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of severe hardships experienced under the stern hand of poverty - sometimes reaction produced on the mind by exhausted extravagance -- sometimes arises from want of early parental advice and example.

4. Misery of this state. As happiness must spring from the possession of good habits, the control of the appetites, the recollection of acts of kindness, when these do not exist, the void must be most unpleasant. As the miser is not conscious of any benefits conferred, he must feel alone in the world, perhaps abandoned or despised by all. Draw a picture. He may also be subject to other annoyances — from a desire of exacting more interest than he ought, his investments may fail - his misery at the loss of his only good.

5. Other sources of misery.--Apprehensions of robbery or being cheated—his feelings in sickness or afflictions - his fear of death and a future judgment.

LESSON 191.- Original. 506. Give an original Satirical Description of THE DRUNKARD.

507.-1. State how this vice is formed in some perhaps there is a natural proneness — some have contracted the habit by imperceptible degrees from associating with individuals so disposed — others again from want of active employment. from vexation — from disappointment, &c.

2. Consequences.Distaste for all rational enjoyments - loss of reputation - of property-of friends - self. degradation conscience blunted — intellect injured — loss of health — misery to wife and children - picture of woe.

LESSON 192.- Original. 508. Give an original Satirical Description of THE SPENDTHRIFT.

509.-1. State the origin of this character-early unchecked self-indulgence-want of early active habits—the tendency of the habit either unknown or disregarded.

2. Results. — Each desire increases in intensity by being gratified, till self-gratification becomes the overwhelming principle of action, as this is contrary to the appointed means of securing happiness, disappointment must be the result. Again, as the funds and means of subsistence become exhausted and the desire for indulgence increased, the annoyance at being balked becomes intolerable.- Draw a picture.

LESSON 193.- Original. 510. Give an original Satirical Description of THE HYPOCRITE.

511.-1. Define the hypocrite - one assuming a character not belonging to him, thus, affecting to be a Christian, a man of probity, of learning, of property, of rank, &c., when he is not.

2. The anpleasant sensations which must harass an individual apprehensive that sooner or later his real character will appear. Institute a contrast between an honest man and a hypocrite.

3. Expose the hollowness and iniquity of a man assuming an office which he does not intend to perform in the sense in which he outwardly professes to undertake it. Show that blandness of manners is no compensation whatever for dereliction of principle. Show that were this system to become general, morality would be overturned, and society reduced to savage brutality.

SECTION V. -THE FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF

CHARACTER.

LESSON 194,

· 512. The Formal Description is intended to depict the character, actions, and peculiarities of men distinguished for their public services or exalted position. 513. RULE. - A complete Description will re

. quire attention to the following:

1. The birth, parentage, age, edueation, and associates of the individual.

2. The person, manners, gait, deportment. 3. The actions and permanent effects.

4. The character, disposition, principles, and public and private habits.

It is not necessary that the precise order of the preceding be observed, nor that all the particulars be dwelt upon. A writer will be guided by his own taste, the extent of his materials, and the importance of his object.

514. Mode of Exercise. - 1. An Analysis of the leading particulars.

2. Reproduction of the whole from recollection,

3. A Comparison between your own and the example.

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515. MODEL,- EDWARD III.

1. Edward's constitution had been impaired by the fatigues of his youth, so that he began to feel the infirmities of old age, before they approach the common course of nature ; and now he was seized with a malignant fever, attended with eruptions, that soon put a period to his life. 'When his distemper became so violent, that no hope of his recovery remained, all his attendants forsook him, as a bankrupt no longer able to requite their services. The unworthy Alice, waiting until she perceived him in the agonies of death, was so inhuman as to strip him of his rings and jewels, and leave him without one. domestic to close his eyes, or perform the last offices to his breathless corse. In this deplorable condition, bereft of comfort and assistance, the mighty Edward lay expiring, when a priest not quite so savage as the rest of his domestics, ap proached his bed ; and, finding him sti]] breathing, began to administer some comfort to his soul. Edward had not yet lost all perception, when he foumd himself thus abandoned and forlorn, in the last moments of his life. He was just able to express a deep sense of sorrow and contrition for the errors of his conduct, and died pronouncing the name of Jesus.

2. Such was the piteous and obscure end of Edward the Third, undoubtedly one of the greatest princes that ever swayed the sceptre of England ; whether we respect him as a warrior, a lawgiver, a monarch, or a man. He possessed all the romantic spirit of Alexander ; the penetration, the forti. tude, the polished manners of Julius ; the liberality, the munificence, the wisdom of Augustas Cæsar. He was tall, majestic, finely shaped, with a piercing eye, and aquiline visage. He excelled all his contemporaries in feats of arms and personal address. He was courteous, affable, and eloquent; of a free deportment, and agreeable conversation ; and had the art of commanding the affection of his subjects, without scerning to solicit popularity. The love of glory was certainly the predominant passion of Edward, to the gratification of which he did not scraple to sacrifice the feelings of humanity, the lives of his subjects, and the interests of his country. 'And nothing could have induced or enabled his sople to bear the load of taxes with which they were encumbered in his reign, but the love and admiration of his person, the fame of his victories, and the excellent laws and regulations which the parliament enacted with his advice and con

currence.

LESSON 195.

516. In the following Example, 1. Enumerate the points of character which the Author has especially exhibited.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection. 3. Institute a Comparison between the two.

517. MODEL-NAPOLEON BONAPARTE,

1. To bring together in a narrower compass what seem to us the great leading features of the intellectual and moral character of Napoleon Bonaparte, we may remark, that his intellect was distinguished by rapidity of thought. He understood by a glance what most men, and superior men, could learn only by study. He darted to a conclusion rather by intuition than by reasoning. In war, which was the only subject of which he was master, he seized in an instant on the great points of his own and his enemy's positions; and combined at once the movements by which an overpowering force might be thrown with unexpected fury on a vulnerable part of the hostile line, and the fate of an army be decided in a day. He anderstood war as a science; but his mind was too bold, rapid, and irrepressible, to be enslaved by the technics of his profession. He found the old armies fighting by rule; and ae discovered the true characteristic of genius, which, without despising rules, knows when and how to break them. He understood thoroughly the immense moral power which is gained ty originality and rapidity of operation. He astonished and paralysed his enemies by his unforeseen and impetuous assäults, by the suddenness with which the storm of battle burst

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