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posed that the climate would be equally favorable in Virginia, the Carolinas, Kentucky and Tennessee.
Population.] The population of the United States, in 1790, was 3,929.326 ; in 1800, 5,305,666 ; in 1810, 7,239,903, and in 1820, 9,625,731 ; of whom 1,531,436 were slaves and 233,398 free blacks. The population increases very regularly at the rate of ahout 3 per cent. per annum, doubling in less than 25 years. The inhabitants consist of whites, negroes and Indians. The negroes are generally slaves, and are principally confined to the states south of Pennsylvania and the river Obio. All the whites are of European origin ; principally English. The New-Englanders, Virginians, and Carolinians are almost purely English. Next to the English are the Germans, who are very numerous in the Middle states, particularly in Pennsylvapia. Next to the Germans are the Dutch, who are most numerous in New-York. The French constitute nearly half the population of Louisiana. The Irish and Scotch are found in the Middle states, in the back parts of Virginia, and in all the principal cities of the Union. Very little is known about the lodians west of the Mississippi. The 4 principal tribes on the east of the Mississippi are the Creeks, Choclaws, Cherokees, and Cbickasaws. These tribes live within the chartered limits of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and TenDessee.
Religion.] The principal religious denominations are Presby. terians and Congregationalists, who have together more than 2,500 congregations; the Baptists, who have more than 2,000 congregations ; tbe Friends, who have more than 500 societies; and the Episcopalians, who have about 300. The Methodists, also, are very numerous. The Baptists and Methodists are found in all parts of the United States ; the Congregationalits are almost wholly in New-England ; the Presbyterians are scattered over the Middle and Soutbern states ; the Friends are most numerous in Pennsylvania and the adjoining states, and the Episcopalians in New-York, Connecticut, Maryland and Virginia. Ger. man Latheraps, German Calvinists, and Moravians are also numerous in the Middle states.
Governinent.] The United States are a federal republic. Each of the states is independent, and has the exclusive control of all conceros merely local ; but the defence of the country, the regulation of commerce, and all the general interests of the confederacy are committed, by the constitution of the United States, to a general government. The legislative power is vested in a Congress, consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of two members from each state, chosen by their Legislatures for 6 years. The Representatives are chosen by the people biennially, each state being entitled to a number proportioned to its free population, and in the slave-bolding states every five slaves are allowed to count the same as three freemen. The President and Vice President are chosen for four years by electors appointed for the purpose, and each state appoints as many electors as the whole number of its Sena
tors and Representatives. The salary of the President is $25,000 per annum; of the Vice President, $5,000. The principal officers in the executive department are the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Attorney General, and the Postmaster General.
Army and Nuvy.) The army, in 1820, consisted of 10,000 men, occupying numerous posts along the maritime and inland frontier. The navy at present (1822) consists of 7 ships of the line, 8 frigates and 23 smaller vessels ; besides 4 ships of the line and 37 smaller vessels on the great Jakes. The officers are 31 captains, 31 masters commandants, 196 lieutenants and 336 midshipmen.
Revenue.) The revenue of the United States, in 1819, was $21,435,700. More than nine-tenths of the revenue have been usually derived from duties on imports. The sale of public lands for several years past has also yielded a considerable sum, and the amomt from this source is rapidly in reasing. The internal revenue and direct taxes on houses and lands yield very little, being only resorted to in cases of emergency.
Public Debt.] The public debt contracted in support of the war of independence, amounted in 1797, to $75,463,167. During the long peace between 1783 and 1812 the country was prosperous, and the debt was gradually reduced to $36,656,932. The war of 1812, ’13, and ’14, increased it again more than three-fold, and in 1816 it was $123,016.375. It has since been greatly reduced, and in October 1-1, 1820, was $91,680,090.
Commerce and Manufactures.} The commerce of the United States consists principally in the exchange of agricultural produce for the manufactures of other parts of the world, and the produce tions of tropical climates. The whole value of the exporis in 1821 wa- $61,974,382, of which $ 13,671,894 was domestic produce. The principal article is cotion; the quantity of which has been continually and rapidly increasing for more than 30 years. In 1790 the amount exported was only 100,000 pounds ; in 1795, 1,300,000; in 1800, 17,789.803 ; in 1804, 35,034,175; and in 1817, 85,649,328 pounds, the value of which was $22,628,000. Next in importance to cotton are wheat and four, of which the amount exported in 1817 was 1,479,198 barrels, and the value $18,432,000. Tohacen, lomber, rice, pot and peari ashes, Indian corn, fish, heef and pork are also exported in large quantities. The principal article. imported may be arranged in the following order; manufactured goods, principally from Great Britain ; sogar, rum, wine, molasses, brandy, coffee and teas.--- The shipping belonging to the Coited States in 1818 was 1,161,185 inns. It is owned principally in New England and New York The states south of the Potomac own only one eighi part -The annual value of the manufactures of the United Siates was estimated in 1810, at $172,762,876.
NEW ENGLAND OR EASTERN STATES.
Situation and Extent.] New-England is bounded N. by Lower Canada ; E. by New Brunswick ; S. E. and S. by the Atlantic ocean; and W. by New-York. The area is estimated at 65,000 square miles.
Sea-coast.] The ocean washes New-England for about 700 miles. The coast is bold and abounds with fine harbors. Perhaps no country in the world has greater advantages for pavigation. In this respect Maine is peculiarly distinguished.
Mountains. There are several ranges of mountains which traverse the western part of New-England from north to south. 1. The Green mountain range commences in the N. W. part of Vermont, a little below the parallel of 45° N. lat. and running in a southerly direction through Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, terminates at New-Haven on Long Island sound, in a noble bluff called West rock. It is nearly 300 miles in length, and the highest summits are about 4,000 feet above the level of the ocean.
2. The Taghkannuc range is a western branch of the Green mountain range. It leaves the principal chain a little below Middlebury, nearly opposite the southern extremity of lake Champlain, and running almost parallel with the Green mountain range, along the western boundaries of Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, terminates also on Long Island sound, 20 miles S.W. of New-Haver. 3. The White mountain range commences in the northern part of New Hampshire, and running in a southerly direction, forms the height of land between Connecticut and Merrimack rivers, after which it passes into Massachuseits, and a little below Northampton divides into two branches. The westero branch, called the Mount Tom range, crosses Connecticut river, and running in a direction a little west of south, terminates at New-Haven, in a bluff called East rock, about iwo miles from the southern extremity of the Green mountain range. The eastern branch, called the Lyme range, runs directly south and terminates at Lyme, situated on the east bank of Connecticut river at its mouth. The highest summit of the White mountain range is more than 6,000 feet above the level of the ocean,
Productions.) Grass is undoubtedly the most valuable object of culture in New-England. One hundred acres of the best grazing-land under the direction of a skilful farmer, will yield as much pet profit as 150 of the best arable land under the same direction. After grass, maize is the most valuable crop in this country. It is extensively the food of man, being palatable, wholesome, and capable of being used agreeably in more modes of cookery than any other grain. It is also the best food for cattle and swine. Wheat grows well wherever the ground is sufficiently dry, in all the conotries westware of the Lyme and White mountain ranges; and in many places eastward of that limit. Ap
ples abound in New-England, more perhaps than in any otber country, and cider is the common drink of the inhabitants of erery class. Rye, barley, oats, potatoes, beans, peas, onions and other garden vegetables are also among the cultivated productions.
The noblest production of the forest is the white pine. It grows to six feet in diameter, and its height, in some instances, exceeds 260 feet. Its stem is often exactly straight, gently tapering, and without a limb to the height of more than 100 feet. This tree is of vast importance for building. The white oak of New-England, is a noble and most useful tree, but is less durable than the English oak. The chesnut is generally used for fence ing, and is very valuable for building. The maple is a noble tree, and the sugar made from its sap is of an excellent quality.
Education.] Common schools are universally established, and a person of mature age, who cannot both read and write, is rarely to be found. Academies are also numerous; and there are nine colleges in which the Greek and Latin languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, logic, rhetoric and all the higher branches are taught by recitations and lectures. The term of study in all the colleges is four years.
Divisions.] New-England is divided into six states, viz. 1. Maine. 2. New-Hampshire. 3. Vermont. 4. Massachusetts. 5. Rhode Island. 6. Connecticut
Situation and Extent.] Maine is bounded N. W. and N. by Lower Canada ; E. by New-Brunswick; S. by the Atlantic ocean, and W. by New-Hampshire. It extends from 43° 5' to 48° N. lat. and from 66° 49' to 70° 55' W. lon. The area is estimated at 31,750 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into nine counties and 246 towns.
Counties. Towns. Pop. in 1810. Pop. in 1820. 1. York, 23 41,877 46,283 2. Cumberland, 25 42,831
49,445 3. Lincoln, 34 42,992 53,189 4. Hancock, 31 30,031 31,290 5. Washington, 13 7,870 12,744 6. Oxford, 31 17,630 27,114 7. Kennebeck, 33 32,564
42.623 8. Somerset, 31 12,910 21,787 9. Penobscot, 25
* In 1810 Penobscot county was included in Hancock.
The five frst named counties border on the sea coast from S. W. to N. E.; the rest lie behind them in the interior in the same direction.
Bays.] The coast of this state is very bold, and indented by numerous spacious bays, the principal of which, beginning in the west, are, Casco bay, which sets up between cape Elizabeth and cape Small Point ; Pennbscot bay, which receives the river of the same name, and contains numerous islands and many fine harbors ; Frenchman's bay, kiill farther east; and Passamoquoddy bay, which receives St. Croix river, and communicates with the bay of Fundy between West Quoddy head and the coast of NewBrunswick
Lakes.] Umbagog lake is principally in this state, but partly in New Hampshire. It is 18 miles long and in some places 10 broad. Moosehead lake, lying N. E. of the Umbagog, is the largest in New-England. It is said to be 60 miles long. Chesuncook lake, 10 or 15 miles N. E. of the Moosehead, is a large body of water. There are several other large lakes, still further north ; but very little is known about them, that part of the state not having as yet been explored. Sebago pond is a large body of waier, 18 miles N. W. of Portland. Smaller lakes and ponds abound in every part of the state.
Rivers.) The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the west. 1. The Saco rises among the White mountains in New Hampshire, and running S. E. into Maine, falls into the sea at Saco.
It has falls 6 miles from its mouth, which completely obstruct the navigation. 2. The Androscoggin forms the outlet of Umbagog lake. The first part of its course is in New-Hampshire. After entering Maine it runs at first in an easterly and afterwards in a southerly direction, and joins the Kennebeck, after a course of about 150 miles. It bas falis near its mouth. 3. The Kennebeck is formed by the union of two principal branches. The eastern branch is the outlet of Moose bead lake; the western, Eilled Dead river, rises in the bighlands wbich separate Maine from Canada, and unites with the eastern branch about 20 miles below Moosehead lake. Alter the junction, the river flows south to the Atlantic. It is navigable for ships 12 miles, to Bath; for sloops 45 miles, to Augusta, at the head of the tide ; and for boats 60 miles, to Waterville. At Water: ville the navigation is interrupted by Teconic falls, which afford nijmerous sites for mills. 4. The Penobscot, the largest river in Naine, is formed by two principal branches. The western and longest branch rises west of Moosehead lake, in the highlands which separate Maine from Canada, and flowing east through Chesuncook lake, unites with the eastern branch about 60 miles north of Bangor. After the junction, the river flows south, and falls into the head of Penobscot bay. It is navigable for sea vessels to Bangor, 50 miles from the entrance of the bay. 5. The St Croix river, called also the Schoodic, forms the boundary between the l'nited States and New Brunswick from its mouth to its source. It talis into Passamaquodly bay and is navigable for sea vesseis to the falls,