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admit what the author says, p. 67, "We maintain that the phrase η αναστασις εκ των νεκρων,can mean nothing else than the resurrection of a part of the dead, leaving another part unraised;" but I deny that we can come to the same conclusion, according to the genius of the Greek language, and the consistent use of the Greek article, from the phrase αναστασις εκ νεκρων. I feel convinced that had it been the intention of the inspired penman to convey, in the places referred to, the idea of a resurrection of part of the dead, leaving another part unraised, they would have written ε< TWV VEKOWV. Nay, I think the author of the paper must himself have been of the same opinion; and, having been persuaded of two resurrections upon other grounds, perhaps from the sentiments of others, without fully weighing the argument himself, took it for granted that the Greek article must be in the original; and, without examination, quoted it as if it were there.
there is evidently implied the idea.
We have, then, not merely two distinct modes of expression, as the author in "The Morning Watch" asserts, but three:
αναστα εκ των νεκρω ν
The first, with the preposition and the article, seems to be used when it is intended to convey the idea of a part rising from among the dead, and leaving another part unraised: the second, with the preposition and without the article, when it is intended to convey the idea of rising from the dead, without intimating whether the whole or only a part is to be raised: the third, where the genitive case is governed by the preceding substantive, without the preposition, seems to be used when it is intended to convey the idea of the raising of the dead.
The difference between the two expressions avaστασig εk veкрwv, and αναστασις νεκρων, seems to be this; the first denotes what man is to experience, the rising from the dead; the second denotes what God is to perform, the raising of the dead.
To support my opinion, that if the authors of the New Testament had wished to convey the idea of the resurrection of only a part of the dead, they would have inserted the article; I would refer to passages in which there is an evident intention to convey this meaning, and in those passages the article is inserted. I would first mention Col. i. 18; where St. Paul calls Christ πρωτοτοκος εκ των νεκρων, the first born from (among) the dead. Here, then, is an evident intention to convey the idea of Christ rising first, and leaving the rest of the dead unraised; and therefore the article is I have to remark upon two texts inserted. I would refer, in the next quoted in the paper referred to. One place, to Eph. v. 14: where the is, Phil. iii. 11 : εις την εξαναστασιν Apostle writes αναστα εκ των νεκρων. των VεKρWV (p. 67). The author He had, in the early part of his speaks of this text as if it were Epistle, called unconverted men the same as if it had been written dead (vɛкpec) in trespasses and sins; αναστασις εκ των νεκρων, and quietand here he tells them, that God ly and coolly says, "Our translators calls upon such as hear his voice, to are inaccurate." He pronounces rise from among those dead persons, that "it ought to have been rendered to leave them behind and come 'from the dead."" I admit that the amongst the living. Here, where words would bear this rendering, CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 329.
but I deny that they require it. The genitive VEROWY might indeed be governed by the , but may also be, as our translators have supposed, the genitive case following the substantive εavaoraσis; and so may literally be translated " the raising-out of the dead." As there is no place in the whole New Testament in which αναστασις εκ των VEKOWY is to be found, we are led to conclude that the phrase used here is not intended to be equivalent to it, but rather to be equivalent to that which is constantly used avaoτασις των νεκρων.
I must remark, also, upon another incorrect quotation (p. 66), Rom. i. 4. The author writes the Greek εξαναστάσεως, as if it were one word. Now I have before me seven different editions of the Greek Testament, of the highest authority, and there is not one of them that has it written as one word, but all of them have it ε avaoraσews, two words. He first writes the phrase differently from what it occurs in every edition of the New Testament which I have ever seen, and then he says, "And here we may observe, once for all, that whenever the resurrection of Jesus from the dead is named, the same expression is used." As the liberty here taken, and the argument deduced, may seem incredible, I think it better to transcribe the whole paragraph.
"In Rom. i. 4, we have the term applied to Christ; declared to be the Son of God with power, by the resurrection from the dead,' εžavaστασεws Vεкpwv, (instead of αναστάσεως νεκρων); and here we may observe, once for all, that wherever the resurrection of Jesus from the dead is named, the same expression is used; implying not merely a resurrection from the state of death, but from out of those that are dead: literally, from dead ones."
What does the author mean to assert? Is it after he has manufactured the one word ežavaoraris out of two words, that that " same
expression" occurs wherever the resurrection of Jesus is named? This "same expression" avaσraσis never occurs, but in one place, in Scripture; namely, in that before referred to, Phil. iii. 11. Or does he expect his readers at once to imitate his example, and without scruple turn his unwarrantably acquired εξαναστασις into αναστασις ? It requires this further unauthorised change before we have a phrase which is used when the resurrection of Christ is named.
I beg to remark, that what I have written is neither intended to weaken nor to strengthen the opinion of two resurrections; I have only attempted to point out the unsoundness of some of the arguments in favour of the hypothesis, and to shew that it cannot be proved by a mere criticism upon the words in which the doctrine of the resurrection is conveyed. Its truth must stand upon something more than the difference between avaσraOLG EK νεκρων, and αναστασις νεκρων; and, if true, the reception of it as a truth can only be impeded by such unfounded arguments as those put forward in the paper I have been examining. I do not, however, desire to impute wilful dishonesty to the unknown author of the paper in question. I acquit him of intentional untruth; that Christian character which I have neither the right nor the disposition to deny him forbids the supposition. I should rather suppose, that, being deeply convinced of two resurrections, on the authority of others, he inaccurately retailed their arguments. Had he arrived at his conclusion by a process of argument carried on in his own mind, and had he given us this argument in his paper, I feel assured that he never would have fallen into the errors I have thought it my duty to point out.
I think the appearance of so inaccurate a production in the First Number of a periodical publication, intended to enlighten the country on the most important subjects of
prophecy, and the future expectations of the church of Christ, ought to produce much more caution both in writers and readers on the subject. Men begin to be teachers on both sides of that very difficult subject, when they have, in truth, only commenced being learners: and when they can scarcely be said to have acquired the alphabet of prophetical language. They write pamphlets, and even books, for and against, as if the whole arcana of futurity had been set before them.
It would be well, if men could be kept from jumping suddenly to conclusions, and then seeking for arguments to support them, and would be led, in a candid and unprejudiced spirit, to examine deliberately the language of Scripture, make themselves acquainted with the nice shades of its expressions, and become qualified to compare its wisely adjusted phraseology. I will only add, if Christian men were more inclined thus to "wait upon the Lord," looking to the word of God, and not the word of man, how much light might we expect to see rise upon the church; and how much unity and Christian fellowship prevail amongst men!
AN UNPREJUDICED INQUIRER
FAMILY SERMONS.-No. CCLV*.
Rom. xii. 12.-Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing instant in prayer.
THE text, if you will hear it and obey it, will furnish you with some important lessons: and with this view it is my purpose to discourse upon it; to draw out of it, by God's assistance, such directions as may instruct you to live the rest of your days with more comfort and
• This discourse is taken, with a slight abridgment, from Archdeacon Bather's second volume of Sermons, just published. See Review.
less disappointment; and such admonitions as may help you to make improvement of every thing, to avoid snares on all sides, to overcome your sinful appetites and habits, and to grow in grace and godliness. For these purposes, go on your way, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing instant in prayer.”
I. And first" Rejoicing in hope." You would all rejoice and be happy if you knew how; and assuredly it was in order to your happiness that God created you: but you have gone the wrong road. Some have houses and possessions, and wives, and children, and friends and worldly goods in abundance; and you say, perhaps, these shall be our rejoicing. And the wise man glories "in his wisdom, and the mighty man glories in his might, and the rich man in his riches.' But these things "make themselves wings and fly away." Or something which befals you, as a bodily sickness, or a cross in some particular, takes away your power of enjoying them. Or, after a little more experience of them, your liking for them and pleasure in them dies of itself-dies a natural death; for you find that they are but vain, incapable of filling your minds, so that you want something else still. And even when you have obtained what you desired, you are no nearer; for this also is vanity like the rest; and "what profit hath he who hath laboured for the wind ?"
You must labour, therefore, for something better, and set your af fections on something more substantial. You must rejoice in something worthier to excite your joy; and, if so, must rise above this world altogether. "In heart and mind you must thither ascend, whither your Saviour Christ is gone before ;" and rejoice, not in what you now have, (from devotion to that you must disentangle yourselves), but in "the hope of eternal life to be had hereafter."
For the possessions which you have in this life, little more can be
said than that they are the food and raiment upon which you subsist till your inheritance is ready for you, and you for your inheritance. If you make more than this of them; if you take them for your portion to rejoice in, it can only be because you think meanly of the true riches which God hath prepared to be your portion in eternity; or else that you believe not that God is able and willing to bestow the eternal wealth upon you. But either of these is very insulting to the Divine wisdom, faithfulness, and love. Do not "think scorn," either of God's promises, or of him through whom they are made to you; and who says, "I go to prepare a place for you; and if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you unto myself, that where I am there ye may be also." Consider what is included in this promise. Is it not something better worth thinking about, and fitter to be rejoiced in, than such poor things as usually occupy men's minds? In that place there is "no more sorrow, nor crying, nor pain." There "the Lord God hath wiped away all tears from all faces." There "the wicked cease from troubling, and there the weary are at rest for ever. In that place there shall be no jarring of interests, no strife, no contention, no temptation to hurt others in order to enrich yourselves, and no fear that others will serve themselves by injuring you. In that place there will be no conflict with those around you; no envying, but all harmony and union, and every one the richer and the happier for his brother's happiness. And no conflict with sin, no conflict with unsatisfied longings and appetites, no care to watch a traitor in your own bosoms; no obligation to a burdensome service, no call to selfdenial; but employment which shall be your delight; a service which shall be perfect freedom; enjoyment which shall leave you nothing to covet; your desires and your possessions, your will and your
duty, exactly and absolutely coincident; no possibility and no fear of falling from your high estate of blessedness. There, in short, "with angels and archangels, and all the company of heaven," with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the saints of God, and all your dear friends who have died in the faith before you, you shall "be before the throne of God, and he that sitteth upon the throne shall dwell among you." You shall see him face to face, and "be like him," be made capable of supreme enjoyment, and have all the enjoyments of which you are capable, and that for ever. This is the hope of Christians, and surely the foundation of it is such as makes it sure. You are not called to rejoice in the hope of eter nal life because God has promised it to such as of themselves can find their way to it; or to such as by their own meritorious deeds have earned it; or to such as, by their own endeavours, can make them. selves fit for it; or to such as can deliver themselves from the condemnation for sin which hath already doomed them to the forfeiture of it; but because "of God, Jesus Christ," his own Son, "is made unto you wisdom and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption." Because he hath earned it, and paid for it, and prepared it for you, and is ready to prepare you for it. Because he "hath borne your sins in his own body on the tree," and having been "delivered for your offences, hath been raised again for your justification;" and, having ascended to his Father's right hand, hath received for you the gift of the Holy Ghost, and ever lives to plead for you. And because in him, and in whatsoever he does, and in all persons for whom he undertakes, God is well pleased always.
Then be your rejoicing this: that an eternal weight of glory hath been purchased for you by Jesus Christ. This hope will not make you ashamed, or disappoint you; and having
this hope in you, it will be as effectual to sanctify as to comfort you. Your treasure is in heaven: if there your hearts were also, what should you have to do with sinning, or fiercely fighting and contending, as so many poor creatures do, to obtain the world?
However, though God hath "ordained peace" for you even here, if you will walk in the way of peace; and joy, too, if you will believe his word; it is nevertheless declared by our Lord to his disciples, "In the world ye shall have tribulation." And there is no inconsistency in this. He can build joy upon tribulation, and bring advantage out of it, if he pleases, and let the tribulation remain at the same time, and be felt for what it is.
II. Look now, therefore, to the next precept of the text, "Patient in tribulation." "Ye have need of patience," and you will have need of it to the end; but if you can "rejoice in hope," through Christ, you will find the duty itself to be as practicable as the discharge of it will prove consolatory. If you look back upon those afflictions of your lives which are past, you will see at once that the grief would have been lessened, and the burden have been far more tolerable, if you had had more patience. This is one of those self-evident truths which there can be no need to dwell upon in the way of proof. It follows, that if you would fare better for the time to come, you must cultivate this useful grace; and if you shall do this effectually, you will surely find that increase of patience is a better thing than diminution of sorrow could be, inasmuch as sanctified affliction is a better thing than unsanctified rest and ease.
But the question is, how may you attain to patience, or what ground is laid for it to Christians? No doubt, like joy in things hoped for, it must have its root in the faith of the Gospel. Therefore, hear God's testimony believe his word, and understand his meaning in suffering
afflictions to come upon you. They are for chastisements; they are to do you good: they are proofs, not of God's anger, nor of his unmindfulness of what you suffer, but of his faithfulness and zeal for your well-being. "I will be a father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty."
Now hear the language of a son, of one who knew his interest in his heavenly Father's love: "It is good for me to be afflicted, that I might learn thy statutes." View every cross that comes upon you as the "minister of God for good,"-as sent to humble you, to prove you, to wean you from the world, to turn your regards from the vain creature to the all-sufficient Creator, to set you upon taking God for your trust and your portion; as ordered for the best in infinite love and perfect wisdom; and as your own Father's choice for you; and thus taking it, you will love God better, and give him thanks for every thing, and be broken of your self-will more and more, and be fitter to leave this world, where you cannot, under any event, stay long-be enabled to leave it without leaving your heart or your treasure behind you, and be wiser for the future than you have been for the past-happier whilst you stay, and not cut off from comfort, but released from toil, and brought to the true riches, when you go.
One precept more, however, remains to be attended to, or nothing will be done either for your better consolation or for your growth in grace.
III. "Continue instant in prayer." Prayer must be taken here in the most extensive meaning of the word, or at least for all the parts of direct religious worship-for confession, supplication, thanksgiving, intercession. To" continue instant" in prayer, means first, to hold actual converse with God, or actually to address him in those several ways at very frequent in