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230 students, including 65 medical students. It has a good chemical apparatus, a philosophical appatatus, and a valuable anatomical museum. The college library contains about 4,000 volumos, and there are 8 libraries belonging to societies of students, each of which contains nearly 2,000 voltmes. The permanent funds of the college yield about $2,000 a year. This, with the tuition, makes an annual income of about $6,000.
Phillips Exeter Academy, at Exeter, was founded by the Hon. John Phillips L. L. D. in 1781. It is one of the oldest and most flourishing academies in New England. It has funds amounting to about $80,000; a well selected library of 700 volumes, and a handsome philosophical apparatus. Its officers are a principal, a professor of rathematics and natoral philosophy, and an assistant. The funds are appropriated in part to the support of indigent students.
Union Academy, at Plainfield on Connecticut river, 42 miles N. N. of Concord, was established in 1813. It is handsomely endowed, and is intended for the gratuitous education of indigent young men preparing for the ministry, in the studies preparatory to a collegial course.
Population.) The population in 1790 was 141,885 ; in 1800, 183,858; in 1810, 214,460; and in 1820, 244,161; having increased 74 per cent. in 30 years. The great mass of the population is in the southern half of the state. North of Winnipiseogee lake there are very few inhabitants, except on Connecticut river.
Religion.] The Baptists and Congregationalists are the prevailing denominations. In 1817 the number of ordained ministers was estimated at 222, of whom 107 were Baptists, 100 Congregatiopalists, and 15 of other denominations.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a General coort, consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Seoate consists of 13 members chosen annually by districts. The Representatives are chosen by the different towns ; each town having 150 rateable polls sends one Representative, and every addition of 300 polls entitles it to another. The executive pow. er is vested in a Governor, who is chosen annually by general ballot, and a council consisting of 5 members.
Manufactures.) Few countries in the world are better furnished with mill-streams, and mill-seats, than New Hampshire, and manufactories bare increased very rapidly within a few years. There are now more than 30 cotton and woollen factories, many of them on an extensive scale. A glass manufactory has been recently established at Keene, and there are two establishments for the manufacture of iron at Franconia, on a branch of the Lower Ammonoosuck, 14 miles N. E. of Haverhill. The mine from which the iron is obtained is considered the richest in the United States, and is said to be inexhaustible, and there is a large bed of coal within a short distance of the works.
Commerce.] The principal exports are lumber, pot and peari ashes, ash, beef, live cattle, pork and flax seed. The market for the northern part of the state is Portland; for the southeastera,
Portsmouth and Newburyport; for the country on the Merrimack, Boston ; for the country on the Connecticut, Hartford and Boston.
Curiosity.) Bellows falls, in Connecticut river, at Walpole, are regarded as a curiosity. The whole descent of the river in the space of 100 rods is 44 feet. There are several pitches, one above another, at the highest of which a large rock divides the stream into two channels, each about 90 feet wide. When the water is low, the eastern channel is dry, being crossed by a bar of solid rock; and the whole stream falls into the western channel, where it is contracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows with astonishing force and rapidity. In 1792, at a time of severe drought, the water of the river, it is said, passed within a space 12 feet wide and feet deep. A bridge is built over these falls, under which the highest floods pass without detriment.
Islands.] The isles of Shoals, & in number, 11 miles S. E. of Portsmouth. A part of them belong to Maine, and a part to New-Hampshire. They consist of barren rocks and are inhabited by about 100 souls, who subsist by fishing.
Situation and Extent.] Vermont is bounded N. by Lower Canada ; E. by New-Hampshire ; S. by Massachusetts ; and w. by New-York, from which it is separated in part by lake Champlain. The northern boundary is the parallel of 45° N. lat. The state extends from +2° 44' to 45° N. lat. and from 71° 38' to 73° 26' W. lon. It is 157 miles long from N. to S. 90 miles broad on the Dorthern boundary, and 40 on the southern. The area is estimated at 10,212 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 13 counties.
Counties. Pop, in 1810. l'op. in 1820. Chief Towns. 1. Windham,
26,760 28,457 Brattleborough, Newfane. 2. Windsor, 34,877 38,233 Windsor, Woodstock. 3. Orange,
22,085 24,681 Chelsea, Newbury. 4. Caledonia, 14,966 16,669 Danville, Peacham. 5. Essex, 3,087 3,284 Guildball. 6. Grand isle,
3,445 3,527 North Hero. 7. Franklin, 16,427 17,192 St. Albans. 8. Chittenden, 14,684 16,055 Burlington. 9. Aduison, 19,993 20,469 Middlebury, Vergennes. 10. Rutland, 29,+87 29,983 Rutland. 11. Beonington, 15,393 16,125 Bennington, Manchester. 12. Washington, 10,372 14,113 MONTPELIER. 13. Orleans,
5,838 6,976 Irasburg.
The five first named counties lie from S. to N. on Connecticut river, and the five next from N. to S. on lake Champlain. Bennington is in the S. W. corner of the state, Washington in the centre, and Orleans on the northern boundary.
Lakes.) Lake Memphremagog, on the northern boundary, is partly in this state, but principally in Canada. It is 30 miles long and discharges itself through St. Francis river into the St. Lawrence. Lake Champlain, on the western boundary, is 128 miles long, from Whitehall, at its southern extremity, to its termination 24 miles north of the Canada line, and from half a mile to 16 miles broad. It discharges itself at its northern extremity through the river Sorelle into the St. Lawrence. There are several large islands in the northern part of the lake, the principal of wbich are North and South Hero. A battle was fought on this Jake on the 11th of September 1814, in which the American fleet, under Commodore Macdonough, gained a complete victory over the British.
Rivers.] The Connecticut forms the eastern boundary. The principal tributaries of the Connecticut, beginning in the south, are, 1. West river, which joins it about 10 miles from the southern boundary; 2. Qucechy, which discharges itself 10 miles above Windsor; 3. White river, which discharges itself 5 miles above the Queechy, and 4. The Pasuinpsic, which rises a little S. E. of lake Memphremagog, and ruoning south, discharges itself 15 or 20 miles above Newbury.
The principal rivers which fall into lake Champlain, beginning in the north, are, 1. Missisque river, which rises to the S. W. of lake Memphremagog, and runs into Missisque bay in the N. E. part of the lake. 2. La Moil, which rises to the south of lake Memphremagog, and ronding west falls into the lake 10 miles north of Burlington. 3. Onion river, which rises still farther south, and running nearly parallel with La Moil, passes by Montpelier, and discharges itself into the lake 4 miles N. W. of Burlington village. 4. Otter creek, which rises in the southwestern part of the state, and running in a direction west of north, passes by Rutland, Middlebury and Vergennes, and discharges itself about 20 miles south of Burlington.-None of the rivers of Vermont are navigable, except for a few miles from their mouths ; but they abound with valuable mill seats, especially Otter creek.
Mountains.) The Green mountains, from which the state derives its name, come from Massachusetts, and run from south to north along the east side of Bennington, Rutland and Addison counties. In Addison county they divide; the western and principal chain continues a northerly course, and terminates near the northern boundary of the state in a succession of small hills ; wbile the height of land, as it is called, strikes off to the northeast, dividing the waters which fall into the Connecticut froma those which fall into lake Memphremagog and lake Champlain. The western range presents much the loftiest summits, but has openings which afford a passage for Onion and La Moil rivers..
The highest summits of the Green mountains are Killington peak, a few miles east of Kutland; Camel's Rump, about half way between Montpelier and Burlington, and Mansfield mountain, a few miles farther north, all of which are more than 3,500 feet above the level of the sea. Ascutney, a single mountain 5 miles S. S. W. of Windsor, is 3,320 feet above the sea.
Face of the Country, Soil, &c.] The country on each side of the Green mountains consists of hills, vallies and plains. The plains are of moderate extent, the surface being almost everywhere undulating. The soil is generally rich, and yields abundantly wheat, barley, rye, grass, Indian corn, oats, peas, fax, &c. Much of the land on the Green mountains in the northern part of the state is excellent for grazing.
Chief Towns.] MontPELIER, the capital, is on Onion river, near the centre of the state, at the point of intersection of several principal roads. Population, in 1810, 1,877.-Newbury is a pleasant town on Connecticut river, opposite Haverhill in NewHampshire, and 34 miles E. S. E. of Montpelier.
Windsor is a beautiful town on Connecticut river, 60 miles south of Montpelier. It is a place of considerable business and contains the state prison. Population, in 1810, 2,757. Brattleborough is on Connecticut river, 43 miles below Windsor, near tbe southeast corner of the state. Bennington, near the S. W. corner of the state, is one of the oldest towns in Vermont, and is famous for the battle of August 1777, in which the American militia, under General Stark, defeated the British. Population, in 1810, 2,524. Rutland is on Otter creek, 57 miles north of Bennington, and 45 west of Windsor.
Middlebury, the seat of Middlebury college, is pleasantly situated on Otter creek, at the falls, 20 miles from the mouth of the river. In the vicinity of the falls there are numerous mills and manufacturing establishments. An extensive quarry of fine marble was discovered in 1804 on the bank of the creek, near the centre of the village. It is now wrought into tomb-stones, mantlepieces, side boards, &c. and transported to various parts of the country to the amount of 7,000 or 8,000 dollars annually. Population, in 1810, 2,138. Vergennes is at the head of navigation on Otter cree 11 miles below Middlebury.
Burlington, the seat of the University of Vermont, is delightfully situated, on a bay of the same name in Lake Champlain, near the mouth of Onion river. The village occupies the side of a hill, ascending nearly a mile from the bay, and is one of the handsomest in the state. Within the limits of the township, a mile N. E. of the village, are the falls of Onion river, around which are several valuable mills and manufacturing establishmėnts. About 20 vessels navigate lake Champlain, most of which are owned in this place. Population, in 1810, 1,690. St. Albans is a fourishing town on lake Champlain, near the northwest cor. per of the state.
Education. There are two colleges, one at Middlebury and the other at Burlington. Middlebury college was incorporated in
1800, and has been supported entirely by private bounty. In 1821 it had a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors, and 92 students. It has a library of more than 1,200 volumes and a valuable philosophical apparatus.—The University of Vermont, at Burlington, was incorporated in 1791, and has been liberally patronized by the state. The funds consist principally of lands, amorating to about 10,000 acres, and yield at present an income of about 1,200 dollars. The number of students in 1818 was 28.
The American literary, scientific and military academy, was established in 1820 at Norwich on Connecticut river, 21 miles north of Windsor. It is under the superintendance of Capt. Alden Partridge, and has 8 professors, and 117 students or cadets. The students are required to wear a uniform dress, and to go through a regular system of military exercises, besides the usual course of studies pursued at other literary institutions.
Population and Religion.) The population in 1790 was 85,589; in 1800, 154,465; in 1810, 217,895; and in 1820, 235,764; having nearly trebled in 30 years. About half the population in 1320 was in the four sonthern counties ; the northern part of the state is thinly settled. Vermont bas been settled entirely from the other states of New England, and the inbabj tants have of course the New-England character. The Congregationalists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations of Christians.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a house of representatives, chosen annually by the different towns, each town being entitled to one representative. The executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant governor and twelve counsellors, chosen annually by general ballot
. The constitution provides also for the election of a council of censors, to consist of 13 persons, chosen by the people once in seven years. They hold their office for the space of one year, and it is their business to inquire whether the constitution bas been preserved in violate, during the seven years immediately preceding their appointment, and whether the legislative and executive branches of the government have performed their duty. Every person, of 31 years of age, having resided in the state one year, is entitled to vote at all elections of state officers.
Commerce.) The principal exports are pot and pearl ashes, lumber, beef, pork, butter, cheese, fax, &c. The markets to which the people of this state principally resort are Quebec, Montreal, Troy, Albany, New York, Hartford and Boston. To Quebec they send large quantities of lumber by lake Champlain and the river Sorelle. With Montreal they trade for furs, peltry, and some foreign commodities. On the western side of the mountains they derive most of their foreign goods from Troy, Albany and New-York. Fatted cattle they drive to New-York aäd Boston. Horses they sell at New-Haven and Hartford for the West-Indian market. On Connecticut river, lumber and other produce is transported to Hartford ; and foreign commodities of various kinds are taken in return. Most parts of the state, also, carry on considerable trade with Bostop.