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(c) Serial pamphlets: Class together by the subject covered. E.g. Farmers' bulletins, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

(d) Independent pamphlets: Class and handle like books if of considerable and permanent value; otherwise file by subject in vertical files or place on shelf by subject protected by cardboard covers tied with tape. Pamphlet boxes are less desirable because the pamphlets become bent from sagging or torn from frequent insertions.

25 Series and society publications

(a) Series formed to cover a certain field and bring together works that, if independent, would be classed outside of the field of the series: Class together. E.g.` (1) The Humanists' library, edited by Lewis Einstein (Boston, 1907-1914). This is an example of a series that brings together, with a selective purpose, works of different content but characterized by being the writings of humanists, and as such of importance and special interest to students of humanism. (2) The Shakespeare classics (London, 1912). Class together because the intent of the series is to bring together from various sources works illustrating the works of Shakespeare as originals or analogs; these works if classed strictly by subject, e.g. Lodge's Rosalynde, would be scattered so far apart as to defeat the purpose of the series.

(b) Series arranged in chronological order or according to some systematic scheme: Class together. E.g. The Chronicles of America series (New Haven, 1919-1921).

Such series have far more significance for the whole ground covered by them than would a series of books arranged alphabetically by authors, whether numbered by volume or not. Series of the kind mentioned are thus in a way comprehensive works in several volumes, each covering one period or aspect of the subject.

(c) Biographical series covering one field of knowledge or one school of thought: Class together. E.g. (1)

English philosophers; (2) Fromanns Klassiker der philosophie (Stuttgart, 1910– ). The latter series includes such diverse subjects as Aristotle, Carlyle, Mill and Goethe, each of whom is treated primarily as a philosophic thinker.

(d) Geographical series intended to include all the colonies of a nation: Class together. E.g. The English people overseas (Boston, 1912, 5v.) As one volume treats of the American Colonies, another of British India, another of Britain in the tropics, the set should be classed together as history of British possessions past and present; its specific subject is thus a history of British colonies as such.

New York State Library scatters such series by individual country.

(e) Series of texts in the less-known languages, or confined to a certain period in the history of a language: Class together. E.g. (1) University of Wales: Welsh texts (London, 1912– ); (2) Early English Text Society (London, 1, 1864– ). To scatter the works composing the latter series would be tragic for the student of early English literature.

(f) Series bringing together works exhibiting the teachings or tenets of a certain religious body, political party, or school of thought: Class together. E.g. Publications of the Wyclif Society.

(g) Series within series: Prefer the included series, especially if significant of some special topic or field. E.g. The Shakespeare classics, which forms one section of the Shakespeare library. Class under sources and analogs of Shakespeare's plays, not with general collections on Shakespeare.

(h) Series in which some or all of the numbered volumes contain more than one work in each: Class together.

(i) Series composed of tracts, pamphlets, or small volumes which it is desirable to bind collectively: Class

together. E.g. (1) A reprint of economic tracts (Balti-
more, 1903-
); (2) Catholic Truth Society publica-

tions.

(j) Series composed of numbered leaflets: Class together. E.g. Publications of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

(k) Series of merely current or temporary usefulness as series: Scatter by subject. E.g. Home university library of modern knowledge.

The passing value of having such series together may be met by shelving them together.

(1) Other series: Scatter by subject.

The varying practice of the libraries represented in the A. L. A. Survey of libraries (Chicago, 1927) in classing "collections and books published in series," is summarized in that work (IV: 49-50).

26 Sets of varying character or contents

Keep together, either leaving the whole set under the original classification, even though unsuited to the later volumes of the series; or changing the whole set to a new location. E.g. Current History, published by the New York Times. This periodical began as Current History of the European War and after the close of the war became a general magazine of current events.

27 Special collections

Special collections, such as private libraries which have become parts of a public or institutional library; or collections made to cover all or certain features of a country or topic, which it is desirable to segregate in some way from the general collections: Class by subject but designate the book by some appropriate symbol prefixed to the call-number. Manuscripts may be treated in the same way. See Manuscripts 57.

By this device either the books will automatically be brought together in one place and will stand arranged in classified order; or if scattered through the library, the symbol will designate them as belonging to the special collection.

28 Thanksgiving Day addresses

Class together rather than attempt to determine the precise topic of the address.

The desire on the part of Thanksgiving Day speakers to avoid triteness may lead them into a great variety of fields; but the topic is nevertheless supposed to have significance for the occasion.

29 Translations

(a) Poetry, history and works in any field except fiction: Class with the originals.

(b) Fiction: Class with English fiction in popular libraries; with the originals in academic libraries.

FORM DIVISIONS

30 Cyclopedias and dictionaries

Class first by subject, secondly by form.

While this rule is almost a truism in library classification, yet it is subject to modification in the case of cyclopedias and dictionaries of somewhat wide scope or field of usefulness. The collection of books of general reference in the reading room may not improperly include cyclopedias of painting and handbooks of statistics arranged in one alphabet of authors; yet it' is doubtful whether this arrangement is more useful than the classified arrangement.

"The various classifications provide for encyclopedic material of special topics under the topic, and as a rule this arrangement is decidedly preferable to any other. If, however, some special reason makes it seem advantageous to bring encyclopedias of all kinds together, this may be done by assigning the class mark designated in the system and prefixing some special mark or stamp, as "Ref." (reference) before the number."—(Pettee). 31 Indexes and calendars

Class with the topic indexed or calendared, not with the bibliography of the topic. E.g. (1) Calendars of state papers, issued by the Master of the Rolls. (2) Indexes of parish registers.

The New York State Library classes calendars with bibliography.

32 Periodicals

(a) Class a periodical according to its scope or by the field that it covers.

The scope of a periodical should be determined by (1) title; (2) editorial announcements; (3) contents. As periodicals are more likely to broaden their scope than to restrict it, it is better in cases of doubt to class by the broader of two fields. When the scope changes essentially, the subject catalog and suitable references serve to make the periodical known under its new scope. E.g. Current History, which started as Current History of the European War. There are decidedly practical difficulties in changing the call-number of a periodical every time it changes its scope or character.

Some libraries may prefer to class together all periodicals indexed in "Poole" in one alphabet for convenience. Now that the Wilson printed indexes to serials, however, include publications in many fields of knowledge, the same purpose is served by shelving the indexed serials in close proximity to the delivery desk.

(b) If a periodical changes title, keep it under the same call-number if the volume numbering is continued; but give it a new number and if necessary a new classification, if the volume numbering begins anew.

This ruling may sound mechanical and arbitrary, but long experience with classing periodicals will confirm alike its simplicity and its practicability.

(c) Periodicals (general in scope) published in a language foreign to that of the country in which they appear: Class by language, placing them in a group by themselves, if desired, under the country. E.g, (1) The East of Asia magazine, a non-political illustrated quarterly (Shanghai, 1902-1906). Published by English residents in Shanghai, China. Class with English, not Chinese, periodicals. (2) Deutscher volksfreund (New York, 1871-1906). Class with German, not American, periodicals. Compare Newspapers 23.

American and English periodicals are, of course, usually separated. The varying practice of libraries represented in the A. L. A. Survey of libraries (Chicago, 1927) in classifying periodicals, is summarized in that work (Iv: 27-35).

BOOKS WRITTEN FOR ONE CLASS

33 Blind

Class books for the blind in a scheme of their own.

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