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form true and canonical obedience to the bishop of the diocese, and his successors, in all things lawful and honest.
An assembly of the clergy of England, by their representatives, for the purpose of consulting upon ecclesiastical matters, is called a convocation. Though the convocation has not been permitted to transact any business for upwards of seventy years, yet it still meets on the second day of every session of parliament, but immediately adjourns. Like parliament, it consists of an upper and lower house. In the upper house, the archbishops and bishops sit ; and in the lower house, the inferior clergy, who are represented by their proctors. These consist of all the deaps and archdeacons, of one proctor for every chapter, and two for the clergy of every diocese, and amount in all to one hundred and forty-three divines.
The archdeacons hold stated visitations in the dioceses over which they hold jurisdiction under the bishop. Their business on these occasions is to inquire into the reparation and moveables belonging to the church, to reform abuses in ecclesiastical matters, and bring the more weighty affairs before the bishop. They have also a power to suspend and excommunicate ; in many places to prove wills, and to induct all clerks within their respective jurisdictions.
The archbishop, besides the inspection of the bishops and inferior clergy in the province over wbich he presides, exercises episcopal jurisdiction in his own diocese. He exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction in his province, and is guardian of the spiritualities of any vacant see, as the king is of the temporalities. He is entitled to present by lapse to all the ecclesiastical livings in the disposal of his diocesan bishop, if not filled within six months. He has also a customary prerogative, on consecrating a bishop, to name a clerk or chaplain to be provided for by such bishop ; instead of this, it is now usual to accept an option. He is said to be enthroned when vested in the archbishopric; whilst bishops are said to be installed.
His grace of Canterbury is the first peer of England, and, next to the royal family, has precedence of all dukes, and of all officers of the crown. It is his privilege by custom to crown the kings and queens of this kingdom. By common law, he pos. sesses the power of probate of wills and testaments, and of granting letters of administration. He has also a power to grant licenses and dispensations in all cases formerly sued for in the court of Rome, and not repugnant to the law of God. Accordingly,he issues special licenses to marry, to hold two livings, &c.; and he exercises the right of conferring degrees.
The Archishop of York possesses the same rights in his province as the Archbishop of Canterbury. He has precedence of all dukes not of the royal blood, and of all officers of state except the lord-bigh-chancellor. He has also in certain parts the rights of a count palatine.
A bishop of England is also a baron in a three-fold manner, namely, feudal, with respect to the temporalities annexed to
his bishopric ; by writ, as being summoned by writ to parliament; and by patent and creation. Accordingly he has the precedence of all other barons, and votes as baron and bishop. But though the peerage of bishops was never denied, yet it has been contested whether they have a right to vote in criminal matters. At present, the bishops vote in the trial and arraignment of a peer; but, before sentence of death is passed, they withdraw and vote by proxy.
The jurisdiction of a bishop of England consists in collating to benefices ; granting institutions on the presentations of other patrons ; commanding inductions ; taking care of the profits of vacant benefices, for the use of the successors ; visiting his diocese once in three years ; in suspending, depriving, degrading, and excommunicating ; in granting administrations, and superintending the probate of wills. These parts of his function depend on the ecclesiastical law. By the common law, he is to certify the judges respecting legitimate and illegitimate births and marriages; and to this jurisdiction, by the statute law, belongs the licensing of physicians, chirurgeons, and schoolmasters, and the uniting of small parishes. This last privilege is now peculiar to the Bishop of Norwich. The bishops' courts possess this privilege above the civil courts; that writs are issued from the former in the name of the bishop. himself, and not in that of the king. The judge of the bishops' court is his chancellor, anciently called ecclesiæ causidicus, the church-lawyer.
The bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester, take precedence of the other bishops, who rank after them according to the seniority of their consecration.
ARTICLES OF RELIGION, As established by the Bishops, the Clergy, and Laity of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America.*
Art. I. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity, There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts, or passions : of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; the Maker and Preserver of all things both visible and invisible. And in unity of this Godhead, there be three persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.
Art. II. Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made very Man.
The Son, which is the Word of the Father, begotten from everlasting of the Father, the very and eternal God, of one substance with the Father, took Man's pature in the womb of
* The editor has thought proper to insert the 39 Articles as adopted by the Episcopal Church in the United States, there being no material difference from those of the Church of England.
the blessed Virgin, of her substance : so that two whole and perfect Natures, that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were joined together in one Person, never to be divided, whereof is one Christ, very God, and very Man ; who truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for actual sins of men.
Art. III. Of the going down of Christ into Hell. As Christ died for us, and was buried; so also is it to be bélieved, that he went down into hell.
Art. IV. Of the Resurrection of Christ. Christ did truly rise again from death, and took again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man's nature, wherewith he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth, until he return to judge all men at the last day.
Art. V. Of the Holy Ghost. The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of one Substance, Majesty and Glory, with the Father and the Son, very and eternal God. Art. VI. Of the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation.
Holy Scripture containeth all thing's necessary to salvation : so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to Salvation. In the name of the Holy Scripture we do understand those Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church.
Of the Names and Number of the Canonical Books. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium, Joshue, Judges, Ruth, the first book of Samuel, the second book of Samuel, the first book of Kings, the second book of Kings, the first book of Chronicles, the second book of Chronicles, the first book of Esdras, the second book of Esdras, the book of Hester, the book of Job, the Psalms, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes or Preacher, Cantica or Songs of Soloinon, Four Prophets the greater, Twelve Phrophets the less.
And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners ; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine ; such are these fol
The third book of Esdras, the fourth book of Esdras, the book of Tobias, the book of Judith, the rest of the book of Hester, the book of Wisdom, Jesus the son of Sirach, Baruch the Phrophet, the Song of the three Children, the Story of Susannah, of Bell and the Dragon, the Prayer of Manasses, the first book of Maccabees, the second book of Maccabees.
All the books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, we do receive and account them canonical.
Art. VII. Of the Old Testament. The Old Testament is not contrary to the New ; for both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is offered to mankind by Christ, who is the only Mediator between God and Man, being both God and Man. Wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign, that the Old Fathers did look only for tran. sitory Promises. Although the Law given from God by Moses, as touching Ceremonies and Rites, do not bind Christian men, nor the Civil Precepts thereof ought of necessity to be received in any Commonwealth ; yet, notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience of the commande ments which are called moral.
Art. VIII. Of the Creeds. The Nicene creed, and that which is commonly called the Apostle's creed, ought thoroughly to be received and believed : for they may be proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.
Art. IX. Of Original or Birth-Sin. Original Sin standeth not in the following of Adam (as the Pelagians do vainly talk ;) but it is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the Spirit ; and therefore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated ; whereby the lusts of the flesh, called in Greek, općynp.de orpass, which some do expound the Wisdom, some Sensuality, some the Affection, some the Desire of the Flesh, is not subject to the law of God. And although there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized ; yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence ard just halb of itself the nature of sin.
Art. X. Of Free-Will. The condition of man), after the fall of Adum, is such, that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works, to faith, and calling upon God: wherefore we have no power to do good works pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have that good will.
Art. Xl. Of the Justification of Man. We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith ; and not for our own works or deservings. Wherefore, that we are justified by Faith only, is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely is expressed in the Homily of Justification.
Art. XII. Of Good Works. Albeit that good works, which are the fruits of faith, and follow after Justification, cannot put away our sins, and indure the severity of God's judgment ; yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith ; insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently known, as a tree discerned by the fruit,
Art. XIII. Of Works before Justification. Works done before the grace of Christ, and the inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God, forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the School-Authors say) deserve grace of congruity ; yea rather, for that they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they have the nature of sin.
Art. XIV. Of Works of Supererogation. Voluntary works, besides over and above God's commandments, which they call Works of Supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety. For by them men do declare, that they do not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but that they do more for his sake than of bounden duty is required : \Vhereas Christ sayeth plainly, When ye have done all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants.
Art. XV. Of Christ alone without Sin. Christ in the truth of our nature, was made like unto us in all things, sin only except, from which he was clearly void, both in his flesh and in his spirit. He came to be a Lamb without spot, who by sacrifice of himself once made, should take away the sins of the world ; and sin (as St. John saith) was not in hiin. But all we the rest (although baptized and born again in Christ) yet offend in many things ; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
Art. XVI. Of Sin after Baptism. Not every deadly sin, willingly committed after Baptism, iş sin against the Holy Ghost, and unpardonable. Wherefore the grant of repentance is not to be denied to such as fall into sin after Baptism. After we have received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from grace given, and fall into sin, and by the grace of God (we may) arise again, and amend our lives. And therefore they are to be condenned, which say, they can no