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high, between which run sort of network cross roads, trees on both sides, sometimes meeting in arches. 16. These cross roads extremely like, each lying between two small hills, no stranger find his way place to place, know where he was, unless familiar country. 17. Nay, said natives themselves lose

way few miles from home. 18. Roads rough, wet, often served as watercourses streams rainy weather.

19. When army penetrated entangled roads, peasantry, hidden among trees both sides, take deliberate aim, fire upon soldiers, without being exposed; when troops endeavoured penetrate hedges on each side, to reach concealed enemy, country people retreated across fields behind line of bushes capable of being defended similar manner.

LESSON 127. – Memoriter Exercise.

359. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.


1. A winter-evening in an Icelandic family presents a scene in the highest degree interesting and pleasing. Between three and four o'clock the lamp is hung up in the badstofa or principal apartment, which answers the double purpose of a bed-chamber and sitting-room, and all the members of the family take their station, with their work in their hands, on their respective beds, all of which face each other. The master and mistress, together with the children or other relations, occupy the beds at the inner end of the room ; the rest are filled by the servants.

2. The work is no sooner begun, than one of the family, selected on purpose, advances to a seat near the lamp, and commences the evening lecture, which generally consists of some old saga, or such other histories as are to be obtained on the island. Being only ill supplied with printed books, the Icelanders are under the necessity of copying such as they can procure the loan of, which sufficiently accounts for the fact, that most of them write a hand equal in beauty to that of the ablest writing-masters in other parts of Europe. Some specimens of their Gothic writing are scarcely inferior to copper-plate. The reader is frequently interrupted, either by the head, or some of the more intelligent members of the family, who make remarks on various parts of the story, and propose questions, with a view to exercise the ingenuity of the children and servants. In some houses, the sagas are repeated by such as have got them by heart; and instances are not uncommon of itinerant historians, who gain a livelihood during, the winter, by staying at different farms till they have exhausted their stock of literary knowledge.

At the conclusion of the evening labours, which are frequently continued till near midnight, the family join in singing a psalm or two; after which, a chapter from some book of devotion is read, if the family be not in possession of a Bible; but where this sacred book exists, it is preferred to every other. A prayer is also read by the head of the family, and the exercise concludes with a psalm. Their morning devotions are conducted in a similar manner, at the lamp. When the Icelander awakes, he does not salute any person that may have slept in the room with him; but hastens to the door, and, lifting up his eyes towards heaven, adores Him who made the heavens and the earth, the author and preserver of his being, and the source of every blessing. He then returns into the house, and salutes every one he meets, with “ God grant you a good day.”

LESSON 128.-Hints. 361. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description, developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the rule :


1. Our Journcy Nazareth led over hilly stony tract, no resemblance deep rich soil before passed. 2. Rocks consisted hard compact lime stone. 3. Dress of Arabs in this part Holy-Land, indeed throughout Syria, simple uniform ; of blue shirt descending below the knees, legs and feet exposed, latter sometimes covered with cothurnus or buskin. 4. A cloak is worn coarse heavy camel's hair-cloth, almost universally decorated with broad black and white stripes, passing vertically down back : this one square piece holes for the arms : seam down the back. 5. Made without seam, greater value.

6. In the valley one of those fountains, from time immemorial, halting place caravans, sometimes scene contention bloodshed. 7. Women of Nazareth passing to from town, pitchers upon heads. 8. We stopped to view group camels, drivers there reposing ; and calling to mind manners remote ages, we renewed solicitation of Abraham's servant unto Rebecca, well of Nabor. 9. In writings early pilgrims and travelers, this spring denominated “ fountain of Virgin Mary ;” and certainly, if a spot, throughout the Holy Land, that was undoubtedly honoured by presence, we may consider this to have been ; because situation copious spring not liable to change; and because custom of repairing thither draw water has been continued female inhabitants of Nazareth from earliest period. 10. After leaving this fountain, ascended to town, were conducted to house principal Christian inhabitant Nazareth. 11. Scarcely reached apartment prepared reception, when, from the window into court-yard belonging to house, beheld two women grinding at mill, in manner most forcibly illustrating saying of our Saviour. 12. They were preparing flour to make our bread, always customary strangers arrive. 13. Two women seated on the ground, opposite, held between them two round flat stones, such as in Lapland, and such as in Scotland called querns; but circumstance is so interesting, (our Saviour's allusion actually referring to existing custom in the place of his earliest residence,) that a little repetition may pardoned. 14. In centre of upper stone cavity for pouring in corn ; and, side of this, upright wooden handle for moving the stone. 15. As operation began, one of the women with her right hand, pushed this handle to woman opposite, who again sent it to companion,—thus communicating rotatory and rapid motion to upper stone; left hands being all the time employed supplying fresh corn, as fast as bran and flour escaped from sides of machine.

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LESSON 129. - Original. 363. From the following subjects, the pupil may select one or more for Description according to the preceding rule:

1. A description of the principles and ceremonies of some religious denomination.

2. A description of the mode of life and habits of Fishermen or Sailors.

3. A description of mode of life with anecdotes of the Coast-Guard.

4. A description of the habits and customs of some rural district.

5. A description of the qualifications, and habits of members of some trade or profession.






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RULE. 1. Briefly describe the objects in the order in which they present themselves to your notice.

2. Let the most striking and interesting phenomena occupy the largest share of your attention and receive an ample development.

3. Let the minor incidents which may be introduced be rendered not only subservient but ornamental to the leading objects.

Memoriter Exercise.

365. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.


1. With the earliest dawn of morning we were on deck, in hope of seeing the English coast; but the mists veiled it from our view. A spectacle, however, the most grand in nature, repaid us for our disappointment, and we found the circumstances of a sunrise at sea, yet more interesting than those of

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