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gether with a large amount of scientific the commencement of fifty female information, which is found to be utterly scholars in Calcutta. So extraordinary subversive of the Indian mythology did this appear that Hindoo gentlemen To all this is added a thorough course of were heard to say, “ Perhaps girls might, Christian evidences, and urgent appeals after all, be able to learn, and that are addressed by the masters at various instructing them might be a good thing." times to the consciences of the pupils. In the year following Miss Cook (afterBy these means many have been induced wards Mrs. Wilson) was sent out by the to forsake Hinduism for Christianity, British and Foreign School Society. though not in our opinion in anything Though her attempt was considered like the number that the sanguine vain and a folly, the dream of enthuupholders of the system expected and siasm, she speedily formed various desired.
schools, and in 1824, animated by her If to the number above stated as success, a Ladies' Society for Native taught in the missionary institutions be Female Education was founded in added some 4500 taught in the govern- Calcutta. In the year following thirty ment schools, and on the principles of female schools existed in connection the Hindoo College, there will be about therewith, in which 480 girls were 10,000 boys receiving daily, in Calcutta instructed. At the present time there alone, a sound and liberal education, the appears to be about 1300 girls taught whole of which either is at the present in the various schools of the Church time, or may be traced in its origin to be Missionary Society, while in the day the fruit of modern inissions in India. and boarding schools of
Our paper would be very incomplete if body, it would appear that about 500 we omitted to refer to one other field of are in course of instruction. As in the active benevolent exertion in which Mr. case of boys' schools, the vernacular William Pearce held a very prominent mission-schools have ceased to exist; place. Our readers will readily recall and the children are almost entirely the description we have given of the either the daughters of native converts, condition of females, and the state of or orphans entirely removed from the female cultivation in India. On Mr. contaminating influence of home scenes Pearce's arrival in the country no and associations. school for females was known to exist. We have thus with too great brevity But one native female w known to be attempted a sketch of the state of eduable to read, write, or sew. The first cation in Bengal with especial relation school for their instruction was com- to its connection with modern missions menced by Mr. William Pearce in the in that country. It is evident that year 1820, when, aided by a small whatever India has of revived intellisociety formed in the seminary kept by gence and education, it owes it all to the wives of the missionaries, three missions, and that in giving the first schools were opened, in which the young momentum to the work, the missionaries ladies of the seminary were accustomed of the Baptist Missionary Society hold to assist, the only Bengali woman known a very prominent place. Among them to possess the ability to read and write no name is dearer than that of William becoming the teacher. In a few months Pearce, whose active hand gave printed eighteen girls were learning to sew, and form to the earliest works for educaabout twenty others were being taught tional purposes, and whose affectionate by some of the schoolmasters the art of spirit breathed compassion for the reading, making a total shortly after miserable and degraded daughters of Ind. Already has that movement worship of the gods. The highest borne rich and ripe fruit unto God, and education is that which leads the soul still more largely is it animating the to God, to abide in everlasting harmony intelligent youth of India to investigate with the divine purposes as revealed in and inquire into the reputed wisdom of the laws of nature and in the economy the Veds and Shastras. Their glaring of grace. The Christ crucified, as of inconsistencies and absurdities, their every land, is the sole hope of India. pernicious influence on character, give “There is no other name under heaven, rise in the minds of hundreds of the given amongst men whereby we must educated yet unconverted youth, to the be saved.” Animated by His divine question, Shall Hinduism be rejected ? compassion and love, Carey, Pearce, and or can it be modified and reformed ? their companions in the faith, They publish in endless succession letters
"Went forth as followers of the Lamb, in the papers, and short-lived periodicals, To spread his gospel message far and wide, in which these points are agitated ;
In the dread power of Him, the great I AM,
In the mcek spirit of the Crucified, while innumerable suggestions are made
With sanction from the Holy Ghost supplied, for the reform of a religion that can no To war with error, ignorance, and sin, longer stand in the light of science or To exalt humility, to humble pride,
To still the passions' stormy strife within, intelligence.
Through wisdom from above immortal souls to win. But while thus much has been done by education to remove blindness from
The chains of caste
Were broken; languages and tongues made one; the eyes of the intellect, it is the gospel
That mighty power, the Press, its influence vast alone that can effectually banish the false Lent to the cause, that they who read might run."
ON THE ARGUMENT FOR INFANT BAPTISM DERIVED FROM THE
WRITINGS OF JUSTIN MARTYR.
BY II. J. RIPLEY, D.D. Having examined the writings from their early youth, or childhood ascribed to the Apostolic Fathers in [6k naidwv.] This is the sentence on the paper contained in our number for which dependence is placed as showFebruary, Dr. Ripley continues his ing the existence of infant baptism investigation thus :—“Dr. Woods pro- in the time of Justin. Dr. Woods ceeds: But the fathers, who wrote in says, “It is, I think, altogether probable the following ages, were more and more and beyond any reasonable doubt, that particular and explicit in their testi- Justin meant in this place to speak of mony.” Let us also, says Dr. Ripley, those who were made disciples, or inexamine this statement. The writers troduced into the school of Christ by here introduced commence with Justin baptism, when they were infants.” Martyr.
Does še malowv here mean from inJustin's First Apology for the Chris- fancy? And does έμαθητεύθησαν intians, presented to the Roman govern- volve the idea of baptism in the cases ment probably A.D. 138, contains a referred to ? These questions, at least sentence in which mention is made of the first, must be affirmatively answered, certain Christians, sixty and seventy in order that the passage may testify to years old, who had been disciples, or the existence of infant baptism. An had been made disciples [ipaOnteúongav] affirmative answer cannot be sustained.
The truth is, the passage ought never | apostle Paul writes to Timothy, 2 Tim. to have been pressed into the service. iii. 15, “From a child—ÁTÒ BpépousThe candour of modern scholars forbids thou hast known the holy scriptures. them to regard it as testimony for The other writer is C. Steph. Matthies, infant baptism. As I will not even author of a prize essay, entitled Baptisappear to speak at random, I insert matis Expositio, a work of great literary here the views which two learned merit. On page 187, he thus says, “In German writers have published. The the first two centuries no memorials first is C. Semisch, author of a critical (monumenta] are found, by which it can Monograph on the Life and Works of be evidently established that infants Justin, and withal a Lutheran clergy- then received baptism : it is rather proman. I quote from his second volume, bable that as far as to the end of the pp. 334, 335. “Whenever Justin refers second century only those who had been to baptism, adults appear as the objects instructed in the elements of Christian to whom the sacred rite is administered. doctrine were admitted to baptism. But Of an infant baptism he knows nothing. certain words of Justin Martyr, which The traces of it, which some persons are very often adduced in favour of the believe they have detected in his antiquity of infant baptism, seem to writings, are groundless fancies, arti- oppose this opinion. Justin says, that ficially produced. In the words rolloi very many of each sex, sixty and seventy τινες και πολλαί, εξηκοντούται και έβδομη- years old, who had been taught the κοντούται, οί εκ παίδων έμαθητεύθησαν το doctrine of Christ from their childhood Xploty a dopor diaulvovot (Apol. i. 15). [a pueritia] remain continent. Though * Many men and many women, sixty and the formula jaOnteúcobai tivi undeniably seventy years old, who, from children, signifies to be a disciple of such a one, yet have been disciples of Christ, preserve this signification by no means contains their continence. Nothing more is the idea that that disciple has been said, than that many individuals of both already baptized; for one can be called sexes became disciples of Christ in early a disciple, who, though he has not yet life. The idea of vaOnteveobar does not received baptism, is eagerly learning necessarily include that of being bap- the doctrine of Christ, and is therefore tized; it merely brings before our taught the gospel. It is this which minds a catechumenate. And even Justin seems to have had in mind. For admitting that the baptismal rite was he himself, in another place, giving an included in paOnteveoda, this by no account of baptism, relates that only means is decisive of a reference to those who believe the things they are infant baptism. 'Ek maiowy contrasted taught, so as to be persuaded that they with ičnxovroūrai and ißiounkovroũral can live in a Christian manner, are may well denote the entrance on the brought to baptism.' It is thus évident, period of youth.” In a note, Semisch that in Justin's opinion baptism is to also quotes from Starck, “ as a parallel, be given after believing in Christ. Lucian's language about the philosopher Nothing else, therefore, is contained in Demonax, 'that he loved philosophy that saying of Justin's, than that many, és naidwv.?” To this I might add the instructed in the gospel from an early language of Basil, in his Exhortation age [ab incunte ætate), remain continent.” to Baptism, as quoted by Matthies, I might now pass to the next writer "Thou yet delayest, though thou hast introduced by Dr. Woods. But as the been instructed in the word (the gospel] historical question of baptism has no ir vnnlov.” In a similar manner the little interest, I wish here to extract
from Justin Martyr the passage alluded by a necessity from the connubial interto by Matthies. It so directly bears on * of our parents, and were in the subject that it materially contributes corrupt customs and evil education ; in to a proper understanding of the sen- order that we may not remain children tence which we have been considering, of necessity and ignorance, but of choice and which has been made a basis for so and knowledge, and may obtain in the disproportionate a structure. It is the water remission of the sins we have LXIst chapter, or section, of the same formerly committed, the name of the Apology, in which Justin commences Father of all and Lord God is called his account of Christian practices and over the person who desires to be born worship. I give the chapter entire, again and who repents of his sins ; he without stopping to notice any doctrinal that leads to the laver the person to be misconceptions of its author. “In what bathed pronouncing over him this name manner we devote ourselves to God, only. For no one is able to mention a having been made new by Christ, we name for the ineffable God : should any will explain, lest by omitting this we one dare to say there is [a name), he should seem to give a dishonest account. would be guilty of utter madness. As many as are persuaded and believe Moreover, this bath is called illuminathat those things are true which are tion, as those who learn these things are taught and said by us, and engage to illuminated in their understanding. live accordingly, are instructed to pray And the enlightened person is bathed in and ask, with fasting, from God, the the name of Jesus Christ who was forgiveness of the sins they had before crucified in the time of Pontius Pilate, committed, we also praying and fasting and in the name of the Holy Spirit, with them. Then they are led by us who, through the prophets, before pro[to a place] where is water, and receive claimed all the things pertaining to the new birth, [are born again] after the Jesus." same manner of new birth in which we
On a portion of this extract I am ourselves have been born again. For, happy in the opportunity of presenting in the name of the Father of all and the views of Semisch in his work already Lord God, and of our Saviour Jesus mentioned, vol. č. p. 305. “This pasChrist, and of the Holy Spirit, they sage distinguishes, undeniably, a twofold then receive the bath [have the bathing birth—a birth after the flesh, which done to themselves). For Christ said, results from the union of a child's 'Except ye be born again, ye cannot parents and a birth after the Spirit, of enter into the kingdom of heaven.' But which baptism is the instrument. The that it is impossible for those who have first birth, in reference to the child been once born to enter into their born, is a matter of pure necessity; we mothers' wombs, is evident to all. And are born physically, without our knowby Isaiab the prophet, as we have ledge or co-operation : the other birth, before written, it is said in what man- on the contrary, depends on our inner those who have sinned and repent dividual, self-conscious freedom; we shall escape from their sins. It is thus shall be born of the Spirit only if we spoken—Wash ye, become clean, take wish it." of this spiritual, intelligent, away iniquity from your souls,' &c. voluntary birth, baptism, according to (Isa. i. 16-20]. And in reference to Justin's representation, is the instruthis matter we have learned from the ment. Is this consistent with the idea apostles this account. Since, being ignorant of our first birth, we were born * Euphemism, borrowed from Semisch.
of baptism administered to unconscious the Christian's proceedings; and infant infants ?
baptism, if it had been the uniform In the other parts of this extract, it practice from the time of the apostles, it is interesting to observe the successive must have been so frequent an observsteps presented by Justin. First in ance by the year 138, that it could not order is, being made new by Christ; have been forgotten, or been passed next, cordially believing the instructions over, by an intelligent Christian apoloof the Christian teachers, and avowing gist, who wished that nothing might the purpose to live accordingly; next, be concealed either from the rulers or directions to prayer, and fasting for the from the people It must also have been remission of sins; and then baptism, so frequent an observance, that the this last being regarded as the means of voluntary entrance of a person into the the new birth, that is, evidently, of the Christian company, and active participapersons' becoming members of the tion of the Lord's supper and of worship, Christian family; the regeneration, could not have been described as taking strictly speaking, or spiritual con- place in so direct connection with ception, implied in the earlier part of | baptism. In case of infant baptism, a the process, reaching its ultimate point, long interval must have intervened or becoming consummated, in being between the two transactions. In addiborn into the family, so as to be tion, it is well known that among the recognized as children of God and grounds of the hostile feeling which the brethren of Christians.
populace at that period so extensively In subsequent chapters, lxv. Ixvii., and bitterly cherished against the Justin continues his account, and Christians, was the absurd accusation, describes the reception of the newly that, in their assemblies, they were in baptized person among the brethren, the habit, among other enormities, of the administering of the Lord's supper, feasting on the bodies of infants. Ang and the accompanying worship. But solemn, special ceremony in reference through all these chapters, professedly to their children, required by their devoted to an account of the Christian religion, we may venture to say, could observances, not the slightest hint not have been omitted in a description occurs respecting any persons' being of Christian worship and observances, baptized, but such as had received the while this foul charge of Thyestean gospel, and professed the purpose of banquets was so perpetually reiterated. living agreeably to it. Could this have Looking now at the writings of Justin been the case, if infant baptism had simply as historical monuments, that is, been the uniform practice ? Should it as memorials of opinions and practices be said that Justin's design did not prevalent in his day among the Chrisrequire him to mention infant baptism, tians, I am unable to see how a conit must be considered that he professed clusion different from that which to give such an account, that the Semisch has so candidly expressed can emperor and senate, and people of be sustained : namely, “ of an infant Rome, might not be ignorant of any of baptism Justin knows nothing.'