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in the place of adjectives, of sentences, or of a few particular words, and therefore are not fronouns when thus employed. That this inconvenience may no longer exist, Mr. Webster proposes to give them the name substitute, a term which explains the real use of all the words classed under it
undo the head of Limitation of Mames, the author shews the incorrectness of the received rules in regard to the articles. We will give a brief example from a note in page 18.
“The rules laid down by Lowth, and transcribed implicitly by his followers, is general. “A substantive, without any article to limit it, is taken in its widest sense; thus man means all mankind.” The examples already iven prove the inaccuracy of the rule. É. let it be tried by other examples. “There are fishes that have wings, and are not strangers to the airy reions.” Locke, b. 3. If the rule is just that fishes is to be “taken in its widest sense,” then all fishes have wings' “When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies”—What! all armies : “There shall be signs in the sun”—What! all signs “ Nation shall rise against nation”—What every nation How the rule vanishes before the text l”
The head of substitutes or pronouns, is thoroughly discussed, and much light is thrown on this class of words, by quotations from classical English authors, and frequent references to the Saxon, and to other languages out of which the English is formed. Among other things, the writer endeavours to prove, that the words mine, thine, &c. are not the possessive or genitive case, as grammarians have commonly supposed, but the
Mr. Webster's Grammar.
nominative or objective ; aud that the principles of construction in the sentences where these words occur, cannot be explained unless the words are so considered. To strengthen the arguments adduced many authorities are cited. To mention one word out of many, the author has proved, beyond a doubt, that the word as, does the office of a nominative and objective, and is, in its various uses, equivalent to who, that, which and what. Of the English verb the author has given a more full display, than we recollect to have before seen. This will be particularly useful to foreigners, as our verbs present almost insurmountable obstacles to a learner, especially in the imperfect forms in which English Grammars have hitherto exhibited their combinations and inflections. In his criticisms upon the tenses of the subjunctive mode, the author attempts to show that the future and the present are often confounded ; and that what is called the present is really a conditional future. To the arguments here adduced we would confidently recommend the student for satisfaction, as to the use of the subjunctive mode. Certain it is, and every man of observation must know it, that of late years we have been deluged with such a flood of subjunctives, from public speakers, and the press, and in common conversation, as cannot find a parallel in the history of any language. This part of Mr. Webster's subject is illustrated by numerous authorities from the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Saxon and English. In short, the idioms of our language, which form the only basis of correct grammar, are exhibited in a new light, and explained by copious extracts from the most classical writers. Among the English writers cited we recollect Locke, Bacon, Milton, Addison, Pope, Young, Bolingbroke, Thompson, Johnson, Paley, and a great multitude of others. Mr. Webster differs in many particulars, from other authors who have attempted to digest the principles and usages of the English language into a system ; and cites the best authorities, in support of his principles. If these authorities, as Mr. Webster supposes, do support his principles, the grammars now taught in our colleges and schools are, in many particulars, extremely erroneous. Having given this short account of what Mr. Webster has done in his granmar, we will, as briefly as possible, state some reasons why the work should receive a candid examination from every scientific man. 1. The science of grammar is an essential part of a liberal education, and unquestionably it has not yet arrived to a state of perfection. Every thing is useful, therefore, which will enable the student to correct his errors, and improve his language. 2. Mr. Webster has professedly been engaged many years in the stady of philology, which makes it very reasonable to believe, that he should be able to detect errors in antecedent writti's. 3. He has pursued what we apprehend to be the best course for obtaining information ; that is, he has perused with critical attention the best writers in our language from the earliest Saxon Vol. III. No. 5. - D D
Chronicles to the present time, not refusing the adventitious assistance to be derived from a knowledge of other languages.
4. He is the only writer of a grammatical system, who has made much use of Horne Tooke's discovery, a discovery which Dr. Johnson himself pronounced to be of great importance.
5. This work is an American production ; patriotism alone ought, then, to procure it a fair perusal.
Universal Salvation, a very ancient Doctrine ; with some Account of the Life and Character of its Author. A Sermon delivered at Rutland, (Vt.) WestParish, 1805. By Lemuel Haynes, M. M. Sixth Edition. Boston. Carlisle. fish. 1 1. 12mo. THE following are some of the excellencies of this sermon. 1. The text is very aptly chosen. Gen. iii. 4. ...And the serfient said unto the woman, ye shall not surely die. In a short preface we are informed, that the discourse was delivered at Rutland, (Vt.) June, 1805, immediately after hearing Mr. Ballou, a universal preacher, zealously exhibit his sentiments. The author had been repeatedly solicited to hear and dispute with him, and had been charged with dishonesty and cowardice for refusing. Though he thought it not decorous to engage in a personal dispute with the universalist, he felt that some kind of testimony ought to be borne against his erroneous sentiments. Nothing could have been better suited to the occasion, or to the design of the discourse, than the text abovementioned. In the brief illustration of that text, the author says, “Happy were the human pair amidst this delightful Paradise, until a certain preacher, in his journey, came that way, and disturbed their peace and tranquillity, by endeavouring to reverse the prohibition of the Almighty, as in our text, he shall not surely die.” 2. It is a very impressive and convincing sermon. What could more strongly prove the falsehood of universalism, than to show from scripture, that the
devil was its author and first preacher. 3. The satire, which runs
through the sermon, is founded on truth and justice, and managed with Christian sobriety. 4. The sermon displays much originality. Although, while reading, we are ready to say, it is easy to make such a sermon ; yet there are few men, who would ever have conceived the idea of opposing a universal preacher in such a way. 5. It is a very popular sermon. Of this there is sufficient proof in the six editions of it which have been printed within two years. 6. It is a very useful sermon, especially to those, who want leisure, ability, or patience to follow with advantage a long chain of reasoning. The great argument here used, is not only unanswerable, but easily understood, and easily felt. And none can want leisure or patience to peruse a discourse, which may be distinctly read in 10 or 12 minutes; and none can think it too much to procure a sermon, which may be had for 3 or 4 cents. This little sermon may do much to preserve men from the delusion of error. It awakens men, in
clined to dniversalism, from their pleasing dream, shows them who is their leader, and what has been the fatal end of following him. The plan of the sermon is, to attend to the chara&er of the old serpent as a preacher; to the doctrine he inculcated ; the hearer addressed ; and the medium or instrument of the preaching. In describing the character of the preacher mentioned in the text, these particulars are just noticed. 1. He is an old preacher. 2. He is a very cunning, artful preacher. 3. He is a very laborious, unwearied preacher. 4. He is a heterogeneous preacher. 5. He
is a very presumptuous preacher.
6. He is a preacher. After several pertinent inferences, the sermon is closed with the following singular apology.
“As the author of the foregoing discourse has confined himself wholly to the character of Satan, he trusts no one will feel himself personally injured by this short sermon : but should any imbibe a degree of friendship for this aged divine, and think that I have not treated this Universal Preacher with that respect and veneration which he justly deserves, let them be so kind as to point it out, and I will most cheerfully retract; for it has ever been a maxim with me, Render unto all their dues.”
-A Review of “the Transactions of the Parisian Sanhedrim” in the Panorama, for August, 1807, concludes as follows :
“There are many curious circumstances incidentally included in these transactions, which we are compelled to pass without mention. We should have
* See page 224 of this No. Pan.
been glad had a work of equal authority been extant, on the subject of the general assembly of the Jews, said to have been held in Styria, about A. D. 1620–30. As the fact of that council having been held, or if it were held, of what passed in it, has been placed among apocryphal events, we cannot give it so much reality as to compare it with the present: we are, therefore, thankful for the appearance of the volume before us ; and doubt not but the interest attached to the subject will secure to the ingenious, and we believe faithful translator, an adequate reward for his labour and diligence. “The reflections to which this subject gives occasion are ecclesiastical and political. Will the Jews in the various dominions of the earth be induced to relinquish their expectation of Messi.h Ben-David We presume, they will not: the very dispersion of this people preyents them from being of one mind: and not till the time comes, which is known only to the Supreme, will the purposes of their conservation be disclosed. Will they abandon, in other countries, their ideal superiority, and exaltation over the nations 2 Certainly not : the persuasion has the current of too many centuries in its favour. But in a political view, Bonaparte may answer no trifling purposes by patronizing the Jews. Cromwell gained something by favouring them, though not all he wanted ; and Bonaparte is treading in his , steps. If we might indulge conjecture, as to his purposes, we should hint at supplies of mo
ney (without interest :) past, present, or to come ; at the mercantile agency of this people, among all the nations of the earth ; but, especially, at intelligence of what is passing in other countries; an enormous and incalculable extent of the principle of es/tionage / The Grand Seignior never was so well served as when his (unknown) agents were Jews, in every court of Europe: they knew that the fate of thousands of their brethren depended on the nod of a capricious tyrant : they laboured, therefore, diligently to render that nod favourable. When the * reader has considered what we have said on the circumstances of Spain and Portugal, and the influence of opinion on political events; when he considers the immense advantage which a knowledge of the strength and weakness of all governments, derived from unsuspected, yet ever vigilant agents, would confer on an active character ; when he looks back to what was, in fact, the foundation of the extensive control exercised by the papal power ; what was the rise and support of the influence enjoyed for a long while by the order of Jesus; and what may be accomplished by the same principle with the improvements of modern policy, he will see in the conduct of the Emperor and King, in the intended meeting of the GREAT SANHEDRIM in October next, and in the whole
..of Bonaparte's conduct with respect to the Jews, motives sufficient to actuate his policy, and more than sufficient to stimulate British vigilance to the ut: most.”
The state of religion within the bounds of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, is represented by that body in their Minutes of May, 1807, as follows : “ The Assembly having heard from its members a circumstantial account of the state of religion, within their bounds, and parts adjacent, are of opinion, that during the last year, the cause of vital piety has in general been progressive. Throughout a great part of the vast region to which the Assembly extended their inquiries new churches are forming, and those already formed are receiving successively additional members. Migrations from some parts, particularly those which are central in the state of Pennsylvania, reduce the churches, but furnish, on the southwestern frontier, the seeds of new Congregations. In various congregations belonging to the Synod of New York and New Jersey, we are presented with evidences of almighty power and grace accompanying the word of God, and producing happy effects. Similar effusions of the Holy Spirit on different churches under the care of the General Association of Connecticut and of the Convention of Vermont, likewise demand our offerings of fervent gratitude to God for his great mercies. These divine favours, though not widely extended in any particular district, are of great importance ; and the more so, as they have extended their influence to the young men in one or more literary institutions ; where are generally formed those characters on whom, under God, depend, in a great measure, the important concerns of the Church, and of the Nation. In those parts, silent solemnity and deep impression pervade the saving work of God. And the churches throughout, including our brethren of the General Association of Connecticut, and of the Convention of Vermont, are harmoniously engaged
in the promotion of religion, and dwell in peace. The late extraordinary revivals of religion in the south and west, appear to be gradually declining ; leaving, in our view, many fervent followers and friends of the Saviour, who stand ready to do whatever their hands find to be done for the glory of God, and the salvation of their fellow men. Whilst these parts of the church exhibit sundry causes for se. rious and anxious solicitude, they still present to view, many whose convictions, and pressing inquiries, give ground for comfortable expectations ; and in various corners of this part of the vineyard, the operations of almighty power, and sovereign grace, arrest the attention, and demand thanksgiving. Their Missionaries, in different parts, have manifested a zeal and industry equal to the expectations of the Assembly; and by their labours have, we trust, been instrumental in producing those great benefits to mankind, which will be the most grateful reward of the liberal contri. butions, which our people have made for Missionary purposes. We also view with solicitous ex. pectation, the gradual advances of two tribes of Indians, whose appar. ent disposition to subject themselves to the benign influences of civilization, literature and religion, though marked with their usual caution and suspicion, have made considerable progress, and exhibited favourable appearances. For these great blessings let God be praised. But, alas ! in connexion with the review of these manifestations of divine love and mercy, many humbling evidences of human depravity and weakness constrain us to painful re. marks. The sincere worshippers. of God, compared with the great. mass of society, appear few : the im. * portant duties of domestic religion in many instances are neglected; and