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jored in Geography, [Allah-Shur, ...Alley, Almsbury, Alfiudich, Alstead, ...Alston-Moor, Altdorf, Alten, Altun-Kufstree, Altun-Obo, Atridras, Aluftka, and/~dly-ghur. Among the plates we observe a better delineation of the paths of comets, than we have ever before seen. The orbits and inclinations of seventy two of these irregular bodies are described. Few books, printed in any country, arey more free from typographical errors, than this part of the first volume, and the mechanical execution in general will be acknowledged by every man to be excellent.
VOL. II. PART I. ON the subject of vimber, the reader will find, in the American edition, some new conjectures from M. Patrin on the formation of this curious substance, with an account of a mode of making artisicial amber possessing all the properties of the true, by Professor Hermbetoedt of Berlin. After the life and character of St. Ambrose, the American editors subjoin the following paragraph. “Of a man who acted so frequently and so vigorously against the Arians as St. Ambrose did, it would hardly be reasonable to expect that an Arian biographer should speak more justly than he has done in this article. A little more allowance however ought, we think, to be made for
Ambrose than he has here received;
especially in the summary of his character given toward the close of the article.”
..fmendment in law has received some small additions.
As the article America must be interesting to the readers of
* the Panoplist, we shall give a more particular review than we have thought proper to bestow on any preceding article. In making our observations, we shall pursue the course followed by the writers, however defective in method, as this is the only natural way in which a review can be conducted.
We are first presented with a refutation of the opinion that either the l’henicians in ancient, or the Chinese in modern times, have visited America, and with a supposition that the Icelanders and Norwegians may have frequented the shores of Greenland before the time of Columbus.
The next thing worthy of notice is a suggestion of the inferiority of the Americans to the inhabitants of the Eastern contiment, which is conveyed in the declaration, “that they are less industrious and less inventive than the people of the old world, and that they seem to live in a state of eternal infancy.”
The American editors very properly insert a paragraph exposing the futility of such general, unexplained abuse. Nothing more im:mediately excites disgust, than to see a man, who would be thought a philosopher, deciding upon the powers and faculties of those, who inhabit a whole hemisphere, not only without information, but most evidently without reflection. Perhaps on no subject whatever has a greater proportion of puerile reasoning, and despicable conjecture, been thrown upon the world, than is to be found in the multiplied attempts to prove the Americans inferior, in every point of view, to the inhabitants
of the Eastern continent. Most of the writers appear almost absolutely incapable of comparing
and judging. One would think,
however, they might at least call to mind what they are taught in the Geographies of their own continent. But it seems they are so occupied in commiserating our unhappy inferiority in these “goings down of the sun,” that they have no time for anything else. As a proof of both these assertions take this frequent instance. They argue from the inactivity and indisfiosition to labour, observable among the natives of America, that they are inferior to the natives of the old world. Now it appears to us, if their recollection had not left them, they would remember having read of unstable Tartars, sluggish Turks, feeble Hindogs, debased Hottentots, and many other nations both inactive and indissiosed to labour, among the favoured inhabitants of their own continent. If they were capable of comparing and judging, they would at once see, that education and habit are the great agents in forming men for action, and in 1 developing and bringing into operation the human powers of body or mind. They triumph in the assertion that the Americans cannot endure the hardy labour which is submitted to cheerfully, by the more robust European. It is no more than fair, that we should tell them of some things which we can do, and which would yet afford some employment for their more perfect faculties. What, think ye, would a Northumberland labourer say, to a proposal from a Mohawk to follow him for three days, in a steady trot, without eating, and with
scanty sleep, and that on the bare ground, and in the open air? Even an English fox-hunter, much as he loves the game and the forest, would relish but ill a week’s chai.e., if he were obliged to rest at night in a smoky wigwam, or upon hemlock bushes spread upon the snow, and to satisfy his hunger with tightening his belt, or at best) with a few ounces of fresh dries fish, or a greasy hunch of bear’s meat. He would, methinks, after a short trial, be willing to give up the claim of superiority, if he could but get back to his bread, his beef, his beer, and his feather bed. If, by the bye, these writers wish for information on the subject of American labour and industry, there are divers farmers and forest fellers, in Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, who can tell them stories, which will convince common understandings, that there are some men on this continent, who are not so extremely feeble, as the miserable theories of these sophists might lead them to suppose. But to compare one man with another who is in circumstances entirely different, and who is under the influence of a thousand powerful causes to which the first is a stranger, seems to us the very depth of folly; and of course all the conclusions of the writers alluded to, are no more deserving of respect than the vagaries of a delirium. Let us try their mode of reasoning by confining and applying it to persons in different circumstances on the Eastern continent. Let us, for example, undertake to prove that the people of England are inferior to those of Italy. According to the reasoning adopted with respect to America, we may allege, that the cocknies of London cannot possibly be possessed of natural powers equal to those exhibited by the ancient Romans. They may cut a tolerable figure, to be sure, in their counting-houses, or at a city feast, but as for labour or fatigue they are totally unwilling and unable to bear it. A single muster in the scity train-bands overcomes them ; what then would they do if they were compelled to traverse a continent, amidst forests, morasses, and mountains, in forced marches, encased in mail, and with sixty pounds burden of armour and baggage 2 Is it not plain, they must immediately sink under such enormous toils?
By such contemptible sophistry any thing can be proved, however absurd and contradictory to common sense it may be. In this way you might convict even Bonaparte of imbecility, for we imagine he would hardly be able to march, like Septimius Severus, on foot at the head of his legions, and to sleep at night on the bare ground, accoutred as in the day, surrounded by his cuirassers on their arms. Indeed, it would be rather hard to impute it to the natural inferiority of a delicate matron in a European metropolis, that she is not able to rake hay, or reap at the same time that she nurses a child, like the wife of a Russian, or a Scotch peasant. But enough of this. It would scem plain to man who has a particle of understanding, that you cannot institute a comparison between the powers of men who are, as to all the operative causcs in the formation of a character, entirely different from cach other.
Next comes the story that native Americans have no beards; and this is refuted by the American editors by stating the perfectly well known manner in which their beards are eradicated.
The story of Patagonian giants is rejected as entirely fabulous; but from various information subjoined by the American editors, it seems there is the most satisfactory reason to believe that there is, near the southern extremity of our continent, a race of uncommonly tall men.
That our readers may not think we speak too contemptuously of the manner in which this article is treated, a few selections shall be made, and succeeded by remarks. After speaking of various natural causes, such as great forests, lakes, colder climate, &c. &c. the writer goes on to say ;
“Now, these several causes operating conjointly must have had an influence on the constitution of the indigenous people, so as to produce some alteration in their faculties : accordingly, it is only to a want of penetration that we can ascribe the little progress they had made in metallurgy, &c.”
How does it follow, that these causes must have had an influence to produce some alteration in the faculties df these people : For ought that is here, or any where said, the faculties of the people on the eastern continent are by nature equal. They are placed by nature, (for God is studiously excluded from any influence, or interest in the matter) on the same level, elevated, to be sure, not a littie above the depressed, indigenous people of this western world. Now let these arrogant pretenders to
science mention or describe a single climate in their favoured portion of the globe, (except perhaps the sandy deserts of the torrid zone, which surely cannot afford much cause of boasting) and we will agree to point them to some part of our continent possessed of all the same advantages, and free from as many evils as theirs. Is it too cold for the enlargement and progress of the human mind in latitude 40 here : One would think, then, that in the 52d degree in Europe, their perpetual damps would be scarcely less noxious. Is it too warm 2 We should conclude, then, that the perpetual summer of Hindostan would wither and scorch every germ of intellectu
al growth. To be continued.
Lectures on Jervish Antiquities delivered at Harvard University in Cambridge, M. D. 1802 and 1803. By David Tafsian D. D. Late Hollis Professor of Divinity in that Seminary. THEs E Lectures give a luminous view of the most prominent and interesting peculiarities of the Jewish government and religion. They begin with exhibiting the origin and progress of civil government in general, and proceed to develope and explain the special government of the Jews, which was designed and calculated to preserve among them the true religion in connexion with their temporal freedom and prosperity. The unity, perfection, providence and moral government of God are taught and inculcated as the basis of their national gov
ernment, as well as of their religion. Their civil government, which, was appointed and framed by God himself, was originally a free and equal republic. It consisted of three, or, perhaps it may be said, of four branches; the congregation of the people, who, on some great occasions, assembled personally or by representation ; the council of elders deputed from the several tribes to act as an advisory body; and the judge or chief magistrate, who was the supreme executive in civil matters, and of. ten acted as the commander in chief of the military forces. Besides these was the Oracle, which, in doubtful and important cases, was consulted by the high priest at the request, and in the presence of the magistrate, and from which answers were vocally given in the hearing of all who attended the consultation. The powers of these several branches, and the nature and design of the oracle, our author has happily explained. He observes a great similarity in that government to the present government of the American States, in which there is a house of representatives, a chamber of senators, and a supreme executive with an advisory council.
“The most free and equal governments of ancient and modern times, have wisely introduced a senate in some form or other, to check popular rashness, precipitation and intrigue, and by their temperate wisdom and influence to guide, mature and control the public opinion and conduct. The inestimable value of this branch, both in the individual and United States, was early anticipated and has been constantly felt by our enlightened citizens.”
We have not the vocal, but we have a written oracle, which by its moral instructions and solemn sanctions is to guide and influence the conduct both of rulers and citizens.
Though there is a similarity in some respects, yet in other respects there is a difference between the Jewish and the American governments. In the latter there is a power of making laws and imposing taxes. In the former the laws were already made, and the taxes, or means of supporting religion and government, were permanently fixed and ascertained by divine authority. The whole nation was a body of soldiers, and every man, when called forth to war, went at his own expense. The chief business of the government was to deliberate and determine on matters of peace and war, public defence, and other great uational concerns. The discontents of the people
under their free government, changed it, in a course of 'years, into a monarchy. Foreseeing this change, God expressly ordered, that whenever they should set a king over them, they should select for the kingly office one of their own people ; and that he should write out for himself a copy of the divine law, and keep it by him for his direction in the administration of his government. Under the monarchy, which the people were anxious to obtain, they were, for the greater part of the time, very unhappy; for their kings were generally wicked, unprincipled, irreligious men, and the people were easily corrupted by so high an example.
The religious constitution of this nation, besides the injunction of moral duties, which it considered as of principal importance, required a great multitude of ceremonial observances and periodical festivals, for the administration of which a competent number of officers were appointed. The ritual law descends to many minute particulars, some of which appear trivial and useless, and were attended with considerable labour and expense. But, as our author has clearly shewn, they were wisely adapted to the habits and circumstances of that people, and to their peculiar situation, and were the best guards, that could be devised, to secure them from the idolatries and superstitions of surrounding nations, by whom they were always in danger of being corrupted ; and, on the whole, they were happily calculated to preserve the knowledge and worship of the one supreme God, to promote peace and union among themselves, and to enforce the practice of all moral duties.
On circumcision, which, as a seal of God's covenant, was instituted under the patriarchal, and continued under the Jewish dispensation, and on the weekly Sabbath, which began at the creation of man, and was revived by Moses and placed among his moral precepts, our author treats more largely, than on some other institutions, and points out their usefulness and their continuation in substance, though with some variance of form, under the dispensation of Christ.
He next shews the importance of God's early and visible mani