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LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.
Many of our readers have no doubt vi- played upon canvass, we shall be rendering sited that novel and beautiful exhibition an acceptable service. the Diorama, a detailed account of which Trinity Chapel, which is built behind first appeared in the Mirror. The view the high altar of St. Anselm's Chapel of Trinity Chapel in Canterbury Cathe. in the Cathedral, formerly contained the dral, is the most remarkable and the most rich and much adored shrine of Thomas-àcomplete pictorial illusion we ever wit. Becket, where pilgrims used to worship, nessed ; and we have met with many per- and even kings to kneel. The pillars of sons, who while they acknowledged the the Chapel were built to form a circle talent that could present the interior of round the eastern part of the shrine, and a stately edifice with its walls, its aisles, between them all the monuments except its pillars, and its roof, have been com one are placed. That of Dean Wotton, pletely incredulous as to the steps leading who died in 1566, is on the north side of to the Chapel, and the workmen who the Chapel at the foot of the monument of appear asleep in the foreground. These Henry IV. The Dean is represented say our doubting friends are real steps, kneeling on his tomb, his hands clasped, and although the figures may not be actual and raised in the attitude of prayer; a living individuals, yet they must be stuffed desk is before him, on which is an open effigies. In this, however, we can assure book. every unbeliever that he is mistaken. The The whole is an excellent piece of whole view is one plain surface, and the sculpture, particularly the head, which is illusion is the triumph of art: and in said to have been taken from the life, and presenting our readers with the most stri. executed at Rome during his stay there. king object in Trinity Chapel, which has The countenance is highly expressive. had the honour of being so strikingly dis. The Dean appears. in his Doctor's robes, VOL. III. N
bare-headed, and with short curly hair is natural to respect what we do not and beard.
understand, the Monks turned the ad. Dean Wotton was an eminent states- vantage to good account, and it gradually man, and we should suspect a most accom became a principle of common law, that plished courtier, for he continued in office no clerk, that is to say, no priest, should during four reigns, when there were as be tried by the civil power. many changes of religion.
This privilege was enjoyed and abused without restriction, till the reign of
Henry the Second, when the council, or THE ARMS OF WALES. parliament of Clarendon, or the sense of
the nation, were provoked by murder, ( To the Editor of the Mirror.)
rape, and other crimes, to set bounds to SIR,_Observing in the Mirror an
ecclesiastic licentiousness, by a salutary inquiry respecting the Arms of Wales, I regulation on this subject, but a law so forward the following particulars from the necessary was evaded by the insolence of best authorities.
Becket, and the base pusillanimity of The Ensign of Cadwallader, the last King John, and his successor. King of the Britains, was a red Dragon.
During a period equally disgraceful
to the monarch and the clergy, a proHenry the Seventh wore it as the dexter supporter to his
he likewise adopted vision, artful, because it seemed to wear as the Badge of Wales a dragon passant, the face of a remedy, was enacted, by wings elevated gu. upon a mount vert.
which any person tried for felony and It is from the device of the red Dragon found guilty, was pronounced to be exthis Monarch created the Pursuivant of empt from punishment si legit ut cleArms, Rauge Dragon. Upon the great ricus, if he was able to read as a seal of James the First appeared the priest. From this finesse the Monks banner of the Arms of Cadwallader, viz. derived a considerable emolument, by As. a Cross, patteé fitchee or, to show teaching prisoners to read, which, however the descent from the Welsh Blood Royal. them from the penalty of the laws, and
odious or bloody their crimes,rescued J. L. F.
also answered another important purpose,
as by these means, men of the most des (For the Editor of the Mirror.)
perate characters, were thus rendered SIR,_A correspondent in your last humble and obedient tools of the church. Number, wishes to know the Arms of This lucrative monopoly remained, till Wales. The ancient Armorial
year of the reign of Edward the
it was provided against in the twentyof that Principality, are quarterly Gu and Or, in each quarter a lion passant :
Third: but the noxious weed grew up guardant counterchanged. The follow. in a shade of ignorance and confusion, ing badge also appertains to Wales, (as
during the bloody contests of the houses may be seen in Berry's Encyclopædia
of Lancaster and York, till it received Heraldica, a voluminous work now in
à considerable check under Edward the course of publication) viz. upon a mount Sixth, when it was determined that no vert, a dragon passant, wings elevated, Claim the benefit of clergy. unless he is
person convicted of manslaughter shall Guies.
a peer of the realm, or a clerk in priest's
orders: and, by the ninth of James the THE BENEFIT OF CLERGY First, it was entirely taken away from EXPLAINED.
those delinquents. (For the Mirror.)
Persons at all conversant in legal
points, or general reading, will, perhaps, THE Benefit of Clergy, is a legal phrase, smile at this article on a subject which or technical term, which we often hear, they consider as generally understood; and sometimes repeat, without under- but I have frequently met with persons, standing its precise meaning. The dark who imagined that the words, without cloud of barbarism which succeeded the benefit of clergy, implied that a criminal downfall of the Roman empire having should have no spiritual guide, when no nearly effaced literary pursuits, the attention of the nobility, and the body of to read or write, shall not in any manner
more is meant, than that his being able the people placed above labour, was exempt him from punishment, and that wholly absorbed by military exercise and he shall not be entitled to any of those the chase, while the regular and secular privileges formerly enjoyed by the clergy clergy, became, for ages, with some exceptions, almost the sole depositaries of
L. S. books, and the learned languages. As it
than either of his predecessors; lastly, ARUNDELIAN MARBLES. Dr. Cliandler published a new and im(For the Mirror.)
proved copy of the marbles in 1763, in
which he corrected the mistakes of the THE Arundelian marbles, Oxford mar former editors; and in some of the inbles, or Parian chronicle, are ancient scriptions, particularly that of the Parian stones' (as has been supposed,) whereon chronicle, supplied the lucunæ by many is inscribed a chronicle of the city of ingenious conjectures. The Arundelian Athens, engraven in capital letters in the marbles have generally been regarded as island of Paros, one of the Cyclades, 264 a curious monument of antiquity: they years before Jesus Christ.
were, however, discovered in some inThey take their first name from stances to be inconsistent with the most Thomas, Earl of Arundel, who procured authentic historical accounts; Sir Isaac them out of the east, or from Henry his Newton and several other modern philograndson, who presented them to the sophers paid little or no regard to them, University of Oxford. The Arundelian and their authenticity has been severely marbles in their perfect state, contain a questioned by Mr. Robertson in a disserchronological detail of the principal events tation, entitled the Parian Chronicle. In of Greece during a period of 1318 years, this dissertation much ingenuity as well beginning with Cecrops, B. C. 1582, and as judgment and a great extent of ancient ending with the Archonship of Diognetus, learning are displayed. His doubts, the B. C. 264: but the chronicle of the last author observes, arise from the following ninety years is lost, the inscription is at considerations. First, “ The characters present so much corroded and effaced, have no certain or unequivocal marks of that the sense can be discovered only by antiquity.”. Second,“ It is not provery learned and industrious antiquaries; bable that the chronicle was engraved for or, more properly speaking, supplied by private use.” Third, “The chronicle their conjectures. This chronicle, and does not appear to have been engraved by many of the other relics of antiquity, public authority.” Fourth, “ The Greek real or pretended, were purchased in Asia and Roman writers, for a long time after Minor, in Greece, or in the islands of the the date of this work, complain that they Archipelago, by Mr. William Petty, had no chronological account of the affairs who in the year 1624, was sent by Tho. of ancient Greece.” Fifth, “ The chromas, Earl of Arundel, for the purpose of nicle is not once mentioned by any writer making such collections for him in the of antiquity." Sixth, “ Some of the east; they were brought into England facts mentioned in the chronicle seem to about the beginning of the year 1627, have been taken from writers of later and placed in the gardens belonging to date.” Seventh, “ Arachronisms apArundel house in London. Soon after pears in some of the epochas, which we their arrival they excited a general curio- scarcely suppose a chronologer of the sity, and were viewed by many inquisitive 129th Olympiad would be liable to comand learned men; among others by Sir mit.” Eight, “ The history of the disRobert Cotton, who prevailed upon Selden covery of the Parian chronicle is obscure to employ his abilities in explaining the and unsatisfactory.” Ninth, “ The lite. Greek inscriptions ; the following year rary world has been frequently imposed Selden published a small volume in 4to., upon by spurious books and inscriptions; including about thirty-nine inscriptions ard, therefore, we should be extremely copied from the marbles. In the turbu- cautious with regard to what we receive lent reign of Charles I. and the subsequent under the venerable name of antiquity.” usurpation, some of the marbles were These several articles have been replied defaced and broken, and others stolen or to by Mfr. Hewlett, in his Vindication of used for the ordinary purposes of archi- the Parian Chronicle, but the objections tecture; the chronological marble in are of a nature very difficult to be reparticular was unfortunately broken and moved. The marbles are now fixed in defaced. In 1667, the Hon. Henry the school in Oxford. SR. Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, the grandson of the first collector, presented these supposed remains of antiquity to
VALENTINES. the university of Oxford. Selden's work becoming very scarce, Bishop Fell en
(To the Editor of the Mirror.) gaged Mr. Prideaux to publish a new SIR,--According to a former statement edition of the inscriptions, which was of your Mirror it appears, that the numprinted at Oxford in 1676. In 1732 ber of Valentines sent to the receiving Mr. Maittaire obliged the public with a houses within the district of the two. more comprehensive view of the marbles penny post in 1821, exceeded 200,000,
the amount of which is £1,666 13s. 4d.; Grateful as streams, that in some deep recess,
With rills unhop'd the panting traveller bless, which we may call the Citizens' Anni
Is he, that links with me his chain of life, versary tribute, in aid of Government.
Names himself lord, and deigns to call me WIFE, But as a considerable number, perhaps a fourth of these equivocal, anonymous,
THE WIFE. or sometimes quizzical overtures are
(In Imitation of the above.) charged three-pence, an increase of
Beautiful as young day, when the sweet sea£208 6s. 8d., or one eighth more is pro
son 8 waking, duced — making £1,875 sterling. To Joyous as the bird of song when the gay morn which, if the very low estimate of £468 158. is breaking,
Mild as Zephyr's softest sigh, on Flora's bosom for duty on paper be added, the whole
breathing, emolument flowing into the treasury for Chaste as that fair queen, who found the art of one day's Folly in London only, will endless wreathing, amount to £2,343 15s.!! All of which Constant as Apollo's flow'r, which blooms but
in his beaming, is collected with a few pounds additional
Fond as the moon of that bright star, upon her expense to Government, for extra letter
path-way gleaning, carriers. With respect to country Valen. Graceful as the slightest reed upon the green
bank waving, tines, the circumstances differ too much
Courteous as the rippling stream, which that to say any thing of certainty about it,
green bank is laving, seeing the postage would vary with the Yet great in soul, and high in mind, the charm, distance: and while some were charged
the bliss, of life, as single, others from the manner of Is she, the gentlest of her kind, I proudly call
MY WIFE. folding, would be accounted double, or
J. W., Jun. even triple. Therefore, waving niceties, the number would be, probably, in proportion to the population, and the sway
of ON THE INFLUENCE OF the Blind Divinity is universally acknow
SOCIETY. ledged to bear. Then according to a late Census, the population of England,
(For the Mirror.) Wales, and Scotland, to say nothing of It is hardly possible to view the con: that hot bed of the“ amatory passion (Ire nection of society with our comfort, with, land) amounted to 12,552,144, out of out hailing it as a blessing almost indiswhich 864,845 were assigned to London, pensable to our existence. being between a fourteenth and fifteenth You will not expect that in mustering part of the whole twelve millions and a my ideas upon any subject, I should ħalf. Therefore, without stickling about reinforce them with the sanction of the excess of postage, or double and triple musty ancients, or the trite moderns ; or letters, if the whole supposed number be that I should embellish my sentiments averaged according to the London rate, with cramp quotations from languages that is £2,343 158. multiplied by thir- to which the softer sex have no pretenteen and a half, the last product will be sions ; for that matter, I am quite satis. found to amount to the enormous total of fied with simply expressing them upon £33,640 12s. 6d. !!! as Folly's free-will- any given subject, and shall be much offering in one day every year to support prouder of their meeting the pre-conceived the State. The expression in one of ideas of my readers, than, if they were Dibdin's songs, that
upheld by a host of literati ; with whose * Puppies now prop up the Nation!"
opinions the idea of corroboration would wants but the alteration of one word to originality. So vast a range of thought
despoil me of all pretension whatever to make it suit the present case ; for our and sentiment is accessible in the present follies, are really valuable considerations day to almost every class in society, by to the Receiver General: and none but a
the universal diffusion of the press, that cynic would be angry if the whole it is scarcely reasonable to expect novel National Debt should be paid off by sparks of genius—they may perhaps pre, means equally innocent. T. S.
sent themselves in a somewhat varied
traced and defined; new ideas are so
scarce, that they should deservedly im. From the Greek.
mortalize the projectors. I speak not for Faithful as dog, the lonely shepherd's pride,
myself, for I cannot hope to raise the True as the helm, the bark's protecting guide, slightest pretensions but they occasione Firm as the shaft that props the towering dome, ally present themselves, although like
Sweet as the shipwreck'd seamen’s land, and angel visits “few and far between.”
Being naturally of a lively tempera-
in mingling with the busy word, and they may be similarly recompensed in participating (moderately mind you) in return: how hopeless would this expecits multifarious attractions ; not that I tation be rendered, did they resort to the dislike occasionally to indulge a little in illiterate or uninformed, whose preten the sombre mood, but I consult my glass sions are common place or sensual. Cula too often not to know, that the hue of the tivation of intellect will be unavailing rose is as important as that of the lily in unless attended to for the advantage or the estimation of the sweet somebodys, amusement of others, it must neither be whose good opinion I would not forfeit for neglected nor hoarded, for the diffusion worlds at least just at present; I know of acquirements procures not merely renot how far my wilfulness may extend by spect and esteem, but the display of and bye : I am not in the least ambitious similar excellencies in return, and thus
renders mutual gratification of the most Sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought-, prepossessing character. But if such renot I, time enough for that when care
sults accrue from general society, far with his furrowed cheeks raps at my door happier is the associating of nearer and in good earnest—my desire is, to keep dearer friends ; how joyous the recogni. him at arms length as long as possible tion of those we love and esteem acci. and if he needs will assail me, to be well dentally amidst strangers; social chat prepared for the encounter.
speedily restores past events afresh to the But I was about to gossip a little about imagination in all their natural vivid. the sweets of society-retournons a nôtre
ness; occurrences, grave or gay, succeed süjet- I confess I am not much given to
each other in rapid continuity, beguiling reflection ; but I do now and then indulge
us in turn of sighs or smiles, and cement a little, and cannot say it has ever opera
a fresh enduring attachments or partial. ted prejudicially on my happiness, for ities. Memory suminons at will the although it may have occasionally engen. minutest particulars of events which may dered a little dissatisfaction with self, have required years to consummate ; and this has been more than counterbalanced not merely the events, but the sensations by the
whispering counsels of conscience, which accompanied them—and who will my infallible arbitress in points of a queso say that even grief may not be delicious, tionable character. In verity I believe with a valued friend at hand to pour in there is a season for all things, but I do the balm of consolation-a friend whose love to study human nature beyond all heart may throb in unison with your own, other occupations whatever ; for it alone and on whose affectionate disposition and conveys practical instruction, being just kindly offices you can confidently rely in of that specific character which we most every exigence. need to curb and facilitate our inter
These and a thousand other advantages course with each other. Learning cuts
are contingent on society; there are some but a sorry figure without this qualifica- evils to avoid, it is true, but what they tion; it is theory without practice, and are, a sound discretion will readily diswe should be the tamest creatures imagin- criminate ; slander and detraction are able had we no other medium than books, perhaps the most prevalent, but these to become familiarized to each other. hateful qualities will be shunned by a No, no, this would never do; I have a
mind trained for rational enjoyment; thousand times commiserated the awk- compassionate regret will deaden their ward, weil-intentioned gaiety of the stu. influence, which will be superseded by dent, (who deeply conscious of having liberal and enlightened sentiments, on suffered the Muses to supersede the whatever topics the imagination may preGraces) feels himself ill-qualified to cope
sent for discussion. with the bold pretensionless stripling in
That solid acquirement, and its cheer. the minutia of the gay worid ; but ful and graceful diffusion may be the whose society would be infinitely preferred qualification of every reader of your very to the obtrusive frivolity of his brainless interesting publication, is the sincere wish opponent. It would be invidious in us of your obliged
JANET. to evince a preference by any other mode
January 31, 1824. than polite attention ; and this should challenge the best efforts of the well.
SPIRIT OF THE informed, whose sound judgment would soon expel the trifler from the field.
Public Journals. Society cannot be enjoyed with true gusto by other than a well-stored mind, for the intelligent will seek kindred spi.
DERVISHES. rits, in order that their treasures may We took boat one afternoon, with two not be uselessly dissipated ; and that English gentlemen, for Scutari, to see