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street, in the shop, and in the nursery ; ; his saving health through every place. to the child, the old man, or the sick To a deportment like this the apostle and suffering poor ; by speech, by letter, summons us when, in the pictorial or by a life whose influence is inspiring language of the text, he compares as the atmosphere, and soft as the fall believers to a temple filled and vivified of light on flowers. Those who are least with the presence of Deity, and tells us in the kingdom of heaven can make all that one great end of their united life men see what is their knowledge of the is that they should be as the "pillar and mystery of Christ, and help to circulate ground of the truth.”

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“Go ye therefore and teach all na- | TEUO] occurs in but four instances.* tions, baptizing them in the name of the It must be admitted that it is undeFather, and of the Son, and of the Holy sirable to translate two Greek words by Ghost, teaching them to observe all the same English word in one sentence, things whatsoever I have commanded but so much more copious is the Greek you.” These are the terms in which a language than the English, that this sentence which our Lord addressed to cannot always be avoided without inhis servants a short time before his as-curring a greater evil. This perhaps cension are presented to the English gave rise to the proposal to render the reader in the common version. Our word in the first clause disciple instead annotator proposes an amendment: let of teach, a proposal in which we are us look at it carefully.

aware that some respectable baptist

scholars have acquiesced. This is by no This is his language. Teach all means the only instance in which pædonations. The word rendered teach baptist commentaries have exercised an "here, is not the one that is usually influence on baptists which we deem

so translated in the New Testament. injurious : in many other cases, habits “ This word properly means disciple, or of thought and modes of expression "make disciples of, all nations. This have been imported, and have obtained

was to be done by teaching them, and currency among us, which do not accord “by administering the rite of baptism.” well with our principles. In this case,

it appears to us that “teach ” is the Here is some truth; but also, in our natural rendering, and that it expresses opinion, some error. In the Greek New the meaning of our Lord more exactly Testament five words occur which in than any word or phrase which has the common English Testament are been substituted for it. rendered teach. That which is found Till last century, we believe that most frequently, diódorw [DIDASKO] is among English translators "Teach all the word so rendered in the last clause nations” was the uniform rendering. of the text. That which is so rendered


* Matt. xiii. 52, xxvii. 57, xxviii. 19. in the first clause, panteów [MATHE- xiv. 21.


says, in like

The Latin equivalent, “ docete omnes thy of everlasting life.” If the meaning gentes,” is the version of the Vulgate, of the word was expressed truly by the Beza, Calvin, Erasmus, and Montanus. old translators, it is important to adhere The Geneva French Version of 1505 to their phraseology in this instance, for

manner, "Allez donc et en- that which it is proposed to substitute doctrinez toutes nations ;” and David is decidedly a different thought, as well Martin's of 1739, “Allez donc et en- as a different form of expression. seignés toutes les nations.” Some later In the baptismal controversy, it is English versions avoid the tautology by obvious that the distinction is of pracsaying, “Instruct all nations.” Dod-tical moment. To teach is more dedridge says, “Proselyte all nations ;" and finite than to disciple. You know what Campbell, with less than his usual felici- the word means ; there is nothing equity, “Convert all the nations.” But Booth- vocal about it. To disciple, is vague. royd, and other zealous pædobaptists, of How are they to be discipled ? By an our own times, say, “Go ye therefore act of their own, or by that of another ? and make disciples of all nations." In By the reception of instruction, or by his note on the passage, Boothroyd says, submission to a ceremony? One cannot "Most critics thus render, which is the be taught who is in a state of unconmost literal version, and prevents the sciousness; but it is conceivable that tautology, teach all nations teaching one may be made a disciple of by some them, &c. The sense is that they were species of registration, by some ritual to use the means which they pos- performance ; it is imaginable that sessed to make disciples. Baptizing parents or sponsors may engage for a them, &c. When made disciples, as the new-born babe that he shall be acinitiatory rite of Christianity, they were counted a disciple, and treated as one to be baptized into the name, belief or regularly entered in the class. If our profession of the Father, &c.” To the Lord said " Teach all nations,” the spirit statement that when made disciples of his direction may quite evaporate if they were to be baptized, we can have we admit of the substitution of so vague no objection : but we must be permitted a phrase as, “ Disciple all nations." to ask, if Dr. Boothroyd's or Mr. Barnes's What, then, is the precise meaning of be the natural way of rendering the this word ? When our Lord said, in words, how was it that no translator the only other instance in which the use hit upon it before the days of Dr. Ham- of it is ascribed to him, “Every scribe mond ?

who is instructed (uaOntevbels) unto the That there is an essential difference kingdom of heaven,"* what did he between these two phrases is obvious. mean? Mr. Barnes shall tell us. In To teach all persons to whom they his note on the passage, he says, “That gained access was within the power of is, every man that is acquainted with the apostles, but to make those persons the gospel or with the truth.” Not the disciples required the reception of the slightest intimation is given here that truth, “not in word only, but also in the word properly means discipled or power, and in the Holy Ghost.” What made a disciple of ! our Lord had enjoined, Paul and Barna- Examples in abundance of the use of bas performed at Antioch in Pisidia; this word, both in heathen writings and but the persons whom they first ad- in those of the early Christians, might dressed did not generally become dis- be furnished easily. Dr. Gale, whose ciples; they put the word of God from them, and “ judged themselves unwor

• Matt. xiii. 52.

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profound erudition qualified him for the 2. From the authority of the several task, has provided a storehouse of quota- versions ; 3. From the opinions of the tions for those who should come after fathers ; and lastly, From the scriphim. In his Reflections on Wall's His- tures themselves and the practice of tory of Infant Baptism, he maintains the apostles; that maonteúoare (MATHEthat it is one of the plainest things in Teusate] does always, and particularly “

the world that waOnteúw [MATHETEUO] in the place under consideration, signify
signifies properly to teach, and that this
is the sense of it particularly in the quia minime luccot; but rather, because of the great
commission, Matt. xxviii. 19.” “I will and almost continual illuminations in the groves,
show," said he, “beyond question, 1. occasioned by sacrifices, &c., as say Vossius and
From the sense of the Greek word ;* | phrasis be, as Vossius expresses it, but a silly whim

Perizonius, to nanie no more. And if this anti-
of the grammarians, who are oftentimes none of the

ablest critics, then μαθητής, and μαθητεύω, as they * To’a portion of our readers the following are derived from Mavdávelv, to karn, &c., must extract will be interesting :-"No man doubts likewise bear some congruity in their signification, but uavo ávely, the theme, signifies properly, dis

and not be applicable to such as are not capable of cerc, docere, to learn, to teach, or instruct; and learning or being taught. it may be observed, that all words derived from

“But some argue from the termination, and preit do ever retain some marks of this significa- tend that verbs in eów are to be interpreted by sum tion : thus pálnua, a document, instruction, or

in Latin ; and so maonths signifying a disciple only, that which is taught or learned; maontos, teach- mabnteúw might be rendered sum discipulus. It is able, or apt to learn ; paontiáw, I desire to learn.

easy to see how trilling this is ; and that were it And so in its compounds, duardńs, unlearned: true, it could be of no use to our adversaries ; forápripaons, one that lately began to learn ; avtomaðins, matntiis, we assert, means such a disciple only as is one that learned of himself, without the help of a taught; and then maonteúelv will signify, according master ; ödeyouaons, one that learned but little.

to their own way, to be such disciples. But beAnd trodvualns, one that has learned much ; sides, the criticism is utterly falso, as might be αναμανθάνω, I learn again. Καταμανθανώ, 1, learn

made appear from innumerable examples ; thus thoroughly, or exactly. Supjavo ávelv, to learn to

keleto signifies jubeo, to command, as well as kéw, gether; from whence ovunaontas, a school-fellow, or from whence it is formed ; and so Bovdeów to counfellow-learner. And so in like manner of all the

sel, &c., from Bouw. The like may be observed of rest.

'pevw, from whence 'pé'w forms some of its tenses, so “Since then the primitive signifies to learn, &c., perfectly synonymous are the two words; as are and all its derivatives and compounds retain the also σέω, σω, and σεύω ; χέω and χεύω ; πλέω, like sense, why must only μαθητής and μαθητεύω be | πλεύω; πνέω, πνεύω; and this may be seen too in excepted? And where is their ingenuity, who 80 βασιλεύω, αγορεύω, ηγεμονεύω, φονεύω, θεραπεύω, irregularly, and contrary to the analogy of the Greek | αληθεύω, στρατεύω, χορεύω, θρησκεύω, εποπτεύω, tongue, arbitrarily pretend that these words have προφητεύω, μαντεύω, and παιδεύω an instance in no relation to teaching, &c., only because this fancy the very case, besides multitudes which I pass by, serves their purpose something better? whereas an none of which can admit of the sense pretended. impartial judge would, from this observation alone, “Upon all this, I think I may safely conclude, acconclude mantevetv must needs signify to teach, or cording to the analogy of derivations in the Greek to be taught, or to cause to be taught, or some such tongue, as well as in all other languages, that as thing, which should include teaching.

disciple in English is made of the Latin discipulus, " I suppose nobody will any more recur to the an- which comes from discere, to learn ; and as 88á. tiquated invention which some grammarians have orados, a tutor, teacher, master, from 88áckew, to long been proud of, I mean the antiphrasis, which teach, because such a master didáckel, does teach ; is now exploded by the best and most learned phi- but kúplos, a master or governor, from kūpos, full lologists, as a mere cover for the ignorance of those power and authority, because masters and governors who use it. I need not refer you to the Spanish are supposed, kūpos "exelv, to have such power ; 80 Minerva; for to be sure you remember well enough | μαθητής από του "εμαθον comes from μανθάνειν, to the sixteenth chapter of the fourth book, where learn or teach, because maintai, or disciples learn or Sanctius solidly exposes the mistake those gram- are taught ; and hence waOnteúw is the proper word marians committed, who when they knew no better to signify the action of teaching, whereby persons imagined words were sometimes used in a contrary are to be made such disciples, or if you please of sense to the primitive from whence they were de- discipling or making disciples by teaching. But let rived. Lucus in Latin is a common instance in this suffice concerning the origination of the word, everybody's mouth; but the more accurate and and the assistance it yields to find out the true judicious now no longer say it is derived a lucendo, sense of it."-Gale's Refections, Ldter VII.



to teach or instruct, and to make dis- | ing should come after the discipling. ciples only by so doing."

Which is the opinion of Mr. Barnes we One or two specimens of the use of do not know. He says, “This was to be the word by ancient heathen writers, done, however, by teaching them, and as furnished by Gale, may suffice. by administering the rite of baptism.” Isocrates taught rhetoric at Athens, Does he derive the idea of teaching from and the usual fee for his course was a the first clause or from the last ? If thousand drachms. Demosthenes and from the first, then he dispenses with some other young men, being unable the last altogether. He makes no more to raise so large a sum, made him this reference to it than as though he reoffer, that for a fifth part of his in- garded it as spurious. Then too, the structions they would pay him two process described is quite inapplihundred drachms. His reply was, cable to a new born infant. Disciple “We do not use, Demosthenes, to divide it how you may, you cannot disciple it our art; but as good fish are sold entire, by teaching. The process could not be so if you have a mind to be taught intended for an infant a month old. It (uaOnteveiv) I will instruct you in the cannot take effect on such a one. If it whole art." Again, Plutarch says of can only be discipled by teaching, it Antiphon, the orator, “He was taught cannot be discipled at all till it can quaonteúoas) by his father who possessed understand the teaching. The baptism oratory, and having learned the art of must be deferred. But the theory of pleading he gave himself to the public.” some of the advocates of this translaIn like manner Ignatius, the martyr, tion is, that the two latter clauses deuses the word, when he says, writing to scribe the manner in which the first the Romans: “I would, therefore, that clause is to be effected. Disciple them, those things should be confirmed by say they, by baptizing them and by your practice, which you have pre- teaching them to observe what Christ scribed in TEACHING (uaOntevovTES) only has commanded. This is probably the pray for me that I may be so strength- meaning of Mr. Barnes, who says, It ened within and without, as not only to was to be done by teaching them and be called a Christian, but also to be by administering to them the rite of found one.” Dr. Gale adduces many baptism. They have had no teaching, other illustrations of the subject from be it remembered, according to the the writings of the Greek fathers, and hypothesis they are discipled without testimonies in confirmation of his views previous teaching; thus all that is done from eminent lexicographers and theo- for them is they are baptized and taught logians; but if any of our readers wish to obey Christ's commands. The Comto pursue the investigation further we mission, according to this theory, does must refer them to his learned work. not enjoin the making known the gos

But supposing, that “Disciple all pel of salvation, or make provision for nations” could be proved to be the the nations hearing it. Not before true translation, great difficulties would baptism ; not after baptism. Disciple remain. Does the word when rendered them! How? Look to the participles disciple include the idea of teaching or and see. Baptizing them in the name does it not? Some who have advocated of the Father, and of the Son, and of this version have maintained that it the Holy Ghost, teaching them to obdoes; and that the only mode of dis- serve all things whatsoever I have comcipling is by teaching. Some maintain manded you. Exclude teaching from that it does not, but that all the teach- Ithe first clause of the commission, and you exclude from the whole of the com- | has perforined ; nothing of his person, mission the preaching of Christ crucified. or offices, but they have been baptized All that remains is ritual or preceptive. and taught their duty. They are disciBaptize them, and teach them their pled; but are they partakers of the duty. They may know nothing of great salvation ? If so, they are saved Christ himself, or of the work that he | by works.



My heart and soul united

To strike a note of love,
To Him who dwells in light
Ineffable above;

Each power indate
With gratitude,
In joyous mood
Aloud vibrate.

But help camo soon, and aid

Whence least I sought to find;
The fair Fgyptian maid,
Beauteous, with loving mind,

First saw my son,
Nor feared the curse
But called a nurse-
And I that one.

My housebold too shall swell

My anthem's joyful note,
And every hill-side tell
His name, as Zephyrs float

And waft the tune
From lowly vale
And flowery dale,
From night till morn.

Sball I then mute remain

'Midst wonders guch as these!
No; I the thought disdain,
I'll every moment seizo

To tell aloud
or Him I sought,
And who has brought
Me through this cloud.

I feared stern Pharaoh's wrath,

I thought my infant dead,
I trembling hastened forth,
My faltering footsteps sped,

In fitful dream,
I onward rushed
To where there gushed
The Nile's fair stream.

Jehovah! Israel's God!

Our nation is Thy care,
Thou dost inflict the rod,
Thou dost in mercy spare :

Bow down thine ear
And we will pray,
In troublous day
Thou wilt draw near.

Of fragile wicker-work

Formed of papyrus reed,
I made a slender ark,
Compelled by utmost need;

And there, 'midst fears,
My babe consigned,
Fanned by the wind
And bathed in tears.

We mingie praise with prayer,

We thank, yet still we need,
Oh! lay Thy right arm bare
And succour Abram's seed;

Though Egypt mock
And us debase,
Yet Jacob's race
Is still Thy flock.

And this, my rescued child,

Who soon the Nile's proud warea
Would with embraces wild
Have slain-be His who cares ;

Though faith grow dim,
And Israel cry,
Oh! be Thou nigh
And work by him.

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