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importance; but, at the same time, he avoided observation, or the affectation of austerity. His meals were early, regular and temperate ; and his life retired, when compared with that of most men, in the same situation in society. He was entirely a stranger to the ordinary pleasures and amusements of the world, nor was he accustomed to consult his own ease or indulgence in any particular ; yet his cheerfulness was noticed by all who conversed with him, and he habitually appeared well satisfied and happy. His fear of alienating his time from more important uses, rendered him on some occasions, apparently too averse to go into almost any company, But where the motive was so good, and the use made of time thus redeemed, was so worthy of imitation, surely this may be mentioned to his commendation, rather than as a failing, especialIy as it increased only with his advancing years, and evidenced a mind more and more occupied with the thoughts of that blessed world, into which he expected so soon to be removed. His unaffected and deep humility may be considered as another distinguishing feature of his character. His liberality, his useful industry, and his piety, though he was zealous and abundant in them all, appeared not to himself in any degree meritorious : Nay, he was convinced, that in every respect he fell short of his bounden duty, and was entirely dependent on the mercy of God in Christ Jesus for the pardon of his sins,

and for final acceptance and feli

city. In truth, he estimated his own character and conduct by

comparing them with the strait rule of the divine law, and not with the crooked principles and practices of the world : For he considered himself, and all the . race of men, as being naturally in a state of apostasy from God, and exceedingly prone to evil ; and he was very earnest in spreading this opinion, as a fundamental doctrine of the Scriptures. This sentiment, as far as it was applied to himself, will be admitted to have been a source of humility; when applied to others, it is sometimes thought to be of a contrary nature ; for a conviction of the general depravity of the human race is frequently imagined to spring either from spiritual pride, or from a harsh and severe disposition. Now, as the sentiments entertained by our late honoured friend, concerning the fallen state of the world around him, undoubtedly made a material part of his character, I shall enter more fully into this circumstance ; and the candid reader will then judge, how far this his persuasion was consistent with the general benevolence of his character, which, to some persons, may appear ambiguous or unintelligible, The main ground, on which this and the rest of his religious opinions were founded, was the plain declarations of the Bible; and to that book, which he studied day by day, endeavouring to imbibe every instruction which it contains, I must refer the reader for a fuller explanation of the subject. Our late friend, I say, implicitly believed the doctrines of it; and conscious of his own demerit, all his hopes of salvation were derived from it. He expected eternal life, as the gift of God through Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of mercy, and the precious promises contained in the Scriptures ; and he found that these were matters in which human reason or authority could give him no assurance or satisfaction. then, on the one hand, he believed the promises of the Bible, and derived all his consolation from them, how could he disbelieve the threatenings of God contained in the same book, and the repeated declarations of the inspired writers, concerning the degeneracy of men, the wicked

ness of the world, and the com

parative small number of those that are in the way of salvation ?

Indeed, that kind of charity which we often hear pleaded for, can only be expected, on any grounds of reason, from infidels and sceptics, who, consistent with their principles, may deny that there is an hell, or that the way is broad and thronged which leads to it. But in proportion as these sentiments prevail, the sinews will be cut, of every ef. fort to bring sinners into the narrow way of repentance, faith and holiness, in which the word of God requires them to walk, If any, therefore, who would be thought to believe the Bible, compliment their worldly neighbours with unscriptural hopes, or teach them to make light of their danger, it must be owing, (though they may not suspectit) to no small degree of scepticism mixing with their views of Christianity ; and it is difficult to conceive how they can derive any actual hope from the gospel, who discard all serious fear, and

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who neither lament nor perceive: that state of condemnation, un-. der which (according to the word of God) every one around them lies; unless he be renewed in the spirit of his mind, and believe in Christ Jesus, lead a sober, righteous, and godly life 3or, at least, be striving to enter in at the strait gate of repentance, and conversion to God and holiness. It is observable, that the Scripture seems to know but of two descriptions of men, namely, those who serve God, and those who serve him not : he who is not the servant of God, but serves some other master, or aims at some other end, lies under the condemnation of the Bible, though he be free from disreputable vices; and whether the multitude around wis are in good earnest serving God, or whether they are pursu. ing their own selfish ends, let any man of common observation determine. It must therefore appear to every candid inquirer, that when religious persons entertain what are called uncharitable opinions of their neighbours, they are in truth compelled to it by the wnited evidence of facts and Scripture ; and not inclined to it by a mere conceit of their own: superiority, or any severity of disposition. These sentiments may be of. ten observed, as in the present instance, to reside in the same breast, with the most melting compassion, the most expanded benevolence, and the most unequivocal tokens of deep humility. It is not then an inconsistency to think mankind very corrupt and wicked, and yet to abound in compassion and chari

Religious Communications,


(Continued from p. 547. vol. ii.J

In a former number we gave a brief display of the nature and properties of zeal, considered in a personal sense. We will now consider it as a duty we owe to the cause of God, and the best interests of our fellow creatures. Here, likewise, it has a very extensive and important sphere.

It will operate in befriending truth and of hosing error. We are exhorted by an apostle to * contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints.” And although, in an age of afsected and extravagant liberality, Iike the present, this is but an unwelcome and thankless office, yet no real friend to God, and the souls of men, will reluct from it on that account. Indeed, what is that liberality, so celebrated and so fashionable, but one of the numberless forms in which the divine truth is opposed, and the best interests of immortal men sported with ? To represent every kind of re1igion, as equally safe ; and all those, as in the sure road to heaven, who are only faithful to the opinions, which they embrace; this, with many, is the essence and perfection of liberality. But more properly, it is the essence and perfection of absurdity, and of cruelty. And we are called upon, each in our respective spheres, by every motive of Christian benevolence and compassion, as well as of piety, to make a bold and vigorous stand for the truth of God, opposed,

explained away, despised and trampled on, as it is by multitudes. And if we have the true spirit of primitive Christianity, and pious zeal, we shall do it. But this surely is not all. The interests of fractical holiness and virtue demand our faithful and ardent exertions. Nor shall we, if we are consistent Christians, think it enough to be zealous for speculative truth, without a corresponding zeal in favour of the power of godliness, and against every form of licentiousness and vice. The serious and benevolent child of God feels, tenderly feels, for the honour of his heavenly Father, and for the immortal souls of meri. When therefore he hooks around him, and sees iniquity prevailing, vice triumphing, and multitudes travelling the downward road in peace, he is pained and grieved. Thus we are told that in a day of great degeneracy among God’s ancient people, the pious few, who kept their garments undefiled, were found sighing and crying for all the abominations which prevailed in that guilty land. And they were mercifully distinguished and spared in a day of general desolation and destruction. If we have anything of the spirit of these holy and happy men, we shall mourn over the sins of the time. And animated with zeal for God and his cause, we shall strenuously exert ourselves to counteract and arrest that awful torrent of iniquity which threatens to deluge our country—to deluge it not only with crimes and confusion, but with the wrath of Heaven. We shall oppose to prevailing and fashionable vice our prayers, our warnings, our admonitions, our entreaties, and the still more persuasive influence of our example—an example which will at once frown vice out of countenance, and powerfully allure to virtue. This branch of pious zeal has likewise those properties that distinguish it from those things which are either directly opposed to it, or falsely assume its appearance. It is founded on knowledge. This characteristic alone can render our zeal truly acceptable to God, or beneficial to mankind. A blind, ignorant, misguided fervour is a most pernicious thing. It frequently assumes all the fierceness of bigotry, and all the wildness and extravagance of fanaticism. It was this rash and blind zeal which influenced the Jews in their rejection of Christianity, and which stirred them up to such a pitch of hatred and persecution against its first preachers. I bear them record, says Paul, that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. The apostle was himself an instance of the same frenzy, before his conversion. He was very zealous, fiersecuting the church. He verily thought with himself that he ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Such an opinion palliated, indeed, but it was far from justifying his conduct: nor did he himself entertain a thought of this kind. So we read of some who would think they were doing God service, while in reality fighting against God, and perpetrating Vol. III. No. 1. B with the strongest disapprobation he feels for their sins. I beheld the transgressors, says David, and was grieved.—Rivers of water run down my eyes, because men Keef, not thy law. Here was the holy, affectionate zeal of a child of God. It did not vent itself in • the language of unhallowed reproach, of loud and angry exclaumation. It retired, and wept in silence. How amiable the example ! Let us see to it, that our zeal be of this excellent kind; a zeal that can fity as well as disaffirobate the wicked; that can grieve as well as refirove. Let us beware of attempting to press human passion into the service of God and religion. Let us feel the justice of that remark, that “he who hates another for not being a Christian, is himself not a Christian.”* Let us tremble at the thought of brandishing the vengeance of the Almighty, of calling down fire from heaven upon the enemies of Christ, or our own. Such a zeal, surely, never came from above. It is earthly ; it is sensual ; it is diabolical. Again, our zeal for God and religion should be attempered with humility. To stand up on the side of Jehovah and his truth, before an ungodly world ; to appear in behalf of Christ and his religion, in the presence of enemies and blasphemers, is surely to be engaged in a noble cause. It is to act a sublime part. For this very reason, the deepest - humility becomes us. of Christians are but too unworthy such an honour. And - the best of Christians most sensibly feel this unworthiness.

the grossest acts of cruelty to man. This bigoted zeal has in fact shed torrents of Christian blood, and inspired the fanatics of the church of Rome with the preposterous idea of “illuminating the minds of men with the light of fires and faggots.”— It is of the highest importance then that our minds be well informed in the great articles of truth and duty, and in the merits or demerits of particular objects and characters, before we permit them to be transported with fervour. Nor should our zeal in any case be suffered to transcendour knowledge. Doubtless some honest and good men have been faulty here. Under the influence of a misguided zeal, they have condemned and traduced characters, which, had their eyes been open, they would have loved and honoured. It is a melancholy fact, that the best things become, in their abuse, the worst and most pernicious. If light without heat is useless, it is no less true, that heat without light is worse than useless. It is hurtful and destructive. Farther, the zeal of which we speak, is prompted by a spirit of love. This is what principally distinguishes it from the false fire of the hypocrite. The real Christian, in all his fervour

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When they consider how much themselves have done to bring reproach on the sacred name of Jesus, and to open the mouths of blasphemers, they sometimes feel as though their unhallowed lifts should be forever sealed from uttering reproofs to others. Or if an overbearing sense of duty constrain them to this painful office, they feel as if every reproof they dispensed to others, fell with tenfold weight upon themselves. And this is the very spirit in which all reproof from one sinner to another should be administered. It is firofler it should be so. We are never so well prepared to act such a part, as when we are prest with the deepest sense of our unworthiness. And reproof, in such a case, comes with new force and solemnity, and with a far greater probability of a happy effect. Again, our zeal should be chastened by hrudence. There is a certain decorum to be observed in selecting the place, the circumstances and the occasion, for the exhibition of such a spirit, and for the performance

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