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mother love and see with pleasure, and whom they dislike; for whom they think themselves obliged to set out their best plate and china; whom they think it an honor to visit, and upon whom they confer honor by admitting them to their company. “Respect nothing so much as virtue," says Eugenio to his son; "virtue and talents are the only grounds of distinction.” The child presently has occasion to inquire why his father pulls off his hat to some people and not to others : he is told that outward respect must be proportioned to different stations in life. This is a little difficult of comprehension: however, by dint of explanation, he gets over it tolerably well. But he sees his father's house in the bustle and hurry of preparation; common business laid aside, everybody in movement, an unusual anxiety to please and to shine. Nobody is at leisure to receive his caresses or attend to his questions; his lessons are interrupted, his hours deranged. At length a guest arrives: it is my Lord whom he has heard you speak of twenty times as one of the most worthless characters upon earth. Your child, Eugenio, has received a lesson of education. Resume, if you will, your systems of morality on the morrow; you will in vain attempt to eradicate it. “You expect company, mamma; must I be dressed to day?” “No, it is only good Mrs. Such-a-one.' Your child has received a lesson of education; one which he well understands, and will long remember.

But the education of your house, important as it is, is only a part of a more comprehensive system. Providence takes your child where

you

leave him. Providence continues his education upon a larger sca and by a process which includes means far more efficacious. Has your son entered the world at eighteen, opinionated, haughty, rash, inclined to dissipation? Do not despair; he may yet be cured of these faults, if it pleases Heaven. There are remedies which you could not persuade yourself to use, if they were in your power, and which are specific in cases of this kind. How often do we see the presumptuous, giddy youth changed into the wise counsellor, the considerate, steady friend! How often the thoughtless, gay girl into the sober wife, the affectionate mother! Faded beauty, humbled self-consequence, disappointed ambition, loss of fortune-this is the rough physic provided by Providence to meliorate the temper, to correct the offensive petulancies of youth, and bring out all the energies of the finished character. Afflictions soften the proud; difficulties push forward the ingenious; successful industry gives consequence and credit, and develops a thousand latent good qualities. There is no malady of the mind so inveterate, which this education of events is not calculated to cure, if life were long enough; and shall we not hope that He,

cific in cases of this kind

(GEORGE IV.

in whose hand are all the remedial processes of nature, will renew the discipline in another state, and finish the imperfect man?

Lo bis son;

SINS OF GOVERNMENT, SINS OF THE NATION.

hom they dislike; for out their best plate and it, and upon whom they ompany. “Respect no

“ virtue and
2." The child presents
ulls off his hat to some
outward respect must be

This is a little difficult of
planation, he gets over it
s house in the bustle and
s laid aside, everybody in

and to shine. Nobody is
end to his questions; his
nged. At length a guests

has heard you speak of Tess characters upon earth

. son of education. Resume, n the morrow; you will in expect company, mama

only good Mrs Suche-one

one which he wel

acation;

We act as a nation when, through the organ of the legislative power, which speaks the will of the nation, and by means of the executive power which does the will of the nation, we enact laws, form alliances, make war or peace, dispose of the public money, or do any of those things which belong to us in our collective capacity; and we are called upon to repent of national sins, because we can help them, and because we ought to help them. We are not fondly to imagine we can make government the scapegoat to answer for our follies and our crimes: by the services of this dayo they call upon us to answer for them; they throw the blame where it ought ultimately to rest; that is, where the power ultimately rests. It were trifling with our consciences to endeavor to separate the acts of governors sanctioned by the nation, from the acts of the nation; for, in every transaction, the principal is answerable for the conduct of the agents he employs to transact it. If the maxim that the king can do no wrong

throws
upon

ministers the responsibility, because without ministers no wrong could be done, the same reason throws it from them upon the people, without whom ministers could do no wrong.

The vices of nations may be divided into those which relate to their own internal proceedings, or to their relations with other states. With regard to the first, the causes for humiliation are various. Many nations are guilty of the crime of permitting oppressive laws and bad governments to remain amongst them, by which the poor are crushed, and the lives of the innocent are laid at the mercy of wicked and arbitrary men. This is a national sin of the deepest dye, as it involves in it most others. It is painful to reflect how

many atrocious governments there are in the world; and how little even they who enjoy good ones seem to understand their true nature. We are apt to speak of the happiness of living under a mild government, as if it were like the happiness of living under an indulgent climate; and when we thank God for it, we rank it with the blessings of the air and of the soil; whereas we

*

portant as it is

, is onlys Providence takes your child itinues his education upp includes means far more world at eighteen, opinie ition? Do not despair; be slcases Hearen. There 21 de yourself to use, if the

giddy youth channel in dy friend! How diente se, the affectionate mother?

?ce, disappointed ambitie
ic provided br Provideset
e offensive petulapcies of
5 of the finished character

push forward the in
rence and credit, and der

malady of the of events is not calculated all we not hope that Be

" I regret that my limited space will not allow me to take more from this most admirable essay on education--the best, I hesitate not to say, that I have ever read.

? A day for a National Fast.

no

There is

ought to thank God for the wisdom and virtue of living under a good government; for a good government is the first of national duties. It is indeed a happiness, and one which demands our most grateful thanks, to be born under one which spares us the trouble and hazard of changing it: but a people born under a good government will probably not die under one, if they conceive of it as of an indolent and passive happiness, to be left for its preservation to fortunate conjunctures, and the floating and variable chances of incalculable events: our second duty is to keep it good.

Amongst our national faults, have we any instances of cruelty or oppression to repent of? Can we look round from sea to sea, and from east to west, and say that our brother hath not aught against us? If such instances do not exist under our immediate eye, do they exist anywhere under our influence and jurisdiction? There are some, whose nerves, rather than whose principles, cannot bear cruelty; like other nuisances, they would not choose it in sight, but they can be well content to know it exists, and that they are indebted for it to the increase of their income, and the luxuries of their table. Are there not some darker-colored children of the same family, over whom we assume a hard and unjust control? And have not these our brethren aught against us? If we suspect they have, would it not become us anxiously to inquire into the truth, that we may deliver our souls? But if we know it, and cannot help knowing it, if such enormities have been pressed and forced upon our notice, till they are become flat and stale in the public ear, from fulness and repetition, and satiety of proof; and if they are still sanctioned by our legislature, defended by our princes—deep indeed is the color of our guilt! And do we appoint fasts, and make pretences to religion? Do we pretend to be shocked at the principles or the practices of neighboring nations, and start with affected horror at the name of Atheist? Are our consciences so tender, and our hearts so hard? Is it possible we should meet as a nation, and knowing ourselves to be guilty of these things, have the confidence to implore the blessing of God upon our commerce and our colonies, preface with prayer our legislative meetings, and then deliberate how long we shall continue human sacrifices? Rather let us

Never pray more, abandon all remorse. Let us lay aside the grimace of hypocrisy, stand up for what we are, and boldly profess, like the emperor of old, that everything is sweet from which money is extracted, and that we know better than to deprive ourselves of a gain for the sake of a fellowcreature.

A Discourse for the Fast, April 19, 1793.

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WHAT IS WAR?

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aand virtue of living under a rnment is the first of national nd one which demands our mig

one which spares us the trouble people born under a good goren! one,

if they conceire of it as die 3, to be left for its presernutia e floating and variable ebances d duty is to keep it good. have we any instances of cruely n we look round from sea to 48, that our brother hath pot aught do not exist under our imneliste Ier our influence and jurislistica? rather than whose principles, cay isances, they would not chase i ontent to know it exists, and that increase of their income, and the here not some darker-colored chilhom we assume a hard and unjos our brethren aught against us: 1 not become us anxiously to ingur

' such enormities have been prach

We should do well to translate this word WAR into language
more intelligible to us. When we pay our army and our navy
estimates, let us set down—so much for killing, so much for maim-
ing, so much for making widows and orphans, so much for bring-
ing famine upon a district, so much for corrupting citizens and
subjects into spies and traitors, so much for ruining industrious
tradesmen and making bankrupts, so much for letting loose the
demons of fury, rapine, and lust within the fold of cultivated so-
ciety, and giving to the brutal ferocity of the most ferocious its
full
scope
and
range

of invention. We shall by this means know
what we have paid our money for, whether we have made a good
bargain, and whether the account is likely to pass elsewhere.
We must take in, too, all those concomitant circumstances which
make war, considered as battle, the least part of itself. We must
fix our eyes, not on the hero returning with conquest, nor yet on
the gallant officer dying in the bed of honor(?)—the subject of pic-
ture and of song—but on the private soldier, forced into the service,
exhausted by camp-sickness and fatigue; pale, emaciated, crawling
to an hospital with the prospect of life, perhaps a long life, blasted,
useless, and suffering. We must think of the uncounted tears of
her who weeps alone, because the only being who shared her sen-
timents is taken from her: no martial music sounds in unison with
her feelings; the long day passes, and he returns not. She does
not shed her sorrows over his grave, for she has never learnt
whether he ever had one. If he had returned, his exertions would
not have been remembered individually, for he only made a small
imperceptible part of a human machine, called a regiment. We
must take in the long sickness, which no glory soothes, occasioned
by distress of mind, anxiety, and ruined fortunes. These are not
fancy-pictures; and if you please to heighten them, you can every
one of you do it for yourselves. We must take in the conse-
quences, felt perhaps for ages, before a country, which has been
completely desolated, lifts its head again : like a torrent of lava,
its worst mischief is not the first overwhelming ruin of towns and
palaces, but the long sterility to which it condemns the tract it
has covered with its stream. Add the danger to regular govern-
ments, which are changed by war, sometimes to anarchy, and some-
times to despotism. Add all these, and then let us think when
a general, performing these exploits, is saluted with “Well done,

17

ver our souls? But it me kort

they are become fat and stale in I repetition, and satiety of prá by our legislature

, defended bror r of our guilt! And do we app religion? Do we pretend to be

practices of neighboring natit hearts so hard! Is it possible nowing ourselres to be colonies, preface with proper ze Ieliberate how long we shall ci

er let us abandon all remorse.

- emperor

hypocrisy, stand up for what F

of old, that ererythi gain for the sake of a fellt

good and faithful servant,” whether the plaudit is likely to be echoed in another place.

In this guilty business there is a circumstance which greatly aggravates its guilt, and that is the impiety of calling upon the Divine Being to assist us in it. Almost all nations have been in the habit of mixing with their bad passions a show of religion, and of prefacing these their murders with prayers and the solemnities of worship. When they send out their armies to desolate a country and destroy the fair face of nature, they have the presumption to hope that the Sovereign of the Universe will condescend to be their auxiliary, and to enter into their petty and despicable contests. Their prayer, if put into plain language, would run thus: “God of love, father of all the families of the earth, we are going to tear in pieces our brethren of mankind, but our strength is not equal to our fury; we beseech thee to assist us in the work of slaughter. Go out, we pray thee, with our fleets and armies; we call them Christian, and we have interwoven in our banners and the decorations of our arms, the symbols of a suffering religion, that we may fight under the cross upon which our Saviour died. Whatever mischief we do, we shall do it in thy name; we hope, therefore, thou wilt protect us in it. Thou, who hast made of one blood all the dwellers upon the earth, we trust thou wilt view us alone with partial favor, and enable us to bring misery upon every other quarter of the globe.” Now if we really expect such prayers to be answered, we are the weakest, if not, we are the most hypocritical, of beings.

The same Discourse.

THE MOUSE'S PETITION.

O hear a pensive prisoner's prayer,

For liberty that sighs;
And never let thine heart be shut

Against tbe wretch's cries!
For here forlorn and sad I sit,

Within the wiry grate;
And tremble at the approaching morn,

Which brings impending fate.
If e'er thy breast with freedom glowed,

And spurned a tyrant's chain,
Let not thy strong oppressive force

A free-born mouse detain!

· Found in the trap where he had been confined all night by Dr. Priestley, for the sake of making experiments with different kinds of air.

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