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readers of this part of the sacred oracles; for they certainly have done, in most instances, little more than to reiterate a few of the scriptural exhibitions of this subject, in language even more general, and far from being equally expressive. Little more is derived from most of them than that a future life is endless, free from sin and suffering, possessed of the favour of God, and fraught with love, gratitude, and praise to him, friendship to his children, and a general state of high and uninterrupted enjoyment. I do not intend, that these things are not in themselves pre-eminently important. They are obviously of the highest importance. Still I insist, that when holden out to the eye in this abstract manner, they strike it with little force, and leave behind them feeble impressions. To me it seems, that to act in the service of God, and to communicate good to others, constitutes, according to the Scriptures, one vast and glorious division of the celestial happiness usually left out of view in discourses on this subject. To me it seems, also, that
both of what we are to be, and what we are to do, many more things are directly said, and those of a highly interesting nature than have been customarily supposed. From these, when we compare them with diligence and attention, a great multitude of other things, deeply interesting, may be derived by irresistible inference; more, I suspect, than will ever be imagined by him who has not seriously made the trial. To give a single example, those who obtain immortal life are said by our Saviour to be 'ayy, equal or like to angels. This one declaration opens to us a wide field of inquiry and conclusion, and assures us, that whatever angels are or do, or are exhibited as being or doing in the Scriptures, we also shall substantially be or do. But the things which angels do, together with their attributes and circumstances, are as exhibited in the Scriptures, very numerous and very great, and these irresistibly infer others which are great and numerous also.
"The number and variety of events which make up our system, hardly strike our minds at all, and probably never enter the imagination of most men, even among Christians. Yet, if we read the Scriptures with attention, and believe what we read, we must clearly discern, that both the number and the variety are immense. The inhabitants of heaven serve God day and night in his temple. The services of those, who in this life fill up their duty, are certainly very numerous, and are so entirely varied, that no two actions among them all are alike. How multiplied, then, must be the actions involved in a service which night never interrupts; of a mind and a body which are never wearied, and of an existence which knows no end. That they are endlessly varied is unanswerably evident from the consideration, that no
two beings in the creation, and no two events in the providence of God have been found exactly allke. Variety is a standing law of created existence and providential dispensation, and throughout eternity will be the great means of disclosing to the intelligent universe the glorious thoughts and purposes treasured up from everlasting in the Omniscient mind. "Instead, therefore, of being, if I may be allowed the phraseology, the tame, dull, spiritless existence sometimes presented to us, immortal life is a state of intense energy, vast design, and vigorous action, in which to know and to love, to do and to enjoy, will form a combination of dignity, glory, and happiness transcending every earthly conception. All this, also, will expand, and rise, and improve for ever." pp. 273-275.
Series of propositions followed by corresponding inferences, constitute the staple of Dr. Dwight's discourses; both of them usually containing much important truth, and each successive portion of his argument or conclusions being usually grounded on the preceding, so as to form the elements of a brief treatise on
the subject. But though orderly, he is not tame; and he can venture to be abrupt, sententious, or disconnected, if necessary to enforce his object. Few preachers would venture to conclude a sermon in the following staccato manner; yet who could venture to add a word to it without destroying the effect?
"Objections against revelation, from what it is supposed God ought to do, are destitute of weight as well as of decency.
"Who,' saith St. Paul, hath known the mind of the Lord, and who hath been his counsellor?' Let me vary this phraseology, and ask, Who can know the mind of the Lord, and who can be his counsellor? Who can determine what ought to be done by a mind, boundless in its attributes, designing and acting for immensity and eternity? Who can tell the nature and design of even a minute part of what he has done? Who, much more, can tell, or even remotely conjecture, what he ought to do?
"On these subjects to philosophise is folly in the extreme. They are so entirely removed beyond our reach, that it is impossible for us to know any thing which can be of any value. No efforts of the most capacious human mind have hitherto been able even to lay hold on them. Very many ingenious men have employed themselves, with no small labour, in attempting to form schemes of creation and providence; and in determining what was
proper and what was improper to be done by the Ruler of all things. Unsatisfied with that which is disclosed in the Bible, they have wished to substitute a plan of their own for that of God. By this plan they have not only chosen to interpret the designs for which the beings and events which compose the great system were formed, but have strenuously insisted that their fellow-men should adopt this interpretation. To the same plan they have not only bent their own creed, but with a sufficient degree of assurance, have required the Creator to conform his conduct. Wretched philosophers! Miserable men! How much more rationally and justly would they have acted, had they exclaimed with a man incomparably wiser than themselves, Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high; I cannot
"What is it that we attempt to comprehend and explain? The thoughts and works of an Infinite Mind; plans filling eternity and immensity; a train of causes and effects begun here and reaching in a regular chain through endless duration; causes and effects, now existing, to be explained -by consequences situated in the remote regions of being. Who are we that thus resolutely enter upon this mighty task? Worms of the dust. When were we born? Yesterday. What do we know? Nothing." pp. 143, 144.
The remarkable sermon in the first volume, entitled "Life a Race," we should have been glad to transfer to our pages as an Essay; but where should we stop if we were to quote all that has interested and instructed us in this volume? for we have not touched upon the second. But we stop our hand.
It may not be known to our 'readers that it was this excellent man who introduced the Christian Observer to his countrymen, in an address of which the following is 'an extract: "The publishers of the American edition of the Christian Observer having requested of me a recommendation of that work to the public, I take a peculiar pleasure in complying with their wishes. I have taken in this work from its commencement; and throughout the whole of its continuance have considered it as the best periodical publication within my knowledge. It has also been more uniformly supported than any other production of a similar nature.
The religious doctrines countenanced by the Editor, and his principal supporters, are those of the Reformation. In a few particulars they differ somewhat from the most generally received orthodoxy of this country. On these, however, they rarely insist. Those in which the Creeds and Confessions of Protestant churches have chiefly united, they illustrate and defend with distinguished ability. The spirit which reigns in this work is, I think, singularly happy. Catholicism and zeal are, perhaps, no where more successfully united. The piety of the Gospel is here strongly as well as amiably displayed, and even Controversy is carried on without tarnishing the Christian character. The subordinate contributors, imbibing the disposition of the principal, proceed in the same course of moderation and excellence. The plan of the work includes Religious and Miscellaneous Communications, Reviews, Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, a View of Public Affairs, &c. &c. The heads are well chosen, and are filled with up advantage. The re-publication of the work is a public benefit, and reflects honour on the undertakers." Annexed to the name of Dr. Dwight, as concurring with him in the above sentiments, were those of Dr. Mason, Dr. Morse, Dr. Miller, Dr. Griffin, and several other distinguished American divines. Numerous other eulogies on our publication have appeared from the American press; some of them so high-flown, that we should blush to copy them; but we cannot but feel honoured by the approbation of such men as Dr. Dwight and the other divines just named, especially as most of them were not of our own church, and therefore may be supposed to have judged the more impartially. The first American reprint of the Christian Observer was at Boston; but a rival one was also for a time conducted in New York. Several of the American Journals, especially those of our sister Episcopal church,
We cannot concur in the opinion of some well-disposed persons, that "Christians have nothing to do with politics." It is indeed true that the servant of God will not lend himself to a party; that he will not without reluctance mix himself up with the civil broils of the commonwealth in which he lives; that he will be governed in his political decisions by the will of God, and not by the speculations of statesmen; and, finally, that the will look chiefly to the bearing of all events and decisions, not on the mere interests of the moment, but on the eternal destinies of mankind. But it is also true that politics-giving to the term the wide meaning of that science which relates to the internal government and public administration of states must ever occupy a prominent place in the mind of the real Christian. To say nothing of the illustration which the rise and fall of states lends to prophecy and of innumerable other points, and to allude only to one connected with the scene of the work before us, is it of no consequence to the interest of those for whom Christ died, whether Christianity or Mohammedanism prevail? whether system which is capable of advancing to the utmost the happiness and virtue of the human race, or a system which is the scourge of
every society into which it is admitted, has the ascendancy? On the ground, then, of the general importance of political topics, we should have felt ourselves justified in carrying our readers over the region traversed by the author before us, simply because it has become the theatre of war. But we have other reasons for placing extracts from the work before some to whom it might otherwise remain unknown. In the first place, it is a work of much good sense; and it contains (which can be said of few books of travels) scarcely any thing which can wound the most fastidious mind: it also looks with a friendly eye on the exertions of the Bible Society, and of the various classes of missionaries; and more especially it supplies some of the strongest evidences of the comparative influence of Christianity and Mohammedanism on the happiness and interests of states. The secular politician is apt to think that the welfare of the state is the result merely of the decision of parliaments, and the predominance of peculiar principles of national policy: nor do we dispute the wisdom of endeavouring to discover and act upon, the best principles of political economy; but after all, national welfare has a most intimate connexion with national religion. Dry up the source of pure Christianity in our privileged country, and it would be found that the basis of mere political wisdom is inadequate to the burden laid upon it; and that he is the best friend of his country who adheres rigidly to the principle that "righteousness exalteth a nation;" and "happy is the people who have the Lord for their God." Having offered these few preliminary observations, we shall carry our readers at once to the field of action.
Dr. Walsh, the author of the entertaining volume before us, went to Constantinople in the suite of his Excellency Lord Strangford, as his chaplain. There he resided for se
veral years; and thence addressed many letters to friends in England, which he appears, and we are glad to hear it, to have an intention of publishing. In the mean time, and while waiting to receive some papers from Turkey necessary to his purpose, he has published the present work, which gives an account of his journey from Constantinople over the present scene of war, through Transylvania and Hungary, to Vienna.
The route which the author takes is that which was followed by Darius, in his expedition against the Scythians 2300 years since; and though it has since been frequently the theatre of war, little accurate information has been conveyed to the world as to its actual circumstances. The author sets out by teaching any brother traveller what he has to expect when entering upon a journey in Turkey.
"The ideas of travelling which you have formed from experience, are associated closely with smooth roads, easy carriages, neat inns, comfortable suppers, and warm beds; and where these are to be found, all seasons of the year are pretty much alike to the traveller: but conceive travelling through a country in winter, where, generally speaking, there are no roads, no carriages, no inns, no suppers, and no beds. The only roads are beaten pathways, made by one horseman and followed by another, and every man may make one for himself if he pleases. The only carriages are wooden planks, laid upon rough wheels, called arubas, drawn with cords by buffa loes, which are seldom used except for burthens. The only inns are large stables, where nothing is to be had but chopped straw. The only suppers are what you may pick up on the road, if you are so fortunate, and bring it to where you stop for the night and the only beds are the chopped straw in the stable, or a deal board in a cock-loft over it; and even this in many places is not to be had. There are, doubtless, exceptions to this general picture, as I myself experienced; but, in the main, it is true: and such is the actual state of travelling at this day, in most parts of the Turkish empire through which I have passed, both in Asia and Europe." pp. 2, 3.
Dr. Walsh took with him as his guard and guide, a Tartar Janissary of the name of Mustapha; and found him both faithful and intelligent.
His apparatus for the journey was a Janissary cloak, which was to serve for a coat by day and a bed by night; and which was, moreover, sufficiently stiff to support him when sleeping on his horse. He took also some coffee, tobacco, and sugar.
In going out of Constantinople, he passed by the quarters in which the Jews principally reside; and he stops to give a somewhat minute account of them.
After the extinction of the Waldenses, the tender mercies of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain were extended to the Jews and their illfated country; and, at length, an edict was issued which drove 800,000 into strange lands, without property, clothes, or provisions. As the whole Western world looked at them with an evil eye, they turned to the East; and found their way, among other places, to various parts of the Ottoman empire. There they were kindly received; and, to this day, they constitute an important part of the population. At Salonichi, the ancient Thessalonica, they have thirty synagogues. The resemblance of the general habits of the two people, and even of some points in their religion-the strict theism of the Jews - their abhorrence of swine's flesh-their language read from right to left, and the practice of circumcision, tend to make them more acceptable than Christians to the Turks. In many cities of Germany the Jews are prohibited spending a night within the walls; and, even in our own country, they are subject to various restrictions, both municipal and political. But in Turkey no such customs prevail; and, being united to the Jews by their common antipathy to Christians, they indulge them with peculiar immunities. Dr. Walsh describes them as exhibiting squalor and raggedness in their persons, filth in their houses, laxity of morals, and a readiness to engage in transactions the most exceptionable. The utmost hostility to Christianity
prevails among them; and should any one of their nation be converted, as our readers are well aware, the most bitter persecution ensues. The following anecdotes in proof of this fact are given in the work before
"Indeed their repugnance to Christians, particularly to the Greeks, displays itself
on all occasions. When the venerable patriarch was hanged by the Turks, the Jews volunteered their services to cast his body into the sea: some fellows of the lowest description were brought from Hassa Kuï for the purpose, and they dragged his corpse, by the cord by which he was hanged, through the streets with gratuitous insult. This circumstance, with others of a similar nature, so increased the former antipathy of the Greeks, that they revenged themselves on every Jew that fell in their way, at the commencement of the insurrection, with the most dreadful
the Gnostic sects.
The mutual prejudice is so strong, that it gives rise, as you may suppose, to a number of accusations; and they charge each other with the most atrocious practices. The Jews, you will recollect, in the early ages of Christianity, denounced the Christians as eaters of their own children, an accusation sanctioned by the impure and secret practices of some of The Christians of Spain formerly stated that the Jews crucified adults on Good Friday, in mockery of our Saviour; and at Constantinople, at the present day, they are charged with purloining children, and sacrificing them as paschal lambs, at their passover. was one day at Galata, a suburb of Pera, where a great commotion was just excited. The child of a Greek merchant had disappeared, and no one could give any account of it. It was a beautiful boy, and it was imagined it had been taken by a Turk for a slave after some time, however, the body was found in the Bosphorus; its legs and arms were bound, and certain wounds on its side indicated that it had been put to death in some extraordinary manner, and for some extraordinary purpose. Suspicion immediately fell upon the Jews; and as it was just after their paschal feast, suspicion, people said, was confirmed to a certainty. Nothing could be discovered to give a clue to the perpetrators, but the story was universally talked of, and generally believed, all over Pera." pp. 12, 13.
After passing the Jewish quarter, the author comes to another part of the suburbs, in which the late pacific and amiable Sultan Salem III. had endeavoured to establish a printing press. The following short
history of printing in Turkey may
"It was supposed that the Sultan Selim
On the author's first arrival at Constantinople in 1821, this printing establishment was in existence and and operation. On the death of Selim, it fell with its author; the very vestiges of it are not to be found.
A bridge over which the author passes, on quitting the city, at the head of the harbour, leads him to give a detailed account of the reservoirs and aqueducts by which the city was anciently supplied with water. From this curious account