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differences among objects and notions ; imagination, in discovering and tracing the resemblances and analogies between things, with a view of what is beautiful and sublime. 4. Cause and Effect.
A Cause is the power which one thing has to change the state of other things; an Effect is the change which has been produced. When we have observed that one event constantly takes place immediately, or soon after some other event, we consider the first event to have produced that which follows; and therefore, call the first event the cause, and the second, the effect. “Thus, when we see the hoar frost dissolve, and the petals of flowers expand, immediately after sun-rise, we say that the sun is the cause, and the melting of the frost, and the opening of the flowers, are the effects of this cause.
5. A proposition is a judgment of the mind respecting any thing expressed in words. The thing of which we speak in every proposition, is called the Subject; what we affirm or deny respecting it is called the Predicate. The predicate means that which is declared; thus, in the sentence, “ The earth is round," earth is the subject, and round, the predicate.
6. Propositions, the truth of which is at once evident to the mind, are called Axioms; as, and one make two ; “ The whole is equal to all its parts.” Propositions which are not evident at once, require to be proved by reasoning. Thus, the proposition that “the earth is round,” is not evident
conduces to health."
at once; on the contrary, without reflection, we might suppose it to be flat. But, after we have made several unquestionable inferences from known facts, we prove, certainly, that it is round. 7. a. An affirmative proposition or sentence asserts; as, “Temperance
A negative proposition or sentence denies; as, “Temperance does not ensure health.” A universal proposition includes all; as, “Men, or all men, are mortal.” A particular proposition modifies or limits the extent; as, “Some men attain the age of one hundred years.”
6. Every verb with its nominative case forms a proposition or affirination; as, “ I am;" "Thou walkest;"
" He runs.
The infinitive mood is the mere name of the action, expressed abstractedly; and, therefore, it contains no affirmation or proposition.
8. Arguments. - When a proposition is of such a nature that the truth of it cannot be made to appear absolutely certain, we are compelled to adduce a series of reasons by which we can establish its truth. These reasons are called Arguments.
9. A Conclusion is the result which has been established by a series of arguments. Thus, in the proposition, “Sloth and prodigality will bring a man to want;" when we have enumerated all the arguments which prove the truth of it, we say, therefore, “Sloth and prodigality will bring a man
6 to want,” and this is the conclusion.
10. Data, the plural of datum, a thing given or granted. Those facts from which a conclusion or inference is drawn, are called Data. For example, the inhabitants of temperate climates have excelled those of very hot or very cold climates, both in stature, strength, and intelligence; these facts are the data, from which it is inferred, that excellence of body and of mind depends, in some measure, upon the temperature of the climate.
QUESTIONS. - Explain the term Composition. What things are requisite for acquiring proficiency in composition ? What is said of English Grammar? Explain the term judgment. What is the constituent of a sound judgment ? Explain a calm judgment, - an acute-cool — profound — comprehensive judgment. Explain the difference between judgment and imagination. Explain the terms cause and effect, and adduce the illustrations. Explain what is meant by a proposition ; – the subject; - predicate. What are axions? What kind of propositions require proof? What is an affirmative proposition ? - a negative — a universal
- a particular proposition ? Explain the terms arguments, conclusion, data.
LESSON 2. 11. Agreement, Difference, Relation.-a. Agreement is a term applied when we perceive two or more things to be alike in some respect. When things are perfectly alike, we express the comparison by the word sameness. -b. Difference is a term applied to objects that are dissimilar or unlike in appearance or quality.-C. A Relation is a term applied to two or more objects, when, by comparing them, we perceive a connection or resemblance between them.
12. Analysis, Arrangement, Classification.-a. To analyze is to separate or dissolve a mixed whole into its component parts. The completeness and accuracy of an analysis will depend upon the correctness in our observing the differences of things. 6. An Arrangement is made by remarking what particular things ought to be placed along with others, and what should be kept apart. Such an arrangement may be formed, not from our knowledge of the real nature of the several articles, but may be suggested by the convenience which it affords for our present purpose.
- A Classification is made by regarding both the resemblances and differences of things : in order that, by bringing together things that are alike, we may have only a few kinds of things to remember, instead of a confused multitude. An analysis ought to be perfect ; a classification, natural and perspicuous ; an arrangement, simple and appropriate.
13. Synthesis is the opposite to analysis, and signifies a putting together. When the parts or elements of any thing have been discovered by analysis, we have then learned how to compound them again, so as to produce the same complex body; this compounding is called Synthesis.
14. Analogy is a term employed to denote a sameness in the causes which produce similar effects. When similar cases are stated, and an inference is made that what is proved or acknowledged to hold true in the one case, is true also in the corresponding case; the argument thus employed is called that of Analogy. Thus, if a writer wished to show the probability that all the planets were inhabited by living creatures, he might argue analogically, and say, that as there is a great similarity between this earth and the other planets, because they all revolve round the sun, and are subject to the same laws of gravitation; and that as God has replenished this earth with creatures, so, it is reasonable to suppose that he has done the same with the other planets. This would be adducing an argument from Analogy. In reasonings of this kind, care must be taken to ascertain to what extent the. relation between the things compared is applicable, otherwise, we may rest an argument upon some mere resemblance in the appearances or effects instead of the causes. A resemblance in effects is properly called a simile, but not an analogy.
15. Notion, Opinion, Sentiment, Conviction. - a. A Notion may be any thought or immature decision of the mind formed on the mere appearance of things. —b. An Opinion is any proposi tion which we believe, but do not absolutely know to be true. The accuracy or inaccuracy of our opinions will depend upon the nature and extent of our reading and experience, the habit of reflection, and the honesty and earnestness of our investigation. - c. Sentiments refer to the impressions made on the feelings; their goodness or badness will mainly depend on the frame of mind. - d. Conviction is the strong and powerful operation on the mind by which the truth or falsity of a proposition is at once admitted, In ordinary conversation we thus distinguish the preceding, -He entertains a notion ; forms, believes, or maintains an opinion ; expresses, utters, imbibes sentiments; acts from conviction.
QUESTIONS. Explain the terms agreement, difference, relation. Explain the terms analysis, arrangement, classification. What ought every analysis to be ? — each arrangement ? — each classification ? Explain the term synthesis. Explain the term analogy. Adduce examples. In reasonings of this kind, what caution is to be observed ? Explain the