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LESSON 112.- Original. 326. From the following Subjects, the Pupil may select one or more for description according to the preceding rule. It is expected that he will draw solely from his own observation.

1. A description of some route, taken either by coach or railroad. The incidents occurring on the road may be briefly introduced.

2. A ramble into the country. 3. A sojourn at the sea-side.

SECTION U.

OBJECTS OF GENERAL CURIOSITY OR

ANTIQUITY.

LESSON 113. 327. QUALIFICATIONS.

- In addition to the qua. lifications recommended (Art. 311.), a knowledge of the principal terms of Architecture will be advantageous.

328. GENERAL RULE, . 1. Either at the commencement, or at a very early stage, give a brief description of the locality in which the object is situated.

2. State its general appearance, figure, or form.

3. State its antiquity or date of construction, and, if requisite, a brief sketch of its history.

4. The purpose for which it was designed, its convenience or suitableness.

5. The striking characteristics which distinguish from other objects of the same kind.

6. The feelings or reflections excited by a consideration of the whole.

Whether all or only a few of the preceding particulars be included in a description, will depend on the taste or object of the writer.

The numerals 1. 2. 3. &c. in the Memoriter Exercises refer to the divisions of the rule.

Memoriter Exercise.

329. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times orer, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

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1. The three pyramids that are the most taken notice of by travelers, as exceeding all the rest both in bulk and beauty, are situated on a ridge of rocky hills, on the borders of the Libyan desert, about ten miles westward from the village of Ghiza, which is supposed to be the spot where the ancient Memphis stood, though there are now not the least traces to be found of the ruins of that great and renowned city.

2. The largest of these pyramids, which has suffered least by time and weather, is six hundred and ninety-three English feet square at the base, and its perpendicular height is four hundred and ninety-nine feet; but if the height be taken as the pyramid ascends inclining, it is then six hundred and ninety-three feet; which is exactly equal to the breadth of the base, so that the angles and base make an equilateral triangle. The whole area, therefore, of the base contains four hundred and eighty-two thousand two hundred and fortynine square feet, which is something more than eleven acres of ground.

5. On the outside of this pyramid there is an ascent by steps ; the breadth and depth of every step is one entire stone, and several of them are thirty feet in length. The top of the pyramid does not end in a point, as it appears to those who view it from below, but in a little square consisting of nine stones, besides two that are wanting at the angles. Each side of the platform is about sixteen feet; so that a considerable number of persons may stand upon ito From this elevation there is one of the most beautiful prospects that can be imagined.

4.. On the north side of the large pyramid, sixteen steps from the bottom, there is a narrow passage leading downwards into the body of the structure. Those who have explored this passage find within, galleries, chambers, and a noble hall, built of Thebaic marble situated in the centre of the pyramid. In this stately hall stands a tomb, which consists of one entire piece marble hollowed, without any lid or covering; and on being struck it sounds like a bell. The general opinion is, that it was designed for the tomb of Cheops or Chemnis, king of Egypt, the supposed founder of this pyramid. There is no appearance, however, of any corpse having been laid in it.

3. and 6. The utmost uncertainty exists in all that concerns the construction of the pyramids. Their builders, origin, date, and purposes, are entirely lost in the night of ages. As the sides of all the Pyramids face the cardinal points, and of course give the true meridian of the places where they are situated, it would seem that their builders had made some progress in scientific knowledge ; and the structures them. selves, under all circumstances, notwithstanding their plain exterior, clearly show the advanced state of art in those very early times.

LESSON 114. - Hints.

331. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the rule:

332. — ALHAMBRA. 1. Alhambra, ancient fortress and palace of the Moorish kings, its situation on the top of a hill overlooking the city, surrounded by a wall high and thick. 2. The road by a winding path through wood, lofty elms, poplars, oleanders, orange and lemon trees. 3. By side of the path beautiful marble fountains, streams transparent rushing down. 4. En. trance an archway, a key carved over, symbol of the Mahomedan monarchs. 5. This gate called that of Justice, according to Eastern forms, where kings administered justice.

6. Leaving Gate of Judgment, passed through another now converted into a chapel, with fatigue arrived at Square of the cisterns, under which water is brought from another hill, distance of a league. 7. These reservoirs large, contained an ample supply for the numerous inhabitants formerly dwelling here. From this prospect surrounding country fine, majestic Sierra Nevada seemed impending over us.

8. Apartments in this palace of enchantment numerous, should fear fatiguing by describing. 9. Character of the whole remote from all objects to which we are accustomed, impressions of wonder and delight excited, afford pleasing recollections during the remainder of my life. 10. This noble palace hastening to decay, without repairs, finances of Spain inadequate, in a few years this will be a pile of ruins ; ics voluptuous apartments, stately columns, lofty walls, mingled together, no memorial be left in Spain of a people once governing the Peninsula.

LESSON 115. - Memoriter Exercise.

333. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

334. MODEL. — Conway CASTLE, 1. The venerable fortress of Conway Castle stands in a picturesque situation a short distance from the mouth of the river Conway, at the northern extremity of the county of Caernarvon in Wales.

2. The castle in form is an oblong square, and stands on the edge of a steep rock, which is washed on two sides by an arm of the river. The walls, which are ten or twelve feet thick, are all embattled, and flanked by eight vast circular embattled towers, each of which formerly had a slender machicolated tower rising from the top, from which hot sub stances could be poured on the assailants below. On the side towards the river one of the towers has been rent asunder by some of the inhabitants of the town quarrying the foundation for slates ; part of it stands erect, and part hangs in a slanting direction, forming altogether a singular ruin. The interior consists of two courts, bounded by the various apart. ments, all of which are in a lamentable state of decay, though still bearing strong marks of former magnificence.

3. and 4. It was erected in 1284, by command of Edward the First, as a security against the insurrections of the Welsh. Soon after its erection, the royal founder was besieged in it, and the garrison almost reduced by famine to a surrender, when they were extricated by the arrival of a fleet with pro

sions.

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