carpenter. 12s.
The Alpenstock, or Sketches of Swiss Scenery. By C. J. Latrobe. 12s.
Family Library. Vol. V. History of the Jews. Part I. 5s.
Polynesian Researches during a Residence of nearly Six Years in the SouthSea Islands. By W. Ellis.
Memoir of Mrs. B. Ewing. 3s. 6d. The Complete Emancipation of the Vaudois.
Repentance, and other Poems. By M. A. Browne.
Gideon, and other Poems. 3s. 6d. Mythra in the Central World. By a Lavman.
The Female Servant's Adviser. 3s. A Brief Memoir of a Clergyman's Daughter. 4d.
An Introduction to Botany. By T. Castle. 10s.
ADDRESS OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS.
We noticed in our last Number the Yearly Epistle of the Society of Friends; and we now feel much pleasure in bringing before the attention of our readers another important document issued by the society's last yearly meeting, held in London, in reference to a secession from the society in America, by persons who have embraced sentiments in many respects similar to those of the Unitarians. By this document, the society in England disclaim any union or connexion with such seceders, or their doctrines. The following is a reprint of the document, which is couched almost wholly in Scripture language.
"In order to prevent any misapprehension as to our views, we feel ourselves called upon, at this time, to avow our belief in the inspiration and divine authority of the Old and New Testament.
"We further believe, that the promise made after the transgression of our first parents, in the consequences of whose fall all the posterity of Adam are involved, that the Seed of the woman should bruise the head of the serpent; and the declaration unto Abraham, 'In thy Seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed,' had a direct reference to the coming in the flesh of the Lord Jesus Christ. To Him, also, did the Prophet Isaiah bear testimony,
when he declared, Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace: of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end.' And again, the same prophet spoke of him when he said, Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted; but he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.' The same blessed Redeemer is emphatically denominated by the Prophet Jeremiah,'The LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.'
"At that period, and in that miraculous manner, which God in his perfect wisdom saw fit, the promised Messiah appeared personally upon the earth, when He took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham.' He was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.' Having finished the work which was given him to do, he gave himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God. He tasted death for every man. He is the propitiation for our sins; and not for our's only, but also for the sins of the whole world.' 'We have