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168. VISION OF IMAGERY is a figure used only in animated and dignified compositions, when, instead of relating something that is past or future, we employ the present tense, and describe it as actually passing before our eyes.
Thus, Cicero, in his fourth oration against Catiline, says, "I seem to myself to behold this city, the ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly involved in one conflagration. I see before me the slaughtered heaps of citizens, lying unburied in the midst of their ruined country. The furious countenance of Cethegus rises to my view, while, with a savage joy, he is triumphing in your miseries."
169. a. CLIMAX is a figure in which the sense rises, by successive steps, to what is more and more important, or descends to what is more and more minute; as, "There is no enjoyment of property without government; no government without a magistrate; no magistrate without obedience; and no obedience where every one acts as he pleases."
b. Climax is the same as Amplification, Enumeration, or Gradation.
c. A writer or speaker, who, by force of argument, has established his principal point, may sometimes introduce this figure with advantage at the close of his discourse.
170. The Anti-clamax, or the opposite of Climax, is sometimes introduced to diminish great objects, and render such as are diminutive even more so.
171. In addition to the preceding figures of
speech, there are others, such as the Litotes, which affirms more strongly by denying the contrary; the Parallelism, or the similar construction of the members of a sentence; the Catachresis, or abuse of words, when the words are too far wrested from their proper meaning; as, a beautiful voice, a sweet sound; and a few others of minor importance and of rare occurrence.
172. Neatly transcribe the following Examples, and subjoin to each a few Remarks tending to show its propriety:
1. Interrogation, a.-Does God, after having made his creatures, take no further care of them? Has he left them to blind fate or undirected chance? Has he forsaken the works of his own hands? Or does he always graciously preserve, and keep, and guide them?
b. Can storied urn, or animated bust,
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?
Or flattery soothe the dull cold ear of death?
c. Who continually supports and governs this stupendous system? Who preserves ten thousand worlds in perpetual harmony? Who enables them always to observe such time, and obey such laws, as are most exquisitely adapted for the perfection of the wondrous whole? They cannot preserve and direct themselves; for they were created, and must, therefore, be dependent. How, then can they be so actuated and directed, but by the unceasing energy of the Great Supreme?
2. Exclamation.- -a. The Almighty sustains and conducts the universe. It was He who separated the jarring elements! It was He who hung up the worlds in empty space! It is He who preserves them in their circles, and impels them in their course!
b. O, unexpected stroke, worse than of death!
3. Climax.-a. Virtuous actions are necessarily approved by the awakened conscience; and when they are approved, they are commended to practice; and when they are practised, they become easy; and when they become easy, they afford pleasure; and when they afford pleasure, they are done frequently; and when they are done frequently, they are confirmed by habit; and confirmed habit is a kind of second nature.
b. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life; nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers; nor things present, nor things to come; nor height nor depth; nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES ON FIGURATIVE Language.
173. In the following Examples (which must be neatly transcribed), First, Prefix the name of the Figure exemplified; Secondly, Underline the words illustrating it; and, Thirdly, Subjoin to each Example Remarks showing its propriety:
174. When the mountains shall be dissolved; when the foun
dations of the earth and the world shall be destroyed; when all sensible objects shall vanish away, he will still be the everlasting God; he will be when they exist no more, as he was when they had no existence at all.
175. The character of Demosthenes is vigour and austerity; that of Cicero is gentleness and insinuation. In the one, you find more manliness; in the other, more ornament. The one is more harsh, but more spirited and cogent; the other, more agreeable, but withal, looser and weaker.
176. Ah! why will kings forget that they are men,
Of Nature, that should knit their souls together
177. The passage of the Jordan is a type of baptism, by the grace of which the new-born Christian passes from the slavery of sin into a state of freedom peculiar to the chosen sons of God.
178. Forth steps the spruce philosopher, and tells
And principles; of causes, how they work
The source of the disease, that nature feels,
And bids the world take heart and banish fear.
Thou fool! will thy discovery of the cause
Suspend the effect or heal it?
Has not God
Still wrought by means since first he made the world?
And did he not of old employ his means
Go, dress thine eyes with eye-salve; ask of him.
And learn, though late, the genuine cause of all.
179. O, the dark days of vanity! while here,
How tasteless! and how terrible, when gone! Gone? they ne'er go: when past, they haunt us still. Remarks.
PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES CONTINUED.
180. The following Exercises must be neatly transcribed, observing, First, To prefix to each Example the name of the Figure under which it may be classified; Secondly, Underline the particular words exemplifying the Figure; Thirdly, Subjoin to each Example Remarks showing its propriety:
181. Where thy treasure? Gold says, "not in me;" And, "not in me," the diamond. Gold is poor.
182. "I saw their chief," says the scout of Ossian, "tall as a rock of ice; his spear, the blasted fir; his shield, the rising moon; he sat on the shore like a cloud of mist on the hill." Remarks.
183. Grief is the counter passion of joy. The one arises from agreeable, and the other from disagreeable events,—the one from pleasure, and the other from pain,-the one from good, and the other from evil.
184. Like April morning clouds, that pass,
With varying shadow, o'er the grass;
And imitate, on field and furrow,
Life's chequer'd scene of joy and sorrow;