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charged that this doctrine was contrary to the second Article of Religion.

The FIFTEENTH COUNT extracted the following passage:"For though he embraces, with more than ortho"dox warmth, New Testament terms, he explains them in "such a way that he may be charged with using evangelical language in a philosophical sense. But in reply, "he would ask, what proof is there that the reasonable 66 sense of St. Paul's words was not the one which the Apostle intended? Why may not justification by faith "have meant the peace of mind, or sense of Divine approval, which comes of trust in a righteous God, "rather than a fiction of merit by transfer? St. Paul "would then be teaching moral responsibility, as opposed "to sacerdotalism; or, that to obey is better than sacrifice. "Faith would be opposed, not to the good deeds which "conscience requires, but to works of appeasement by "ritual. Justification would be neither an arbitrary ground "of confidence, nor a reward upon condition of our disclaiming merit, but rather a verdict of forgiveness upon "our repentance, and of acceptance upon the offering of 66 our hearts."

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It alleged that Dr. Williams in this passage did advisedly maintain and affirm that Justification by Faith means only the peace of mind, or sense of Divine approval, which comes of trust in a righteous God, and that justification is a verdict of forgiveness upon our repentance, and of acceptance upon the offering of our hearts; or, "that you did therein advisedly "maintain and affirm a doctrine, position, or opinion, to "that or the like purport or effect, and that such a doctrine,

'position, or opinion, is contrary to, or inconsistent with, the "eleventh of the said Articles of Religion. And this was "and is true, and we article and object as before." It is charged that this doctrine was contrary to the eleventh Article of Religion.

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The SIXTEENTH COUNT extracted the following passage:

At pages 92 and 93-" So, when he asks: How long "shall we bear this fiction of an external revelation,'"that is, of one violating the heart and conscience, instead "of expressing itself through them—or when he says, "All this is delusion for those who believe it; but what ❝is it in the mouths of those who teach it?'—or when he "exclaims, 'Oh, the fools! who, if they do see the immi"nent perils of this age, think to ward them off by narrow"minded persecution!' and when he repeats, 'Is it not "time, in truth, to withdraw the veil from our misery? "to tear off the mask from hypocrisy, and destroy that ""sham which is undermining all real ground under our "feet? to point out the dangers which surround, nay, "threaten already to engulf us?'-there will be some "who think his language too vehement for good taste. "Others will think burning words needed by the disease "of our time. These will not quarrel on points of taste "with a man who in our darkest perplexity has reared "again the banner of truth, and uttered thoughts which "give courage to the weak, and sight to the blind. If "Protestant Europe is to escape those shadows of the "twelfth century, which with ominous recurrence are

closing round us, to Baron Bunsen will belong a foremost

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place among the champions of light and right. Any "points disputable or partially erroneous, which may be "discovered in his many works, are as dust in the "balance, compared with the mass of solid learning, and "the elevating influence of a noble and Christian spirit. "Those who have assailed his doubtful points are equally opposed to his strong ones. Our own testimony is, where "we have been best able to follow him, we have generally "found most reason to agree with him. But our little "survey has not traversed his vast field, nor our plummet "sounded his depth."

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"Bunsen, with voice, like sound of trumpet born,
Conscious of strength, and confidently bold,

Well feign the sons of Loyola the scorn

Which from thy books would scare their startled fold-
To thee our Earth disclosed her purple morn,

And Time his long-lost centuries unrolled;
Far Realms unveiled the mystery of their Tongue;
Thou all their garlands on the CROSS hast hung.

"My lips but ill could frame thy Lutheran speech,
Nor suits thy Teuton vaunt our British pride-
But ah! not dead my soul to giant reach,

That envious Eld's vast interval defied;

And when those fables strange, our hirelings teach,
I saw by genuine learning cast aside,
Even like Linnæus kneeling on the sod,
For faith from falsehood severed, thank I God."

It alleged that in this passage Dr. Williams did advisedly approve of, and adopt, and express adherence to, and assent in the substance of all the said Article, Essay, or Review, as well those parts and words, of which other persons were the original writers, as those written by himself.

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The SEVENTEENTH COUNT was in these words:-And we further article and object to you, the said Reverend Rowland Williams, that the manifest tendency, scope, object, and design of the whole Essay, is to inculcate a disbelief in the Divine Inspiration and authority of the Holy Scriptures, contained in the Old and New Testament, to reduce the said Holy Scriptures to the level of a mere human composition, such as the writings of Luther and of Milton; to deny that the Old Testament contains prophecies or predictions of our Saviour, and other persons and events; to deny that the Prophets, speaking under the special inspiration of the Holy Spirit, foretold human events; to deny altogether, or greatly discredit, the truth and genuineness of the historical portions of the Old Testament, and the truth and genuineness of certain parts of the New Testament, and the truth and reality of the miracles recorded as facts in the Old and New Testament; to deny or interpret by a meaning at variance with that of the Church, the Doctrines of Original Sin, of Infant Baptism, of Justification by Faith, Atonement and Propitiation by the death of our Saviour, and of the Incarnation of our Saviour. And this was and is true, and we article and object as before.

The remaining counts were formal.

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In order to enable the reader to understand that part of the argument which relates to the manner in which the twelfth to the fifteenth counts, both inclusive, are framed, the following passages from the Essay are reprinted in extenso. The passages extracted in the Indictment are italicized.

Essays and Reviews, pp. 80-83, 9th edition.

"This recognition of Christ as the moral Saviour of mankind may seem to some Baron Bunsen's most obvious claim to the name of Christian. For, though he embraces, with more than orthodox warmth, New Testament terms, he explains them in such a way, that he may be charged with using Evangelical language in a philosophical sense. But in reply he would ask, what proof is there that the reasonable sense of St. Paul's words was not the one which the Apostle intended? Why may not justification by faith have meant the peace of mind, or sense of Divine approval, which comes of trust in a righteous God, rather than a fiction of merit by transfer? St. Paul would then be teaching moral responsibility, as opposed to sacerdotalism; or that to obey is better than sacrifice. Faith would be opposed, not to the good deeds which conscience requires, but to works of appeasement by ritual. Justification would be neither an arbitrary ground of confidence, nor a reward upon condition of our disclaiming merit, but rather a verdict of forgiveness upon our repentance, and of acceptance upon the offering of our hearts. It is not a fatal objection, to say that St. Paul would thus teach Natural Religion, unless we were sure that he was bound to contradict it; but it is a confirmation of the view, if it brings his hard sayings into harmony with the Gospels and with the Psalms, as well as with the instincts of our best conscience. If we had dreamed of

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