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uniform.-Examples.-Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Eneid, and Milton's Paradise Lost.

233. MOCK-HEROIC is a mixture of comic and heroic forming a jocose parody on some great poem. Of this kind is Homer's Battle of the Frogs and Mice. Here the poet adopts the sublime style of epic composition to describe a ridiculous contest between a few rats and frogs; and forces his reader to smile at the wide difference between the loftiness of his verse and the insignificancy of his heroes. Pope's Rape of the Lock is an instance of this kind.

234. TRAGEDY is an exhibition of the characters and behaviour of men in some of the most trying and critical situations of life, and describes their passions, virtues, crimes, and sufferings. Tragedy, when properly conducted, points out to men the consequences of their own misconduct, shows the direful effects which ambition, jealousy, love, resentment, and other such strong emotions, when misguided or left unrestrained, produce upon human life.

235. COMEDY is sufficiently discriminated from Tragedy by its general spirit and strain. While pity and terror, and the other strong passions, form the province of the latter, the chief, or rather the sole instrument of the former, is ridicule. Comedy aims at correcting improprieties and follies of behaviour, by giving us pictures taken from among ourselves, by exhibiting to the age a faithful copy of itself, and by satirising the predominant vices.

In the

236. THE SONNET is a short poem containing fourteen lines, which are divided into two stanzas of four lines each, and two of three lines. first eight lines there must be only three rhymes. 237. EPIGRAM.-The word Epigram originally meant an inscription, which was generally engraved or written on pillars, porches, or the pedestals or bases of statues; but it now signifies a short and witty poetical composition, the point or humour of which is expressed in the latter lines.

238. The EPITAPH is nearly allied to the epigram and has a similar derivation, meaning, literally, an inscription. Like the epigram, too, it was orignally very simple in its structure, consisting frequently of a single line, or even of a few words, which served to attract the notice of the passenger. -In a good epitaph, the name, and something of the character of the deceased should be introduced; but every thing that is either light, trifling, or fulsome, should be avoided.

239. MADRIGAL is a little piece not confined either to the scrupulous regularity of a sonnet, or the pointedness of an epigram; but consisting of some tender and delicate, yet simple thought, suitably expressed.

For Exercises on this Lesson, a series of Questions may be proposed.





240. The Exercises in this Section may comprise two operations:

1st. The Mutation of Poetry into Prose;

2nd. Critical Remarks on the Example.

241. MUTATION OF THE POETICAL EXTRACT INTO PROSE.-1. In rendering the Poetical Extract into correct Prose, it must be observed, that every sentence in Poetry will require a corresponding one in Prose.

2. As much as possible, the exact meaning and spirit of the original must be retained.

3. Poetical terms and idioms must be carefully excluded, and appropriate prose constructions substituted in their place.

4. Regard must be had to accuracy of Punctuation, and a skilful connection of the sentences.

242. CRITICAL REMARKS. These will consist of such observations as may reasonably be expected from youths of average ability, whose attention has been directed to subjects of this kind. Whether a full discussion of every particular comprised under the following heads, or only a selection of one or two may be deemed the preferable mode, must depend on the discretion of the In


1. An Analysis, or (if too difficult) a brief Enumeration of the leading topics, sentiments, or

incidents contained in the Exercise; with remarks on their practical tendency, or the justness of the Author's reasonings.

2. Observations on the suitableness of any Figure of Speech introduced.

3. Observations on the appositeness and significancy of the Epithets employed.

4. Underline whatever instances of Poetical License may occur.



In such a world, so thorny, and where none
Finds happiness unblighted, or if found,
Without some thistly sorrow at its side,
It seems the part of wisdom, and no sin
Against the law of love, to measure lots
With less distinguished than ourselves, that thus
We may with patience bear our moderate ills,
And sympathize with others, suffering more.
Ill fares the traveller now, and he that stalks
In ponderous boots beside his reeking team.
The wain goes heavily, impeded sore

By congregated loads adhering close

To the clogg'd wheels; and in its sluggish pace
Noiseless appears a moving hill of snow.
The toiling steeds expand the nostril wide,
While ev'ry breath by respiration strong
Forced downward, is consolidated soon
Upon their jutting chests. He, form'd to bear
The pelting brunt of the tempestuous night,
With half-shut eyes and pucker'd cheeks, and teeth
Presented bare against the storm, plods on.
One hand secures his hat, save when with both

He brandishes his pliant length of whip,
Resounding oft, and never heard in vain.
Oh happy! and in my account, denied
That sensibility of pain with which
Refinement is endued, thrice happy thou.
Thy frame robust and hardy, feels indeed
The piercing cold, but feels it unimpair'd.
The learned finger never need explore

Thy vigorous pulse; and the unhealthful east,
That breathes the spleen, and searches every bone
Of the infirm, is wholesome air to thee.

Thy days roll on exempt from household care;
Thy waggon is thy wife; and the poor beasts
That drag the dull companion to and fro,
Thine helpless charge, dependent on thy care.
Ah treat them kindly! rude as thou appear'st,
Yet show that thou hast mercy, which the great
With needless hurry whirl'd from place to place,
Humane as they would seem, not always show.

244. The preceding rendered into Prose.


In a thorny world as ours is, in which all are exposed to some annoyance, or feel, at times, some prickly sorrow, it is the part of wisdom frequently to contrast our own condition with that of others less distinguished, or less fortunate. We may thus learn to bear with patience what cannot be removed, and to sympathize with others whose sufferings exceed our


In a wintry snow-storm, ill fares the traveller; and equally so, the poor waggoner who stalks in ponderous boots beside his reeking team. The wain whose wheels are clogged by congregated loads adhering close goes heavily; and in its sluggish noiseless pace appears a moving hill of snow. toiling steeds expand the nostrils wide, while every breath forced downward by respiration strong, is soon consolidated upon their jutting chests. He, formed to bear the pelting


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