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In Spain, the ruling classes were supreme; the people counted

for nothing; and hence the grandeur of the country, which

was raised up by the able princes of the sixteenth century,

was as quickly pulled down by the weak princes of the seven-

teenth

38-43

The decay of Spain, in the seventeenth century, was connected with

the increasing influence of the clergy

43-53

The first use which the clergy made of their power was to expel

all the Moors

53-64

Effect of this expulsion in impoverishing Spain

65-66

Decline of manufactures, and of population, and increase of

poverty

67-77

In 1700, when affairs were at their worst, the Austrian dynasty
was succeeded by the Bourbon

78-79
Spain was now ruled by foreigners

80-85

Who endeavoured to improve the country by weakening the

Church

85-89

But the authority of the Church had so enfeebled the national

intellect, that the people, immersed in ignorance, remained
inert

89-105

Government attempted to remedy this ignorance by calling in

foreign aid

97-107

The influence of foreigners in Spain was displayed in the expul-

sion of the Jesuits, in 1767

107-108

And in the attacks made on the Inquisition

109-110

It was also displayed in the foreign policy of Spain

110-112

All this was promoted by the authority and high character of

Charles III.

113-114

But it was of no avail ; because politicians can do nothing, when
the spirit of the country is against them .

115-116

Still, Charles III. effected great improvements, from which, on a

superficial view, permanent benefit might have been expected. 116-128

Summary of what was accomplished for Spain, by the govern-
ment, between the years 1700 and 1788 .

128-130
Inasmuch, however, as these ameliorations were opposed to the

habits of the national character, a reaction was inevitable 130-131
In 1788, Charles III. was succeeded by Charles IV., and the new
king, being a true Spaniard, the reaction began

131-133

In the nineteenth century, political reformers again endeavoured

to improve Spain

134

For the reasons already stated, their efforts were fruitless, not-

withstanding the early establishment in that country of muni-

cipal privileges, and of popular representation

135-136

In this way, general causes always triumph over particular ac-

tions

137-138

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Those general causes predetermined the country to superstition,

and it was impossible for individuals to make head against

them

138-142

Nothing can weaken superstition but knowledge

142

Such failures are the more observable, because Spain enjoys im-
mense natural advantages

142-144

And has possessed great patriots and great legislators

144

The Spaniards have, moreover, long been celebrated for honour,

courage, temperance, humanity, and religious sincerity 145-146

So far, however, as national progress is conce

cerned, these noble

qualities are useless, while ignorance is so gross and so general 146-151

This it is, wbich, isolating Spain froin the rest of the civilized

world, keeps alive that spirit of superstition, that reverence for
antiquity, and that blind and servile loyalty, which, as long
as they last, will render improvement impossible ; and which
must last until ignorance is removed

151-155

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Early in the fifteenth century, the alliance between the Crown and

the Church against the nobles, became obvious

197

James I. attacked the nobles, and favoured the Church; hoping

thereby to establish the supremacy of the throne

198-199

But his policy failed, because it was opposed by the operation of

general causes .

199-200

Besides failing, it produced his own destruction

201

Power of the Douglases, who were at the head of the southern

nobility :

201-202

James II, murdered the chiefs of that family

202-203

The Crown, in its efforts against the nobles, was encouraged by

the clergy; and before the middle of the fifteenth century, the

Church and the aristocracy were completely estranged from

each other.

204-205

James III., like James II. and James I., allied himself with the

clergy against the nobles.

. 206-207

Their power, however, was too deeply rooted to be shaken ; and,

in 1488, they put the king to death.

207

Still, and notwithstanding these successive failures, James IV. fol-

lowed the same policy as his predecessors

207-208

So did James V. Consequently the nobles imprisoned him, and

ejected the clergy from all offices in the state .

208

In 1528, James V. escaped ; the Crown and the Church regained

the ascendant, and the principal nobles were banished

209

From this moment, the nobles hated the Church inore than ever.

Their hatred brought about the Reformation

209-210

Active measures of the government against the nobles .

211-212

The nobles revenged themselves by becoming Reformers

212-213

James V., on the other hand, threw himself entirely into the arms

of the Church.

213-214

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