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first made his stick of any consequence, speaks of it with warmth and affection; calls it his companion; and would hardly have changed it, perhaps, for the gold stick which is carried before the king. But the best and the strongest example of this, and of the customary progress of association, is in the passion of avarice. A child only loves a guinea because it shines; and, as it is equally splendid, he loves a gilt button as well. In after-life, he begins to love wealth, because it affords him the comforts of existence; and then loves it so well, that he denies himself the common comforts of life to increase it. The uniting idea is so totally forgotten, that it is completely sacrificed to the ideas which it unites. Two friends unite against the person to whose introduction they are indebted for their knowledge of each other; exclude him their society, and ruin him by their combination.

I might, upon the same principle, proceed to explain a vast variety of passions and desires, which are all commonly spoken of as original principles of our nature. For instance: nothing appears to me more decided and indisputable, than that men are not born with any love of power, any love of society, or any love of esteem; all these feelings, — which we all experience so strongly, - have all sprung from pleasure, pain, and association; and are entirely explicable upon that system. But, if I were to go through with them, I should merely be treading over the same ground I have past already : the principle once understood, there is no great difficulty in making the application to particular cases.

I beg leave again to observe, — and I request the particụlar attention of my hearers to it, - that the only difference between the friends of this doctrine of association, and their antagonists, is, respecting the origin of all these feelings and passions. Respecting their existence, there is none. Every one agrees that there is a love of parents, a love of country, a desire of esteem,

and a desire of knowledge: the only question is, respecting their origin. Are they primitive? Can no account be given of their causes? or from what are they derived ? They say, in tracing up the river to its source, we find it bursting out from innumerable streams. We say, this is very true; but you stop short too soon, you don't look far enough; we can show you your numerous fountains distinctly terminating in one,

the plain, ancient, and undoubted source of the stream. The admirable simplicity of this doctrine, ought certainly to recommend it to universal attention; as, independent of other considerations, it wears the face of that simplicity in causes, and variety in effects, which we discover in every other part of nature.

“In human works, though labour'd on with pain,

A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain :
In God's, one single can its end produce;
Yet serves to second, too, some other use."

Nor let any man imagine that the power and goodness of Providence is diminished in the estimation of man, by that philosophy which teaches that we come into the world void of all passions, and acquire them by these simple means. Is it wiser and greater to move every planet by a fresh power, or to guide them all in their spheres by the simple principle of gravity ? Did Newton degrade our notions of Providence when he discovered one great law presiding over heaven and earth ? Did Locke diminish our admiration of the human mind, and of Him who made it, when he showed us how all its infinite variety of ideas grow out of mere sensation and reflection ? To show us that a variety of movements in a machine all proceed from one and the same original power, is to show us that that machine has been conceived clearly and grandly; for imbecility, and want of resources, are shown by calling in a vast variety of powers to produce one plain effect. But opulence of

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thought, and immensity of mind, are shown by producing an infinite variety of effects, from one simple cause. Providence did not originally implant in men a love of esteem, or a love of knowledge; but Providence implanted that capacity of feeling pleasure and pain, and that facility of association, which as infallibly produce the love of esteem and knowledge, as if they had been original feelings of the mind.

But what says Dr. Reid and his school ? — That Providence, which moves all the heavenly bodies by one simple cause; - that Providence, which darts the blood of man through a million vessels by the contraction of one single organ ;- that Providence, always so simple and so grand, is in the fabrication of the mind, alone. complicated and confused, arranging without order, and planning without art. What was the first command? Not “let there be colours;" not " let the herb be green, and the heavens be blue:" but, “ let there be light!and forthwith there was every variety of colour! So with us; the first mandate was not, “ let man be affected with anger and gratitude,” but “ let man feel;” and then, matter let loose upon him, with all its malignities, and all its pleasures, roused up in him his good and his bad passions, and made him as he is, the best and the worst of created beings.

I have heard it said, as an objection against this theory, that there is a neatness in it, an arrondissement, which gives it a great appearance of quackery and imposture. This is very likely; but I am not contending that the theory looks as if it were true, but merely that it is true. At the same time, there is a great deal of merit in the observation; for discoveries in general, especially upon such very intricate subjects, are more ragged, uneven, and incomplete; there is here a little light, and there a great deal of darkness; in one place you make a great inroad, and then you are stopt by impenetrable barriers : but here is one master-key which

for ever.

opens every bolt and barrier; a philosophy which explains every thing, and leaves the whole subject at rest

All these are certainly presumptive evidences against the theory; but if it perform all that it promise, those presumptive evidences are, of course, honourably repelled.

I beg leave, however, before I conclude this Lecture, to repeat again and again, that I by no means undertake to burthen myself with the whole of Dr. Hartley's theory. The vibrations, every one laughs at. The doctrines of necessity, which he has chosen to add on to it, I have nothing to do with : the subject is improper for this place; and the whole question, rightly considered, more a question of words, than of anything else.

The great principle of Hartley, which I am exclusively endeavouring to maintain, is this, – that all the passions are derived from pleasure and pain, guided by association. For that opinion I am responsible, and for no other. I now take leave of it with saying, that, in my very confined and inconsiderable attention to these sort of subjects, I have felt a security and a satisfaction in this system, which I never did in any other: every day convinces me more and more, that it is a discovery of vast importance ; fresh facts arrange themselves under it; it solves new difficulties; and as it remains longer in the mind, it increases in durability and improves in strength.

“ Love, Hope, and Joy, - fair Pleasure's smiling train ;

Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain :
These, mixt with art, and to due bounds confind,
Make and maintain the pleasures of the mind ;
The lights and shades, whose well-accorded strife
Gives all its strength and colour

our life.”

308

LECTURE XXI.

ON THE EVIL AFFECTIONS.

OF THE MALEVOLENT AND UNPLEASANT PASSIONS: THEY ARE ALL DERIVED

FROM PAIN, GUIDED BY ASSOCIATION. - OF THE GENERATION OF RESENTMENT, AND THE RESTRAINTS IMPOSED UPON IT BY EDUCATION. -OF MALICE, FEAR, SHAME, AND THE PAIN OF INACTIVITY.

THERE have been almost as many different arrangements of the passions, as there have been writers who have treated on the subject. Some writers have placed them in contrast to each other, as Hope and Fear, Joy and Sorrow. Some have considered them as they are personal, relative, or social; some, according to their influence at different periods of life; others, as they relate to past, present, or future time. The academicians advanced, that the principal passions were Fear, Hope, Joy, and Grief. They included Aversion and Despair under the passion of Grief; Hope, Fortitude, and Anger under Desire. Dr. Hartley has arranged the passions under five grateful and five ungrateful ones: the grate. ful ones are, Love, Desire, Hope, Joy, and Pleasing Recollection; the ungrateful ones, Hatred, Aversion, Fear, Grief, and Displeasing Recollection. Dr. Watts and Mr. Grove have both followed different arrangements, which I will not detain you by stating : whoever is desirous of seeing them at length, may consult Dr. Cogan's book on the Passions, who has also proposed and followed an arrangement of his own.

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