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the seeds of pride." A view may enable us to discover the beauty of an object, but can never be said to extinguish it. - Again, “ I bridle in my struggling muse with pain, That longs to launch into a bolder strain.” The muse, if figured as a horse, may, indeed, be bridled; but when we speak of launching, we make it a ship; and by no force of the imagination can it be supposed both a horse and a ship at one inoment; bridled to prevent it launching.

b. When we are in doubt, whether the metaphors introduced are, or are not of the mixed kind, we should try to form a picture upon them, and consider how the parts would agree, and what sort of a figure the whole would present, when delineated with a pencil. By this means, we become sensible, whether, as in the faulty instances just given, inconsistent circumstances are mixed, and a monstrous image thereby produced; or whether the object is presented throughout in one natural and consistent point of view.

c. We should avoid not only mixing metaphors, but also, crowding them together on the same subject.

Violation. “There is a time, when factions, by the vehemence of their fermentation, stun and disable one another.” In this sentence, factions are represented first, as discordant fluids, the mixture of which produces violant fermentation, and afterwards, operations and effects are imputed to them which belong only to solid bodies in motion. It would be proper to say, “ There is a time, when factions maim and dismember one another by forcible collision."

144. Rule 5. a. Metaphors should not be pursued too far. When we dwell too long upon the resemblance on which the figure is founded, and carry it into all its minute circumstances, we fatigue the reader by this play of fancy, and render our discourse obscure. This is called straining a meta


Violation. _“The religious," says Hervey, seem to lie in the bosom of the earth, as a wary pilot in some well-sheltered bark.

There they enjoy safe anchorage, are in no danger of foundering among the seas of prevailing iniquity, or of being shipwrecked on the rocks of temptation. But, ere long, we shall behold them hoisting the flag of hope," &c. Such inflated language as this, serves not to instruct, but to distract.

b. Metaphors, expressed by single words, may be introduced on every occasion, from the most careless effusions of conversation to the most passionate expressions of tragedy, and, on all these occasions, they are, perhaps, the most beautiful and significant language that can be employed. The following is an instance:

Man! Thou pendulum betwixt a smile and tear.” Remarks.—Here, the writer, under a deep impression of the varieties in the life of man, in a sudden, striking manner, calls him a pendulum, leaving it to the excited imagination of the reader to trace out the resemblance.

145. Extended Metaphors, which are very appropriate to Descriptive Poetry and the higher species of Oratory, require great care and skill to preserve consistency throughout. Pope frequently employs them with effect, as in the following instance:

“Let us (since life can little else supply

Than just to look about us and to die)
Expatiate free o'er all the scene of man,
A mighty maze, but not without a plan;
A wild, where weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot;
A garden, tempting with forbidden fruit.

Together let us beat this ample field,
Try what the open, what the covert yield;
The latent tracks, the giddy heights explore,

Of those who blindly creep, or sightless soar." REMARKS. - In metaphors of this kind, all the particulars of the primary subject should have others corresponding to them in the metaphoric al one. Care, therefore, should be taken that their qualities be not interchanged, and that those particulars which belong to the primary subject only, may never appear iu the metaphorical one. In the preceding example, the "mighty maze" may represent the human constitution. The "plan" may be the leading principles and feelings of human nature. The “weeds and flowersare virtues and vices, weaknesses and amiabilities. "forbidden fruit" is temptation to irregular indulgence or passion. The

open parts ” designate the knowledge which we can acquire and enjoy. By " the covert” are meant such workings of the mind or economy of the body as we cannot explain. The “latent track" may denote abstruse speculations; and “giddy heights" may signify ambitious designs.


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EXERCISES.—Define a Metaphor. How can the word of God be a lamp? Show the difference between a Metaphor and a Simile. What caution is given with regard to the use of terms ? Mention the sources of metaphors. With what propriety can our Saviour be designated the lamb of God ? A vinema door ? Piso be called a vulture? Chatham a bulwark? Age the sunset of life ? A man's horses become a Charybdis of his estate ? Quote the first rule for the management of the Metaphor. Why compare God to a rock, &c. ? What is meant by forced metaphors ? From what subjects should metaphors be selected ? Quote the second rule for the management of metaphors, and explain the examples. Quote the third rule and explain the examples. In constructing a metaphor, what kind of language should be employed ? Quote the fourth rule and explain the examples. What method is * to be adopted when we are in doubt whether the metaphor is of the mixed kind or not? What is said respecting crowding metaphors ? Quote the fifth rule and explain the examples What is said of metaphors expressed by single words ? extended metaphors ?



METAPHOR CONTINUED. 146. Neatly transcribe the following Examples, underlining the words exemplifying the Figure, and subjoining to each Example a few Remarks tending to show the propriety of the Metaphor:

1. Childhood and youth are vanity. Remarks. 2. Cicero calls Marc Antony -"The torch of the state." Remarks. 3. Conscience is a thousand swords. Remarks. 4. The tree of knowledge, blasted by disputes,

Produces sapless leaves instead of fruits.
5. 0! when the growling winds contend, and all

The sounding forest fluctuates in the storm,
To sink in warm repose, and hear the din

Howl o'er the steady battlements.

6. Shakspeare represents human life under the figure of a voyage at sea, and our progress in it by the figure of a tide in the following words :-

“ There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the full, leads on to fortune ;
Omitted, all the voyage of this life

Is bound in shallows and in miseries."

7. In considering a family connected with a common parent to resemble a tree, the trunk and branches of which are connected with a common root, we make use of a simile; but when we consider the family to be a tree, we convert the simile into a metaphor. Thus, Shakspeare introduces the Duchess of Glouceste , giving an account of the royal pedigree to the Duke of Lancaster, the king's uncle, in the following words:

“Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one,
Were seven fair branches, springing from one root:
Some of these branches by the dest'nies cut.
But Thomas, my dear Lord, my life, my Glo'ster,
One flourishing branch of his most royal root,
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded,

By Envy's hand, and Murder's bloody axe."

8. St. Jude, in his Epistle, verses 12, 13, delivers a series of strong metaphors against those who were attempting to seduce the early Christians from the true faith, thus ;

“ These are spots in your feasts of charity, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear; clouds they are without water, carried about of winds; trees whose fruit withereth, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame: wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of dark. ness for ever."


LESSON 75. Metonymy, Synecdoche, Personification, Apostrophe. 147. A METONYMY is the change of such names as have some relation to each other; as when we put the cause for the effect, or the effect for the cause, the container for the thing contained, the sign for the thing signified.

Thus, 1. The cause for the effect, or, the author for his works; as, “I am reading Virgil," that is, his works. - 2. The effect for the cause ; as,“ Gray hairs should be respected ;” that is, old age. 3. The container for the thing contained; as, “The

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