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the commander of the ships of war of the other party, if required, shall, in good faith and sincerity; give them all necessary assistance, and, in such case, the ships of war and frigates of either of the powers shall protect and support the merchant ships of the other, provided, nevertheless, that the ships claiming alfistance are not engaged in any illicit commerce contrary to the principles of the neutrality:

IV. It is agreed and concluded, that all merchants, captains of merchant ships, or other subjects of his Swedish Majesty, shall have full liberty, in all places under the dominion or jurisdiction of the United States of America, to manage their own affairs, and to employ in the management of them whomsoever they please; and they shall not be obliged to make use of any interpreter or broker, nor to pay them any reward unless they make use of them. Moreover, the masters of the ships shall not be obliged, in loading or unloading their vessels, to, employ labourers appointed by publick authority for that. purpose; but they fhall be at full liberty, themselves to load or unload their vessels, or employ in loading or unloading them whomsoever they think proper, without paying reward under the title of salary to any other person whatever; and they shall not be obliged to turn over any kind of merchandises to other vessels, nor to receive them on board their own, nor to wait for their lading longer than they please, and all and every of the citizens, people, and inhabitants of the United States of America, Thall reciprocally have and enjoy the same privileges and liberties in all places under the jurisdiction of the said realm.

V. It is agreed, that when merchandises shall have been put on board the ships or vessels of either of the contracting parties, they shall not be subjected to any examination, but all examination and search must be before lading, and the prohibited merchandises must be stopped on the spot before they are embarked, unless there is full cvidence or proof of fraudulent practice on the part of the owner of the ship, or of him

who has the command of her. In which case, only he shall be responsible and Subject to the laws of the country in which he may be.

In all other cases, neither the subjects of either of the contracting parties, who shall be with their vessels in the ports of the other, nor their merchandises, thall be seized or molested on account of contraband goods which they shall have wanted to take on board, nor fhall any kind of embargo be laid on their fhips, subjects, or citizens of the state, whose merchandises are declared contraband, or the exportation of which is forbidden, those only who shall have sold, or intended to sell or alienate such merchandises, being liable to punishment for such contravention.

Done at Paris, the zd day of April, in the year of our Lord 1783

(Signed) (L. S.) GUSTAV. PHILIP Comte de CREUTZ.

(L. S.) B. FRANKLIN. NOW, therefore, to the end, that the faid treaty may, with all good faith, be performed and observed on the part of these states, all the citizens and inhabitants there of, and more especially all officers and others in the fervice of the United States, are hereby enjoined and required to govern themselves ftri&ly in all things according to the ftipulations above recited.

Done in Congress at Princeton, this 25th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1783, and of our Son vereignty and Independence the 8th.



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Giving Leave to all Foreigners, of what Nation of Country

foever, to carry on a free and unlimited Trade, both by
Sea and Land, with the several Countries bordering
upon tbe Euxine, which have lately been annexed to the
Rusüan. Dominion; and allotting Specially to fuch foreign
Nations the Ports of Cherson in the Government of Cam
therineslaw, Sebaftopolis (formerly called Acht-air) and
Theodofia (formerly called Caffa) both in the Province of
Taurica, where they may reside and carry on their Traffic
with the fome Immunities and Privileges, religious and civil,
as are allowed at Petersburg and Archangel.
TE Catherine the Second, by the grace of God,

Empress and Autocratice of all the Russias, of Muscovy, Kiovia Wolodomiria, Novogorod, Czarina of Cazan, Czarina of Aftrachan, Czarina of Siberia, Cza. rina of the Chersonesus Taurica, Lady of Pickof, and Great Duchess of Smolensko, Duchess of Estonia, Livo. nia, Carelia, Twer, Ingorie, Permio, Vitatkia, Bulgaria, and other places ; Lady and Great Duchess of the country of Lower Novogorod, Chernigof, Razan, Poloszk, Rostof, Jaroslof, Belosersk, Udersk, Obdorsk, Coudiník, Wityrpik, Mstislawik, and Sovereign of all the northern coafts, Lady of the Twersky country, of the Carthalinian and Grauzinian Czarš, of the country of Carbadinia; of the Princes of Circassia, and those of the mountains, and of the other countries, heiress Lady, and Sovereign Ruler.

Our endeavours to increase the trade of our own subjects, and of the other nations throughout the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean, have met with the wished-for success; the treaty of commerce which we concluded with the Ottoman Porte on the roth of June, 1783, having finally removed those impediments and difficulties which, from the particular constitution of the Turkish Government, had obstructed the said trade in every step of its progress; which can only be guarded against by the institution of proper laws for the protection of com

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merce, and by granting it that entire freedom which its various speculations and turns fo indispenfably tequire, The principles of this unlimited freedom we have adopted, and followed from the earliest period of our Government, as is manifest from the several edicts and regulations which have been issued from our Throne ; and we now extend these edicts and regulations in their utmost latitude to the trade of the Black Sea. The security and convenience of that conimerce are now fully provided for by the annexation of the province of Taurica, and the neighbouring territories, to our other dominions, we have opened therein divers sea ports for the use of all persons who will carry away from thence the produce of Ruffia, and bring thither the produce and mapufactures of other countries.

It is well known, that the last Turkish war (a war which, during the fix years that it lasted, was signalized by so many victories of our arms) was no sooner concluded than we erected within the Government of Catherineslaw, upon the River Dniper, and at a short distance, the city of Cherson : it having appeared to us, that that fituation was particularly commodious, as well for exporting the produce of Ruffia as for importing, from other countries, such things as might be useful to us; and we fecured the trade thereof by the most effectual means of defence, encouraging it moreover by such helps as were best suited to it, and were not inconfiftent with the general principles of commerce.

This town, as also Sebaftopolis (formerly called Achtair) and Theodofia (formerly called Caffa) both which latter are situated in the province of Taurica, and are provided with excellent sea ports: we have, on account of the commodiousness of their fituation, ordered to be opened to all nations, living in amity with our empire, for the purposes of their commercial intercourse with our faithful subjects. Accordingly, we moft solemnly declare, by these presents, that all such nations are at liberty to come to the said ports, either in their own or hired vessels, and under their own colours, as also to repair thither by land; and they are likewise free to depart from thence at their pleasure, paying the duties of


importation and exportation agreeable to the tariffs established in the respective custom houses. Moreover, all persons, of what nations and countries foever, may remain in these towns as long as their business or inclinations may lead them, and enjoy the free exercise of their religion, agreeably to those laudable institutions which have been handed down to us from our ancestors, Sove. reigns of Ruffia, and which we ourselves have confirmed and augmented, permitting all strangers residing in Russia to worship the Almighty agreeably to the religion of their. forefathers, offering prayers to him, together with our own subjects, that he will increase the welfare and Itrengthen the power of our empire. We give leave to all and every one to carry on their trade with absolute freedom, either singly, or, in companies, promising by our Imperial word, that all foreigners shall enjoy the fame privileges in those thrée towns as they enjoy in our Imperial City of St. Petersburg, and in our provincial Town of Archangel; and in case of a war, every one shall be secured by the principles of that neutral system which we have erected, and which, on our part, shall be kept sacred and inviolable. Finally, if any foreigners fhall wish to settle in these or any other towns or places of our empire, and to become our subjects, we will receive them most graciously under our dominion, promising that they shall not only be allowed the free exer. cise of their religion (as mentioned above) but the full enjoyment of all such privileges and exemptions with regard to trade and navigation

as have been granted to our other subjects ; as also to erect fabricks and manufactories, paying only such taxes as shall be paid by our other fubjects on the same condition with themselves. All persons, who shall thus become our subjects, shall be at liberty, they and their descendants, to remain under our Government as long as may be agreeable to them, or as their intereft may require; and in case they should afterwards chuse to withdraw from the same, they shall be freely permitted so to do, on paying the taxes that had been laid upon them for three years to come. ticular privileges which will be granted to the above

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