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days for this our beloved sister isle!
Dr. Hancock states, that he by no means intends, on the one hand, to intimate that the security he speaks of was confined to the society of Friends, since the Moravians, for example, who professed similarly peaceable principles, escaped in a similar manner: nor, on the other hand, does he mean to assert, that in every instance peaceable conduct will necessarily be followed by preservation. To argue thus, he justly considers would be presumption. He indeed relates, with exemplary fairness, the following apparent exception to the general result.
"Two brothers, named John and Samuel Jones, were put to death by the insurgents, on the day of the burning of Scullabogue-barn, where more than two hundred Protestants were burned or shot." p. 148.
"On the day when the barn was set on fire, as the Jones's were reading in the New Testament, Samuel's wife inquired of one of their guards the cause of the peculiar smell, like burning animal matter, which she perceived. He told her it proceeded from some beef steaks they were preparing for breakfast! To a further inquiry she made, What was meant by the firing of guns?' he replied, "Tis some criminals we are shooting.' And will they shoot us?' said the poor woman.
Oh! may-be they will spare you till the last,' was his answer. In about five minutes after this, the three were taken out. The rebel officer, who commanded there, had been reminded by Samuel of their having been school-fellows; and the latter had given his watch and money to keep for him it is even stated that the officer slept in the same bed with him part of the previous night. Having proposed to Samuel that he should conform and turn to the Roman Catholic profession, he replied, Where shall I turn, but where my God is?' And, when he was urged to have his children sprinkled, he said, 'My children are innocent, and I will leave them
had them in custody then took Samuel aside, and on certain conditions offered him his life; but, whatever was the nature of these conditions, he firmly rejected them; and when the holy water, as they termed it, was brought to them, he turned his back upon it.
"The insurgents then shot his elder
brother, whom he very much encouraged, fearing his stedfastness might give way -for John had shewn a disposition to turn Roman Catholic if it might be the means of saving Samuel's life: but the latter encouraged his brother to faithfulness, expressing the words of our blessed Saviour, They that deny me before men, them will I also deny before my Father who is in heaven; and he again revived
the 39th verse of the same chapter in his
remembrance. See Matthew, chap. x.
"Samuel then desired his love to be
given to different friends, whom he named; on which some of the rebels, with a view to depress his spirits, told him, that these friends had been made prisoners before he was, and shot at the camp at the Three Rocks. This communication had partially the effect they intended: he meekly replied, They died innocent.' He then took an affectionate farewell of his wife, who, with admirable fortitude, stood between the two brothers, holding a hand of each, when they were shot; and his last words were reported to be those expressions of our Lord and Saviour, which he repeated for the third time in the hearing of his murderers-' He that findeth his life shall lose it, and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.' It was cause of mournful reflection to his friends, that he was fired at three times before his death took place. He was an innocent young man, much beloved by his neighbours.
"It seemed as if his wife would have shared the same fate, had not the officer who commanded interposed in her favour. She was permitted to convey their bodies to their former dwelling on a car; but not being able at that time to procure coffins for them, she buried them in the garden. On the death of their aged father, which took place in the following month, and was probably hastened by the untimely end of his two only sons,-the bodies of the three were taken to the burying-ground of Friends at Forrest, and there interred, about seven weeks after." pp. 152-155.
We might offer many observations on this affecting narrative, as well as on others which we have quoted. In one sense it corroborates Dr. Hancock's general view, as it would appear, that if these two martyrs had been known to belong to a society founded upon principles adverse even to self-defence by
arms, they might have escaped. But God knew both their principles and their conduct; and he might, if he had seen fit, have delivered them; nor was it necessary, in order for his power to accomplish this, that they should have been Moravians or Friends. It is clear therefore, as Dr. Hancock admits, that it would be presumption to draw any general inference. The only sound universal maxim from such narratives is, "Do what is right, and trust in the providence of God." In such a case, temporal deliverance is to be viewed as a blessing where it is afforded; but where it is not, still all is for the best. The two martyrs just mentioned had doubtless a more blessed lot than if they had been spared to struggle a few years longer with the afflictions of this mortal life. We would not say, that amidst the troubles in Ireland a man acted otherwise than Christianly, who, when attacked, defended his family
or his own life with arms; nor will it derogate from this general principle of self-defence, that we deprecate hostile aggression, or admit, that, under all circumstances, the neutral conduct of the Society of Friends was marked by exemplary wisdom, forbearance, and Christian principle. They might have been justified in contending when attacked; but they acted with far higher wisdom in preventing attack by a course of conduct which caused them to be venerated by men of all parties, and to be looked upon as messengers of mercy to all, amidst the horrors of rebellion and the conflictions of civil war. To our respected author, and to all who entertain the same consistent, selfdenying, and benevolent sentiments, we cordially tender, even where we may think them in excess, our warmest Christian regards and esteem. "Blessed are the peacemakers, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication, and in the press:-The Family Chaplain; or St. Mark's Gospel, for expounding to a Family Circle; by the Rev. S. Hinds, M. A. :-The Offering, a new Annual, to illustrate the Connection between polite Literature and Religion; edited by the Rev. Thomas Dale, M. A.
A public meeting has been held of the friends of King's College, at which it was stated, that a charter of incorporation has been obtained; one of the provisions of which is, that no Roman Catholic shall, in virtue of official station or otherwise, have any concern in the management of the institution. This provision will effectually meet the honest fears of any who might entertain apprehensions as to the possible effect of the admission of Catholics to political offices, and who have not professed such scruples merely from pique or for a pretence to withdraw their con
tributions. The great utility and importance of the institution is proved by numerous facts stated at the meeting; and we lament to learn that any difficulty should have occurred in filling up the subscriptions of stock. The friends of education, of religion, and of the Established Church, will surely not allow this noble undertaking any longer to languish at the outset for want of the necessary funds.
A College is proposed to be founded in the vicinity of the London University, capable of receiving not less than one hundred resident students, with a chapel, and a house for a principal; in order to provide more effectually religious instruction for students of that university who are members of the Established Church; and where, while receiving classical and scientific instruction at the university, they may have the advantages of moral and religious discipline. The funds are to be supplied by shares of 501. and 100%., each bearing a yearly interest of
4 per cent. The London University already numbers more than six hundred students.
A circular has been issued by some benevolent persons anxious for the abolition of capital punishments, (except in the case of murder,) in which occur the following important considerations. "No punishment inflicted by human laws ought to be wholly vindictive; but rather punitive and corrective; the great object, properly considered, being not to retaliate on the offender, but to chastise, with a view to amendment. Our present system seems to be founded on pride, passion, and cruelty [mingled with fear and revenge]. We take the shortest method of disposing of the criminal, we dispatch him on the scaffold, and put him out of sight, without a single attempt at his correction, whether his offence be burglary, forgery, or simple larceny; whether he be young or old, a hardened offender, or one who has lately entered on a course of crime. The frequent spectacle of public executions has a hardening tendency, and serves to perpetuate, among the lower orders at least, some of the barbarous dispositions of ancient times, besides being utterly inconsistent with the refinement, integrity, and humanity of a nation calling itself Christian. It does not appear that capital punishments tend to diminish the number of crimes, and in those countries where punishments are mildest there are generally the fewest atrocities. The experiment of the sanguinary method has been tried for ages, with little apparent effect. It is now time to try the other method. If those persons whose crimes are such as to render their liberty dangerous to society, were placed in perpetual, or even in limited confinement, and put under a regular and severe course of labour, they might still render some benefit to society, and enjoy a season for reflection and reformation, which would often result in the happiest effects."
Dr. Paley, as long ago as 1792, in a sermon preached for the French emigrants, pointed out the great importance of the plan, now so generally employed, of collecting small regular subscriptions for charitable purposes. "Application," he says, “was made to the bounty of the rich and great of the English clergy, and with such effect, that 26,000l. was raised by about four thousand benefactors. It was soon, however, found, that the unavoidable wants of such a number of men formed a demand which could be supported only by general contribution; every
one contributing a little. And I believe the experience of many ages has proved, that there is no other way by which any large exigency can be supplied."
Mr. Spittal, who has devoted much attention to the habits of several camelions in his possession, thinks that their changes of colour arise from the action of the lungs; the greater or less flow of the blood, and its different degrees of oxigenation, rendering the animal more or less transparent. He has seen one of these animals, of about five inches long, dart out its tongue that length to catch its prey. FRANCE.
A new theological work is announced for publication in Paris. It is to be entitled The Gazette des Cultes, and will be published twice a week. Its motto is "Civil and Religious Liberty throughout the World." One professed object of the work is to expose the machinations of the Jesuits; to detail the superstitious rites at the planting of crosses, and other Popish ceremonies; and to reveal the intrigues of Rome. The civil disabilities of British and Irish Catholics were intended to have formed a prominent feature of discussion, but this topic is of course superseded.
Dr. Esquirol, the first authority in France upon the subject of insanity, states, that in no country is it so frequent as in England, which he attributes to irregular habits of life; the excesses attending an advanced state of civilization; marriages contracted solely from motives of interest or ambition; anxieties attending speculations; the idleness of riches; and the abuse of spirituous liquors. The changes in manners in France within the last thirty years, he says, have been more productive of insanity than all the political turmoils. He remarks:
"Religion no longer intervenes, but as a mere form, in the most solemn transactions of life: she is no longer a source of consolation and hope to the unfortunate; her principles have ceased to direct the understanding in the narrow and difficult path of life: every source of kindly feeling has been dried up by cold egotism; the domestic affections, respect, love, authothority, and the consequent mutual dependence on each other, have lost their influence; every one lives entirely for self. Marriage is only regarded in the light of a formal unimportant ceremony; education has become vitiated, cultivating the mind but neglecting the heart. If the habits of life of the women in France, their almost exclusive devotion to the
study of the arts of pleasing, their immoderate taste for novel-reading, for dress, and frivolities of every description, are added to the above causes, there will be no longer reason to wonder at the perverted state of our morals, both in public and private life nor shall we have any right to complain if nervous diseases, and especially insanity, are rapidly increasing; so indubitably true is it, that whatever appertains to man's moral good, has the most intimate connexion with his corporeal well-being, and the preservation of his health. It is therefore of the greatest importance to avoid matrimonial unions between individuals born of insane parents; to adopt a system of education more religious in its character; children must be better trained to bear opposition to their caprices; their moral and intellectual feelings should not be excited and overexerted by the too early application of their faculties to study; errors of diet must be strictly avoided; and their passions should be controlled and judiciously directed."
M. Champollion writes with enthusiastic animation of the ruins of Thebes; he views all European edifices as but the work of pigmies, in comparison with these gigantic structures; he discovers the portraits of the most ancient Pharaohs represented hundreds of times in bas reliefs; the campaigns of Sesostris ; and the name of Judea among those of thirty conquered nations; with a sculptured commentary on the expedition of Shishak, king of Egypt, against Jerusalem, related 1 Kings xiv. We must think our learned traveller somewhat sanguine in some of his conclusions.
In an address delivered to the graduates of the Columbian College, at Washington, by T. Sewell, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, the following admirable rules of conduct are strongly urged :
"1. Maintain a scrupulous regard to truth. Although there are many cases in which it is highly proper for the physician to encourage the hopes of his patient and dissipate his fears, there is no case in which it is justifiable to do it at the expense of truth. To conceal from a dying man his situation, not only involves a sacrifice of truth, but is a violation of the highest principles of honour and justice. 2. Be attentive to the sufferings of the poor. 3. In your professional intercourse, assiduously cultivate a pure and
elevated style of conversation, urbanity and gentleness of manner, and kindness of heart. 4. Maintain a due observance of the Sabbath. The observance of the Sabbath, and an attendance on such devotional exercises as are within your reach, is a duty you are bound to perform as far as is compatible with the urgency of the cases committed to your care; and it will seldom happen that your cases are so urgent, or your practice so extensive, as not to be disposed of during the interval of public worship. Dr. Rush used to say that he never knew a time when his professional business in Philadelphia did not admit of his attendance on public worship at least half of the day, and he never failed to inculcate the importance of this duty on his pupils. Another custom, recommended and practised by this distinguished philanthropist and physician, will be equally worthy of your imitation as soon as your circumstances will admit ; that of bestowing all Sabbath fees on objects of charity. 5. Guard against infidel sentiments. Whatever may have been the moral and religious state of the profession in other times, and in other countries, its present condition, and particularly in the United States, shews us that there is no necessary connexion between the science of medicine and scepticism; and it must be gratifying to the profession to recognize the fact, that all the most eminent physicians of our country openly espouse the Christian religion, defend its doctrines, and give the whole weight of their influ ence in support of moral and religious institutions. Remember that the way of infidelity is downward, and that when you once enter it, every succeeding step will urge you onward with increasing celerity. Few have trod this dark and fearful path, and returned to warn others of its fatal termination. 6. Observe strict temperance in the use of ardent spirits. 7. Abstain from all games of chance, as a practice alike degrading to you as men, and inconsistent with the dignity, and the high and important duties of your profession. 8. Discountenance and abstain from the practice of duelling. 9. Keep constantly in view the moral obligations you are under to your patients and to the community. The moral and religious influence of sickness is, no doubt, highly beneficial to the best interests of man, and of society. At this time the stoutest heart is softened, old animosities are forgotten, the mind looks back with regret upon the errors of past times, and extends itself forward with new and better reso◄
lutions to the future. Old vices are broken off, and the mind then, if ever, is open to the convictions of truth. The frequent opportunities you will enjoy of promoting and strengthening the good resolutions of your patients, and especially if suffering under the consequences of vicious conduct, ought never to be neglected. Your counsel and reproof will be listened to with respect, and received as tokens of friendship, whenever they are imparted at proper seasons, and evince a sincere interest in the welfare of the individual to whom they are addressed."
An address of extraordinary ability and eloquence was delivered last year to a large audience at Philadelphia, by Elias Boudinot, a Cherokee Indian. "To those," said he, "who are unacquainted with the habits and improvements of the aborigines of this country, the term Indian is pregnant with ideas the most repelling and degrading. But such impressions, originating as they frequently do from infant prejudices, although they hold too true when applied to some, do great injustice to manyof this raceof beings. Some there are, perhaps even in this enlightened assembly, who at the bare sight of an Indian, or at the mention of the name, would throw back their imaginations to ancient times, to the ravages of savage warfare, to the yells pronounced over the mangled bodies of women and children, thus creating an opinion, inapplicable and highly injurious to those for whose temporal interest and eternal welfare I come to plead.
"But what is an Indian? Is he not formed of the same materials with yourself? For of one blood God created all the nations that dwell on the face of the earth.' Though it be true that he is ignorant, that he is a heathen, that he is a savage; yet he is no more than all others have been under similar circumstances. Eighteen centuries ago what were the inhabitants of Great Britain? You here behold an Indian, my kindred are Indians, and my fathers sleeping in the wilderness grave-they too were Indians. But I am not, as my fathers were-broader means and nobler influences have fallen upon me. Yet I was not born as thousands are, in a stately dome, and amid the congratulations of the great; for on a little hill, in a lonely cabin, overspread by the forest oak, I first drew my breath; and in a language unknown to learned and polished nations, I learned to lisp my fond mother's name. In after days, I have had greater advantages than most of my race;
and I now stand before you delegated by my native country to seek her interest, to labour for her respectability, and by my public efforts to assist in raising her to an equal standing with other nations of the earth."
After detailing a variety of statistical and historical facts relative to his tribe, among whom hunting as a livelihood is not now known, he added, that so great is the progress of education since the recent invention of written language among them, that in one district there are several thousand volumes of good books; and eleven different periodical papers, religious and political, are taken in and read. On the public roads there are many decent inns. Most of the schools are under the care and tuition of Christian missionaries, who have been of great service to the nation. In many places the word of God is regularly preached and explained, both by missionaries and natives. "Amoug no heathen people," said the speaker, "has the faithful minister of God experienced greater success, greater reward for his labour, than in this. He is surrounded by attentive hearers, the words which flow from his lips are not spent in vain." After alluding to the recent invention of letters, the translation of the New Testament into Cherokee, and the organization of a government, he added, " From what I have said, you will form but a faint opinion of the true state and prospects of the Cherokees; you will, however, be convinced that the means which have been employed for the Christianization and civilization of this tribe have been greatly blessed; that the increase of these means will meet with final success ; and that it has now become necessary that efficient and more than ordinary means should be employed. Sensible of this last point, and wishing to do something for themselves, the Cherokees have thought it advisable that there should be established a printing press, and a seminary of respectable character; and for these purposes your aid and patronage are solicited. They wish the types to be composed of English letters and Cherokee characters. Those letters have now become extensively used in the nation; their religious songs are written in them; there is an astonishing eagerness in people of all classes and ages to acquire a knowledge of them; and the New Testament has been translated into their language. In the neighbourhood iu which I live, I do not recollect a male Cherokee, between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five, who is ignorant of this mode