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LESSON 6. - Analysis of Words. 27. Words will frequently require a careful analysis, in order that we may exactly determine their peculiar difference either in meaning or application.

Thus, were we required to point out the difference between geography and topography, we might say,

Geography treats of the general divisions, natural boundaries, and relative position of a country at large.

Topography is the particular description of any specified town, village, hamlet, or local situation, and to the examination of which it is restricted.

EXERCISES. -a. Show by analysis in writing, the difference between the following things ;

1. A bird and a quadruped. 5. A bed and a sofa. 2. A fish and a bird.

6. A field and a garden. 3. A reptile and a quad- 7. A canal and a river. ruped.

8. A castle and a mansion. 4. A clock and a watch.

b. Explain in writing, the difference between the following words;

1. Geometry and algebra. 5. Pride and vanity. 2. A lie and a mistake. 6. Frugality and avarice. 3. Ambiguous and equivo- 7. Decision and obstinacy. cal.

8. Presumption and confi4. Prudence and wisdom.



LESSON 7. - Analogy. 28. Analogy, as was explained in No. 14., denotes the relation which two things (perhaps themselves very unlike each other) may have to a third. Analogical reasoning is employed in cases in which no direct and positive information on the subject


exists. In arguments of this kind, caution must be observed, not to extend the analogy beyond what the just relation warrants.

ILLUSTRATIONS. — 1. An egg and a seed are in themselves unlike, but there exists a like relation between the parent bird and its young on the one hand, and the old and young plant on the other. The connection is, in this instance, obvious.

2. There is a close analogy between the wings of a bird and the fins of a fish. The wings of a bird enable it to move aloft in the air ; the fins of a fish enable it to pursue its course through the water. The one is provided with strong sinews to act on the air, the other with equal power to impress the wave; while each is moved with equal facility in the element for which it is designed.

3. Bishop Butler, in his Analogy of Religion, chap. V., compares, analogically, the present life as forming the proper preparation for another, as, childhood is a preparation for manhood. “ The beginning of life,” says he, “ considered as an education for mature age in the present world, appears plainly analogous to our present state of trial for a future one ; the former being in our temporal capacity, what the latter is in our religious capacity."

EXERCISES. — Describe in writing the analogy between the following objects ;

1. The wings of a bird and the legs of an animal.
2. The wheels of a carriage and the sails of a vessel.
3. The art of painting and the art of writing.
4. Genius and the sun.
5. Intoxication and insanity.
6. Darkness and affliction.
7. A tree and an animal.
8. Food and education.
9. The gills of a fish and the lungs of a quadruped.
10. Comfort and light.

LESSON 8. - Definition and Judgment. 29. Definition. ---Rule.--In defining or explaining a thing, carefully enumerate all the particulars comprehended under the term, but avoid using the same word as the one which is to be explained. (See Nos. 20, 21.)

Thus, in defining the word “ abdication,” were I to say it is the act of abdicating, I should convey to the mind no ade. quate conception of the true import of the word.

30. Judgment. — By judgment is here meant the conclusion at which the mind has arrived, either by some process of reasoning, by experience, or by the evidence of the senses.

ILLUSTRATION. — Were the pupil required to express an opinion or judgment respecting procrastination, he should in the first place inquire,“ What is procrastination ?” The answer to this question would form the definition. He should next consider what are the effects, whether good or bad? This will enable him to form an opinion or conclusion. He may then arrange the two in a manner similar to the following;

Definition. - Procrastination is delaying that which we know cannot be finally escaped.

Judgment. — Every man ought to be awakened to the immediate and active prosecution of accomplishing whatever his duty tells him to do.

EXERCISES. - Express in writing a definition and judgment of the following ;1. Flattery. 4. Piety.

7. Charity. 2. Industry. 5. Virtue.

8. Courage. 3. Temperance. 6. Friendship.

9. Perseverance.

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LESSON 9. Definition and Judgment. Express in writing a definition and judgment of the following ;1. Truth.

4. Cleanliness. 7. Resentment. 2. Falsehood. 5. Humility. 8. Order. 3. Sloth. 6. Envy.

9. Happiness.



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LESSON 10.- Choice of Words and Phrases. 31. Rule 1. — Employ only those words and phrases which are acknowledged English; that is, those which have obtained the sanction of good authors. Whether a plain native phraseology, to the exclusion of all foreign words whatever, shall be employed, or one which, though Saxon in the main, shall incorporate duly authorised Latin words and idioms, will depend on the taste of the writer, as well as on the nature of the composition. In either case, good sense will recommend the practice adopted by the best writers. It may here be noticed, that whilst the ordinary or second-rate writers of novels and romances are frequently introducing words and phrases borrowed from the French, Spanish, and Italian languages, our firstrate standard writers are wisely cautious in cultivating a vigorous and home-bred Saxon mode of expression.

Obs. 1. In works, therefore, intended for general readers, avoid the use of foreign, learned, and technical terms, except when absolutely requisite to describe some invention, artistical design, or foreign scene.

Obs. 2. It is scarcely necessary to add, that all low, vulgar, provincial, and ungrammatical expressions must be avoided.

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