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168, VISION or IMAGERY is a figure used only in animated and dignified compositions, when, instead of relating something that is past or future, we employ the present tense, and describe it as actually passing before our eyes.

Thus, Cicero, in his fourth oration against Catiline, says, “I seem to myself to behold this city, the ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly involved in one conflagration. I see before me the slaughtered heaps of citizens, lying unburied in the midst of their ruined country. The furious countenance of Cethēgus rises to my view, while, with a savage joy, he is triumphing in

your miseries.”

169. a. CLIMAX is a figure in which the sense rises, by successive steps, to what is more and more important, or descends to what is more and more minute; as, “ There is no enjoyment of property without government; no government without a magistrate; no magistrate without obedience; and no obedience where every one acts as he pleases." 6. Climax is the same as Amplification, Enumeration, or Gradation.

c. A writer or speaker, who, by force of argument, has established his principal point, may sometimes introduce this figure with advantage at the close of his discourse.

170. The Anti-clamax, or the opposite of Climax, is sometimes introduced to diminish great objects, and render such as are diminutive even more so.

171. In addition to the preceding figures of

that for all these things God will bring thee into judgment.

Remarks. c. Archbishop Tillotson, speaking of Popery, thus expresses himself:

“If it seem good to us to put our necks once more under that yoke which our fathers were not able to bear ; if it be really a preferment to a prince to hold the pope's stirrup, and a privilege to be disposed of him at pleasure, and a courtesy 'to be killed at his command :- - if, to pray without understanding:- to obey without reason: - and to believe against sense; if ignorance and implicit faith, and an inquisition be in good earnest such charming and desirable things; then, welcome Popery, which, wherever thou comest, dost infallibly bring all these wonderful privileges and blessings along with thee. Remarks.

LESSON 78. INTERROGATION, EXCLAMATION, Vision, Climax. 166. An INTERROGATION is used literally to ask a question; but, figuratively, it is employed, when the passions are greatly moved, to affirm or deny more strongly. Thus, “ The Lord is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent; hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good ?

167. EXCLAMATION is used to express agitated feeling, admiration, wonder, surprise, anger, joy, grief, &c.; thus, “O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!”

168, VISION or IMAGERY is a figure used only in animated and dignified compositions, when, instead of relating something that is past or future, we employ the present tense, and describe it as actually passing before our eyes.

Thus, Cicero, in his fourth oration against Catiline, says, “I seem to myself to behold this city, the ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly involved in one conflagration. I see before me the slaughtered heaps of citizens, lying unburied in the midst of their ruined country. The furious countenance of Cethēgus rises to my view, while, with a savage joy, he is triumphing in

your miseries.”

169. a. Climax is a figure in which the sense rises, by successive steps, to what is more and more important, or descends to what is more and more minute; as, “ There is no enjoyment of property without government; no government without a magistrate; no magistrate without obedience; and no obedience where every one acts as he pleases."

6. Climax is the same as Amplification, Enumeration, or Gradation.

C. A writer or speaker, who, by force of argument, has established his principal point, may sometimes introduce this figure with advantage at the close of his discourse.

170. The Anti-clamax, or the opposite of Climax, is sometimes introduced to diminish great objects, and render such as are diminutive even more so.

171. In addition to the preceding figures of speech, there are others, such as the Litotes, which affirms more strongly by denying the contrary; the Parallelism, or the similar construction of the members of a sentence; the Catachresis, or abuse of words, when the words are too far wrested from their proper meaning; as, a beautiful voice, a sweet sound;

and a few others of minor importance and of rare occurrence.

EXERCISES. 172. Neatly transcribe the following Examples, and subjoin to each a few Remarks tending to show its propriety:

1. Interrogation, a. - Does God, after having made his creatures, take no further care of them ? Has he left them to blind fate or undirected chance ? Has he forsaken the works of his own hands? Or does he always graciously preserve, and keep, and guide them ? Remarks. b. Can storied urn, or animated bust,

Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath ?
Can honour's voice provoke the silent dust,

Or flattery soothe the dull cold ear of death ?
Remarks.

c. Who continually supports and governs this stupendous system? Who preserves ten thousand worlds in perpetual harmony? Who enables them always to observe such time, and obey such laws, as are most exquisitely adapted for the perfection of the wondrous whole? They cannot preserve and direct themselves; for they were created, and must, therefore, be dependent. How, then can they be so actuated and directed, but by the unceasing energy of the Great Supreme?

Remarks.

2. Exclamation.--a. The Almighty sustains and conducts the universe. It was He who separated the jarring elements! It was He who hung up the worlds in empty space! It is He who preserves them in their circles, and impels them in their course!

Remarks.
b. O, unexpected stroke, worse than of death!

Must I thus leave thee, Paradise ? Thus leave
Thee, native soil; these happy walks and shades,

Fit haunt of gods !
Remarks.

3. Climax.- -a. Virtuous actions are necessarily approved by the awakened conscience; and wlien they are approved, they are commended to practice; and when they are practised, they become easy; and when they become easy, they afford pleasure ; and when they afford pleasure, they are done frequently ; and when they are done frequently, they are confirmed by habit; and confirmed habit is a kind of second nature.

Remarks.

6. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life; nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers; nor things present, nor things to come; nor height nor depth; nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Remarks.

LESSON 79. PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES ON FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE. 173. In the following Examples (which must be neatly transcribed), First, Prefix the name of the Figure exemplified ; Secondly, Underline the words illustrating it; and, Thirdly, Subjoin to each Example Remarks showing its propriety:

174. When the mountains shall be dissolved; when the foun

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