The Thermal Theory of Cyclones: A History of Meteorological Thought in the Nineteenth Century
Springer, 29 jul. 2016 - 255 páginas
Gisela Kutzbach has provided an unparalleled account of the mainstream of meteorological thought during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This book takes us from the era of attempts to describe disturbances as mechanistic interactions of air currents, through Espy's introduction in the 1830's of the proposition that cyclones are convective systems driven by heat of condensation in central rainy areas, up to the distinctively different polar front theory of 1920, often considered as the birth of modern meteorology. Follies and controversies as well as successes are recounted, and in the tale the cast of characters, many of them acute observers or experimenters as well as theoreticians, and some crusty and dogmatic, are brought to life. The period was one in which basic concepts of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, and energy conversions emerged with parallel accommodations to the special needs of meteorology. Influences of the development of synoptic meteorology and early aerology are thoroughly treated, essential mathematical expositions are presented in their original forms with explications, and theories and analyses are illuminated by numerous well-chosen figures and quotations. Concise but complete, and written in a style easy to comprehend, the treatise is a lively account of a lively time in the development of science. Kutzbach has succeeded well in her objectives, to provide "an insight in the particular problems and methods of problem solving in nineteenth century meteorology" and to illustrate "that science is a human activity and that its development is an open-ended process involving the constant testing of hypotheses."
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Early Applications of the Principles of Adiabatic Change
Early Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics
Emergence of the Thermal Theory of Cyclones
The Thermal Theory Put to Observational Test
Modifications of the Thermal Theory
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The Thermal Theory of Cyclones: A History of Meteorological Thought in the ...
Vista de fragmentos - 1979
adiabatic change adiabatic processes air currents air masses analysis associated atmosphere barometric depression became Bezold Bigelow Bjerknes Buchan cloud cold air convective convective theory cyclone model cyclones and anticyclones cyclonic circulation deflecting force descending motion Dove’s dynamic earth’s Ekholm equation Espy Espy's Ferrel Figure foehn forecasting formation Guldberg and Mohn Hann’s Helmholtz Hildebrandsson Ibid investigations isallobaric isobars Journ kinetic energy Köppen lapse rate latent heat layers Lempfert Loomis Margules meteorology midlatitude cyclones moist air Nineteenth Century observations paper parcel Peslin physical polar cyclone polar front polar front theory potential energy precipitation pressure gradient processes propagation Redfield Reye rotation Sandström scientists Shaw squall line storm studies surfaces of discontinuity synoptic charts theoretical theory of cyclones thermal theory thermal wind Thermodynamic diagram thermodynamics tropical cyclones tropopause Ueber upper levels velocity vertical circulation vortex warm air water vapor weather service Wladimir Köppen Zeits