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to be a revelation from God, of the highest order; that it contains prophecies and acts falsely ascribed to Enoch; that, in short, the Book was a forgery of the most daring and mischievous kind: and yet this hypothesis maintains that St. Jude quoted a passage from such a book, under the reputed name of the very "Enoch who was "the seventh from Adam," without intending to assert that Enoch really was its author, or that the whole composition was to be credited as his. A more reprehensible hypothesis than this we cannot imagine. If it can be, indeed, demonstrated that this book was extant in the apostolic age, and that an inspired writer quoted from it the single passage in question, no explanation can get rid of the conclusion of Tertullian, that it ought itself to be venerated as one of the divine oracles. We have argued on the supposition of an insulated passage being quoted; but what if many other parts of the Book of Enoch have clear marks of correspondence with other passages in St. Jude, St. Peter, and St. John? If it were actually written before the Christian era, it will be impossible to deny that these sacred writers were familiar with its contents, and sanctioned its impious pretensions. Happily, however, for the faith of those who have no leisure for such inquiries, or whose minds are easily unsettled in such matters, it can be asserted without fear of contradiction, that, as we have already shewn in the former part of our article, there is no evidence that the Book of Enoch was extant before the Christian era, or in the days of the Apostles; nay, that there is internal evidence from the book, that it was not written till the middle of the second century after Christ; a point which we purpose to prove, and we think most satisfactorily, in our next Number.

(To be continued.)

A Series of Sermons, preached in St. John's Chapel, Bognor, during the Summer of 1827. By the Rev. HENRY RAIKES, A. M. 1 vol. 8vo. 8s. London. 1828.

THE sacred penmen, while they were so directed by the Divine influence which illumined them, as to secure the unerring precision of their statements, exhibit at the same time considerable variety in the style of their communications. There is a stamp of character, an impress of individuality upon the writings of each, which makes it evident that the exercise of their natural faculties was not inconsistent even with an overpowering inspiration. While the stream of living waters, which issued from their lips, or pens, derived its origin from the fountain of eternal Truth, it yet flowed through the channel of human minds, and received its peculiarity of colouring from the soil over which it passed. Now if this manifestation of individual mental habits be discernible in the compositions of the inspired teachers themselves, much more prominently must those who are obliged to draw more largely from their own resources, sanctified by the ordinary operations of the Divine Spirit, exhibit the peculiarities which distinguish their intellectual constitution. In estimating the claims of preachers and writers, this circumstance should be taken into the account whereas, instead of allowing the several stars which illumine the firmament of the church, to maintain their own order, and to blend their varied lustre, like the prismatic colours forming the pure beam of light, there is in some persons a disposition not only to bring all to the same level of doctrinal elevation, but even to the same uniform hue of sentiment and illustration. But, on the contrary, will it not be generally found that the public instructor is most useful and efficient, when, with a single eye to the glory

1829.]

personal sources of interest, it will
still prove highly attractive and
edifying.

of God, and the salvation of the souls of men, he follows the duly regulated bent, and gives scope to the well directed capabilities of his own mind, rather than endeavours to copy some favourite pattern which the opinion even of good men has set up as a model for imitation ?

We are led to these reflections by the perusal of the interesting volume of sermons now in our hands. Mr. Raikes's work presents a delightful picture of a devotional and highly cultivated mind: its doctrines are scriptural; its style is calm and dignified, yet earnest and affectionate; and it presents, in the prevailing cast of thought and illustration, much originality, without the slightest effort to be original. The name of the excellent author is closely connected with that of the revered founder of Sunday-schools; and every page of the publication bears testimony to a kindred spirit of philanthropy and enlightened benevolence.

These discourses were delivered in the Episcopal Chapel at Bognor; and, independently of their intrinsic value, the affectionate interest with which they were heard, and the salutary impression which they produced, amply justify the author in presenting them in print, to those who had listened to them with so much edification and delight. We doubt not, indeed, that this attention was not owing merely to the excellence of composition or eloquence of delivery; but, to use the language of the devout Leigh ton, to that rhetoric of the life which gives to the instructions of the pulpit an energy far beyond the reach of the loftiest strains of unhallowed oratory. The friends, therefore, and hearers of Mr. Raikes, would doubtless have hailed from his pen a volume of sermons of far lower intellectual and literary pretensions than the present; and we doubt not that in whatever measure the work may extend beyond that circle, though deprived of these

The leading design of the author is to give such a view of the attributes of God as may exhibit the grounds, and establish the necessity, of the covenant of redemption. In the discussion of what, for want of a better word, he calls the moral qualities of the Divine Being, Mr. Raikes has not adopted any artificial arrangement, or attempted to give to his reasoning that form of mathematical deduction, which Dr. Clarke has, more speciously than soundly, employed in his celebrated, but very unsatisfactory "DemonThe plan of our author stration.' bears a stronger resemblance to that of the elegant and pious Bates, in his "Harmony of the Divine attributes in contriving Man's Redemption," and to that of the powerful and eloquent Charnock, in his discourses on the being and attributes of God; though his method is not so systematic as that of either of these writers.

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He selects

a passage of Scripture expressive of
some attribute of God, and unfolds
its import upon its own independent
ground. This, in a succession of
sermons for popular instruction, is
a merit rather than a defect; for
seldom can an audience of that de-
scription keep up for weeks and
months a distinct idea of the nu-
merous links which form a process
of argumentation continued during a
series of weekly discourses. In the
present series, therefore, each sepa-
rate discourse, besides its important
bearing upon the general question,
contains much lucid and valuable
truth, taken by itself. This mode
of contemplating the attributes of
Jehovah is, perhaps, most in accord-
ance with the undefined sublimity
In the discussion
of the subject.
of these points it is difficult to avoid
something of the littleness and tech-
nicality of human systems. There
is danger, whilst we endeavour to
mark out in distinct sections, upon
the narrow field of our vision, those

3 K 2

moral aspects under which the Eternal and Invisible has graciously condescended to exhibit himself to our view, lest we should lose sight of that absolute boundlessness and universality, which belong to every attribute alike, and by which they severally combine and blend into an indivisible and uncompounded unity of being. This danger, at least, is avoided in the volume before us, by taking the account of every attribute, simply as it is unfolded in Scripture.

The first two sermons are on the Holiness of God; and this distinguishing attribute of the Divine Being is forcibly shewn from the titles by which he is designatedfrom the attestations of angels, and from the various actions by which, throughout successive ages and generations he has evinced his deep abhorrence of sin; and, above all, from the stupendous fact of his surrendering his only-begotten Son, in order to expiate its guilt, and annihilate its power. The third sermon is on the Justice of God; which Mr. Raikes describes as a relative attribute of Deity-having to do with moral and accountable beings, as it were, like the heat which radiates from the sun upon surrounding objects. The next in the series is on the Knowledge of God. But, perhaps, the most striking and original of the whole is the fifth, on the Jealousy of God; in which the author's intimate acquantance with the most delicate workings of the human heart, as illustrative of the character of Jehovah, is exhibited in a most delightful and interesting light. We have thought this discourse so useful, that we have extracted it, with a few omissions to reduce its length, for a Family Sermons in our present Number.

Our high opinion of these discourses, the remainder of which it is unnecessary more particularly to notice, will be sufficiently evident from this lengthened extract, as well as from the terms in which we have spoken of them. We can

cordially recommend the volume to our readers, as calculated to interest and instruct them.

Since this volume was committed to the press, we rejoice to find that the much respected author has received the important appointment of examining chaplain to the Bishop of Chester; an appointment which does equal honour to the piety and the judgment of that revered prelate. While we see the responsible offices of our church occupied by such men, we cannot but hope, amidst all the gloomy prognostications which are abroad, that blessings unprecedented in ages past, are yet in reserve for our beloved church and country.

Memoirs of J. F. Oberlin, Pastor of Waldbach, in the Ban de la Roche. 1 vol. 8vo. 10s. 6d. London. 1829.

Few names have appeared with more memorable mention in our pages than that of the revered pastor Oberlin. The chief particulars of his life have been narrated on various occasions in our volumes, and especially in an interesting me. moir in the January Number for 1828, drawn up for us by a correspondent, who, besides availing himself of the various published accounts of Oberlin, both in separate notices and in periodical journals, French and English, had visited this beloved man, and verified under his roof the chief particulars relative to his life and character. There was, however, sufficient reason for a new and more ample memoir than any yet published, which should combine all that has hitherto appeared in detached quarters, with such other particulars as might be found accessible, and worth preserving.

Such a memoir now lies before us; and we are much indebted to the writer, for having performed this service with so much diligence and

1829.]

Review of Oberlin's Memoirs.

success in collecting valuable ma-
terials, and so much ability and
good taste in her manner of pre-
senting them to her readers (for it is
to a lady we are indebted for the
work), as to render her volume
highly attractive. The simplicity of
style and Christian strain of remark
which pervade her pages, we might
have said do her great honour; but
her object is not literary reputation,
but to benefit her readers by setting
before them the bright example of
an eminent philanthropist and ser-
vant of Jesus Christ, and to assist,
by the profits of the sale of her publi-
cation, the benevolent objects which
he had so warmly at heart. We must
not, however, suppress the expression
of that Christian esteem, which a
work written on such principles as
those which mark the one before us,
cannot but command for its author.

Among the new materials, which
alone we can notice, we find in-
teresting personal recollections, au-
tograph sermons, and other docu-
ments, supplied by Mr. Heisch, a
friend of long standing in Oberlin's
family; and memoranda, letters,
and other original papers commu-
nicated by the Rev. Francis Cun-
ningham; with graphic illustrations,
sketched by Mrs. Cunningham, and
drawn on stone, with the initials
S. A. We shall not recapitulate
the general facts of Oberlin's life;
but shall give as a specimen of the
new materials, the following letter,
written by Mrs. C― (explained
by a reference in a note at p. 290,
to be Mrs. Francis Cunningham)
with a power of sketching worthy
of her own pencil, and a naiveté
We
worthy of Oberlin himself.
have room but for this one extract,
which will be long; but our readers
would not wish it shorter.

"Ban de la Roche, June 7, 1820.
"My dearest ...My last letter
from Strasbourg was written in low spirits;
We
the sun has since shone upon us.
are now in a most uncommon and interest-
ing spot-every thing is novel, but the
One Spirit which acknowledges the Fa-
ther, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit,
which is the same; and delightful it is to

429

feel it the same, amongst other nations
and languages. It is confirming to faith
to find the children of God in every place
looking only to the same Saviour, and
built upon the same foundation.

"I wish I had power to convey to you
an idea of our present interesting and
curious situation. In the first place, I
must introduce you to the room I am
sitting in. It is perfectly unique. I should
think the floor had never been really
cleaned. It is filled with old boxes, and
bottles, and pictures, and medicines, and
books, but every thing is in its place.
Two little beds are stuck up in each cor.
ner, and there are a few old chairs, &c.
The window looks upon the tops of the
mountains, near which we are,-separated
from the world; but this is a spot highly
favoured, remarkably illuminated by the
blessed light of the Gospel. I must now
tell you of our journey here, and arrival.
"On Saturday morning, after an early
breakfast, we left Strasbourg. I was ra-
ther sorry to quit our comfortable hotel,
where I began to feel a little settled, and
We
the place, as a town, pleased me.
soon left the high road, and as there were
no more post-houses, we took a pair of
horses to make our way as well as we
The roads
could through the mountains.
were not quite so bad as I expected, yet
their narrowness, and the steep precipice
But we
on one side, made me nervous.
were charmed by the interest and beauty of
the scenery:-before we had gone far we
found the valleys luxuriant in vines and
fine trees; a mountain river running
through the valley, and presenting differ-
ent views in every turn of the road. F.
and I both thought we had never seen
more exquisite home scenery. The pos-
mo
tilion lost his way, and led us up a de-
licious valley. Though we enjoyed the
scenery, our situation was not very plea-
sant, and we were anxious to arrive early;
for we went perfect strangers, without
any introduction, or having given any
warning, but we felt confidence in going
amongst Christian people. Having reach-
ed the right road again, we entered the
it
pass leading into the Ban de la Roche;
was exceedingly interesting; we were
upon the famous road, dug out of the
rock, made by Mr. Oberlin himself and
his parishioners, for before he came the
place was almost inaccessible.

"However good the roads were in comparison, I could not be satisfied to stay in the carriage, so we walked on to a very romantic little village, where Mr. Legrand and his family live, intimate friends of Mr. Oberlin. I fear you have not seen the book he wrote about Mr. O. and this place; it gives great interest to it. It is really wonderful what he has effected. We inquired for their house. Mrs. Legrand was pointed out to us; she had a fine open countenance, but was dressed in a far commoner manner than any of our

maids, who would appear like ladies in this place. The women here are a hundred years at least behind us in luxury and fashion, and outward appearance; such simplicity I never saw. I will now introduce you to the Legrands, one of the most cheerful and happy families one often sees. Their house is complete in its way, and full of comfort for a foreign habitation. The father and mother, with their two sons, both married to sweet women, live together. They seemed beaming with goodness and happiness; evidently most domestic, and I should trust religious people, devotedly attached to Mr. Oberlin, their friend and minister, for whose sake they settled in this place.

"After this pleasant introduction to the Legrands, we again set off for Mr. Oberlin's, a mile and a half further, (a romantic walk through the valley,) accompanied by Mr. Legrand. On the way we met this venerable and striking manthe perfect picture of what an old man and minister should be. He received us cordially, and we soon felt quite at ease with him. We all proceeded together towards his house, which stands on the top of a hill surrounded by trees and cottages; if we live to return you shall see my sketch of it. In consequence of my ignorance of French, and the fatigue of our journey, I felt quite confused on our first arrival. I could see nothing like a mistress in the house; but an old woman, called Louise, dressed in a long woollen jacket and black cotton cap, came to welcome us, and we afterwards found that she is an important person at the Ban de la Roche: she is mistress, housekeeper, intimate friend, maid of all work, schoolmistress, entertainer of guests, and, I should think, assistant minister, though we have not yet heard her in this capacity. Besides Louise, the son-in-law and daughter, and their six children live here, two young girls, protegées, and two more maids out of the parish. Mr. Graff, the son-in-law, is a minister and a very excellent man. There is much religion and simplicity both in him and his wife; but she is so devoted to the children that we seldom see her. We were ushered into the salle à manger, where stood the table spread for supper; a great bowl of pottage -a pewter plate and spoon for every body: the luxury of a common English cottage is not known here. But we see the fruits and feel the blessed effects of religion in its simplest form; it is a great privilege to be here, and I trust will be truly useful to us.

"Tuesday. We are become more acquainted with this extraordinary people. They are as interesting as they are uncommon. I much regret that I cannot talk more fluently with them; yet I get on as well as I can, and have had a good deal of pleasing communication with them. I only hope you will read Owen's letters,

with the description of his visit on a Sunday to this place; it will give you an interest in our present situation. Also, in the Appendix of the first Bible-Society Report, read Mr. Oberlin's letter. I never knew so well what the grace of courtesy was till I saw him. He treats the poorest people, and even the children, with an affectionate respect. For instance, bis courtesy, kindness, and hospitality to our postilion were quite amusing. He pulled his hat off when we met him, took him by the hand, and treated him with really tender consideration. He is, I think, more than eighty-one of the handsomest old men I ever remember to have seenstill vigorous in mind and spirit-delight. ing in his parish-full of fervent charity. He has talked a great deal to Mr. Cunningham. The meals are really amusing: we all sit down to the same table, maids and all, one great dish of pottage or boiled spinnage, and a quantity of salad and potatoes, upon which they chiefly live, being placed in the middle. He shakes hands with all the little children as he passes them in the street, speaking particularly to them individually:-it is quite wonderful to see the effect and polish which this sort of treatment and manner has had upon these people, uncultivated and uncivilized as they were before, from all accounts. I never met with any thing like the cultivation of mind amongst poor people. They have been taught a variety of things which have enlarged and polished their minds; besides religion-music, geography, drawing, botany, &c. My sketching has been quite a source of amusement in the parish, and my sketch-book handed about from one poor person to another*. If you go into a cottage they quite expect you will eat and drink with them; a clean cloth is laid upon the table, washed almost as white as milk, and the new milk and the wine, (distilled from the fruit of the wild cherry,) and the great loaf of bread are brought out; yet they are in reality exceedingly poor. Their beds also look so clean and good that they would astonish our poor people. In some respects I think they are decidedly cleaner than our poor. Their dress is simple to the greatest degree. The women and girls all dress alike, even down to the very little children. They wear caps of dark cotton, with black ribbon, and the hair

"As I was one day sketching upon the mountain, a group of poor peasant women attracted my attention, and I begged one of them to stand still for a few moments, that I might sketch her in the costume of her country. Ah! madam,' she replied, smiling, you shall sketch me. I should like you to have a picture of me in your book, because you will then be led to remember me, and perhaps to pray for

me.

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