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a solitary settlement; but the country on the east of the Missis. sippi is, to a considemble extent, cultivated and populous.
In that part of the United States which lies east of the Missis. sippi, the most remarkable feature in the face of the country is the low plain, from 50 to 100 miles wide, which extends along the Atlantic coast, from Long island to the gulf of Mexico; a distance of more than 1,000 miles. Beyond this plain the country rises towards the interior till it terminates in the Aliegbany mountains.
Lakes.) All the large lakes in the United States are on or near the northern boundary, where they form a connected chain extending through a distance of more than 1,000 miles. 1. Lake Superior, the first in the chain, is the largest body of fresh water on the globe, being 490 miles long and 1,700 in circumference. It discharges its waters at its S. E. extremity through the straits of St. Mary into lake Huron. 2. Lake Huron, the second in the chain, is 218 miles long from east to west in the widest part, and 180 from north to south, and is estimated to contain 5,000,000
It is connected on its N. W. side with lakes Superior and Michigan, and discharges itself at its southern extremity through St. Clair river into lake St. Clair. 3. Lake St. Clair is 90 miles in circumference, and discharges itself into lake Erie through De, troit river. The bottom of the lake is said to be a perfect plain, the depth being invariably 21 feet except near the shore. 4. Lake Erie is 290 miles long from S. W. to N. E., in the widest part 631 broad, and discharges itself at its N. E. extremity through Niagara river into lake Ontario. 5. Lake Ontario is 171 iniles long and 60 in its greatest breadth, and discbarges itself into the ocean through the river St. Lawrence, which issues from it at its N. E. extremity. 6. Lake Michigan, the largest lake which lies wholly in the United States, is 260 miies long. On the N. E. it communicates with Jake Hurou through the straits of Michillimackinac, and on the N. W. it branches out into two bays, one called Noquet's !ay and the other Green bay. 7. Lake Champlain lies between the states of New York and Vermont. It is 128 miles Jong, and from half a mile to 16 miles broad, and discharges itself at its northern extremity through the river Sorelle into the St. Lawrence.
Pivers.] The principal rivers of the United States may be divided into four classes. First, those which drain the waters of the country included between the Alleghany and Rocky monotains ; Secondly, the rivers which discharge themselves into the Atlantic ocean, all of which are east of the Alleghany mountains ; Thirdly, the rivers south of the Allegbany mountains, which discharge themselves into the gulf of Mexico ; Fourthly, the rivers west of the Rocky mountains, all of which discharge themselves through the Columbia into the Pacific ocean.
The principal rivers which draiu the waters of the countrv between the Allegbany and Rocky mountains are the Miss ssippi and its branches. The Mississippi rises west of lake Superior in
lat. 47° 47' N. and lon 95° 6' W. amidst lakes and swamps, dreary and desolate beyond description, and after a S. E. course of about 600 miles reaches the falls of St. Anthony in lat. 44° N. where it descends perpendicularly 40 feet. From these falls it pursues at first a southeasterly and then a southerly direction, and after forming the boundary between Missouri, Arkansas territory, and Louisiana on one side, and Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi on the other, discharges itself through many mouths into the gulf of Mexico. It is more than 3,000 miles long and is navigable for boats of 40 tons to the falls of St. Anthony. The following are the principal tributaries of the Mississippi froin the east1. The Ovisconsin, a rapid river, which joins it between the parallels of 42 and 43° N. lat. 2. The Illinois, it navigable river, which rises in the N. W. part of Indiana, and after a circuitous course of 400 miles through the state of lllinois, joins the Missis. sippi dear lat. 38° 40' N. 3. Tbe Ohio, wbich is formed by the union of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers at Pittsburg, ia the western part of Pennsylvania. It flows in a southwesterly direction for 945 miles, separating the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois from Virginia and Kentucky, and falls into the Mississippi in 37° N. lat. Its current is very gentie and nowhere broken by any considerable falls, except at Louisville in Kentucky, where the water descends 224 feet in 2 miles, producing a very rapid current; yet boats have notwithstanding frequently ascended. The chief tributaries of the Ohio are, the Wabash, a fine navigable river, which rises in the N. E. part of Indiana, and flowing in a southwesterly direction falls inlo the Ohio after a course of 500 miles, during the last half of which it forms the bouvdary between Indiana and Illinois; the Cuinberland, which rises in the mountains on the eastern boundary oi Kentucky, and running into TenBessee, makes a circular bend, passes again into Kentucky, and joins the Obio after a course of ovo miles, for 500 of which it is navigable; and the Tennessee, which is formed by several streams from the western part of Virginia and the Carolinas, which unite a little west of Kaoxville in the state of Tennessee; it runs it first S.W. into Alabama and then turns and fowing N.W. through Tennessee into Kentucky, joins the Ohio 10 miles below the mouth of the Cumberland. 4. The Yazoo, which rises in the Dorthern part of the state of Mississippi, and running S. W. joing the Mississippi 100 miles above Natchez. -The following are the principal tributaries of the Mississippi from the west. 1. The St. Peter's, which joins it about 9 miles below the falls of St. Anthony, after a S.E. course of several hundred miles. 2 The river des Moines, which joins it near the parallel of 40° N. lat. after a S. E. conrse of more than 800 miles. 3. The Alissouri, which is formed by three branches, called Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin rivers, all of which rise in the Rocky inountains, between 42° and 48° N. lat. and unite at one place in lat. 45° 10 N. and lon. 110° W. From the confluence of these streams to the Great Falls, the course of the river is northerly ; thence to the Mandan villages, easterly; and from the Mandan villages to the
junction with the Mississippi it runs first south and afterwards S. E. The whole length from the highest navigable point of Jefferson's river to the confluence with the Mississippi is 3,096 miles, and to the gulf of Mexico 4,491; during the whole of which distance there is no cataract or considerable impediment to the navigation, except at the Great Falls, which are 2,575 iniles from the Mississippi. At these falls the river descends in the distance of 18 miles 362 feel.— The principal tributaries of the Missouri are the Yellowstone, which rises io the Rocky monntains between lat. 43° and 44° N. and joins it after a northeasterly course of 1,100 miles; the Platte, which rises in the Rocky mountains and after an easterly course of 1,600 miles joins the Missouri in lat. 41° N. and the Kansas, which joins it near lat. 39° N. atier an easterly course of more than 1,000 miles. 4. The Arkansas, wbich rises in the Rocky mountains in about lat. 41° N. and pursuing a southeasterly course, forms for some distance the boundary between the United States and Mexico, after which its course fies principally in Arkansas territory till it joins the Mississippi. lis length is more than 2,000 miles. 5. Red river, which rises in the Rocky mountains in about lat. 37° N. and after a southeast course of more than 1,200 miles, falls into the Mississippi in lat. 31° N.
The following are the principal rivers east of the Allegany mountains ; 1. Tlie Conneeticut, which rises in the highlands sepaating the United States from Lower Canada, and running south divides New Hampshire from Vermont, and passing through Massachusetts and Connecticut falls into Long Island sound It is navigable for sloops 50 miles, to Hartford, and by means of canals and other improvements has been rendered passable for boats 250 miles further. 2. The Hudson, which rises west of lake Champlain, and pursuing a southerly course of more than 300 miles falls into New York bay. It is navigable for ships to Hudson, 130 miles; and for large sloops 30 miles further, to Albany near the head of the tide. 3. The Delaware, whicb rises in New York, and flowing south separates Pennsylvania from New York and New Jersey, and falls into Delaware bay after a course of 300 miles. It is navigable for ships of the line 40 miles, to Philadelphia, and for sloops 35 miles further to the head of the tide at Trenton falls. 4. The Susquehannah, which rises in New York and pursuing a southerly zig zag course through Pennsylvania, falls into the head of Chesapeake hay near the N. E. corner of Maryland. During the last 50 miles the navigation is obstructed by an almost continued series of rapids. 5. The Potomac, which rises in the Alleghany mountains, and after forming during its whole course the boundary between Maryland and Virginia falls into Chesapeake bay. It is navigable for sloops of the greatest burden to the city of Washington, 300 miles, but in the upper part of its course there are numerous obstructions, many of which have been overcome by canals. 5. James river, which rises in the Alleghany mountains, and pursuing a course S. of E. wholly in Virginia, falls into the southern part of Chesapeake bay. It is navigable for sloops to Richmond, where the Great
Falle formerly presented an obstruction, but a canal has been made around them, and the river is now navigable for batteaux for 2,30 miles above the city. 6. The Suvannah, which forms the boundary between South Carolina and Georgia, and falls into the Atlantic in lat. 32° N. It is navigable for large vesseis to Savannah, 18 miles; and for boats to Augusta, 340 miles further.
The following are the principal rivers, which rise south of the Alleghany mountains and fall into the gulf of Mexico. 1. The Apunlachicola, which discharges itself into the western part of Apalachy bay in Florida. It is formed by the union of the Cisatahoochee and Flint rivers, the former of which rises in the porthern part of Georgia, and flowing sonth receives Flint river at the S. W. extremity of Georgia. During the latter part of its course the Chatahoochee forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama. 2. The Mobile, in Alabama, which discharges itself into Monile bay. It is formed by two large rivers, ihe Alabama and Tornbigbee, which unite near lat. 31° N. after having pursued, each, a separate course of many hundred miles.
The principal rivers west of the Rocky mountains are the Columbia and its branches. Columbia river rises in the Rocky mountains near lat. 55° N. and running S. W. falls into the Pacific ocean in lat. 46° 15' N. after a course of 1,500 miles.
Its principal tributaries are Clarke's river, Lewis' river, and the Mulinomah or Wallaunut, all of which join it on the left bank. Vessels of 300 tons may ascend the Columbia to the mouth of the Multno. mah, 125 miles, and large sloops to the head of the tide, 60 miles further.
Inland Navigation.] Numerous canals have been proposed for connecting the great rivers, hays and lakes, in various parts of the country, some of which are already completed, and others in a course of execution. The principal are the following : 1 The Middlesex canal, which lies wholly in Ma-sachusette. It is 31 miles long and connects Boston harbor with Merrimack river, thus opening an easy communication between Boston and the interior of New Hampshire. It was completed in 1804. 2. The Champlain canal, which lies wholly in N. Y. is 22 miles long and connects lake Champlain with the Hudson. It was completed in 1820. 3. The Erie canal, extending from lake Erie to the Budson, 350 miles, is the greatest work of the kind ever undertaken in America. It is wholly in the state of New York, and will probably be completed in 1823, at an expense of about $5,000,000. 4. A canal has huen proposed to connect James river wih the Ohio. The board of public works in Virginia have recently reported in favor of its practicability and expediency. 5. The Chesapeake and Albemarle canal lies partly in Virginia and partly in North Carolina, and connects Chesapeake bay with Albemarie sound. 6. The Santee canal, 22 miles long, is wholly in South Carolina, and connects Santee river with Charleston harbor. 7. A canal for sloops from Massachusetts bay to Buzzard's bay across the isthmus which connects the peninsula of cape Cod with the continent has been proposed, and a company has seen incorporated
by the legislature of Massachusetts for carrying the plan into execution. 8. A canal for sloops has been proposed through ihe centre of New Jersey, designed to connect, with the aid of intervening streams, New York vay with Delaware river. A company was incorporated in New Jersey many years ago torinis purpose, and a survey of the intended route wis made from which the practicability of the plan was ascertained. 9. A canal bas been commenced across the isthmus which separates Dlaware river from Chesapeake bay. 10. Two canals bave been proposed for connecting rivers which fall into lake Erie with pavigable branches of the Ohio, and Congress have granied 100,000 acres of land for carrying each of these plans into execution. 11. A canal has been proposed to connect the head waters of Ilinois river with lake Michigan, and Congress have also appropriated 100,000 acress of land towards defraving the expense of this project. Besides these there are numerous other canals of minor importance, particularly around the falls in the great rivers.
Climate. The territory of the United States, extending through 24 degrees of latitude, presents of course a great variety of climate. As a general remark, however, it is every where much colder than in the same parallels in Europe, and the difference has been commonly estimated as equivalent to 8 or 10 degrees of latitude. The country on the Ohio has been commonly considered warmer in the same parallels than the Atlantic states. The difference was supposed by Mr. Jefferson to equal what would result from three degrees of latitude. Accurate observations, however, which have been made at Cincinnati for a series of years, prove that there is no foundation for this opinion ; or at least, if there be a difference, it cannot equal one third of what has been mentioned. The opinion that the climate on the Ohio is more moist and more liable to sudden and extreme changes than that of the eastern states is equally erroneous. In the flat country of the southern states the summers are hot and unhealthy ; the months of July, August and September are bere denominated the sickly season, but the rest of the year is generally mild and pleasant. In New England the climate is healthy, but in the spring of the year bleak and piercing east winds prevail, which are very disagreeable. In Plorida, the climate is favorable to the production of tropical fruits, and it is supposed that coffee, cocoa and sugar might be raised there abundantly.
Soil and Productions. The soil is generally fertile and capable of supporting a dense population. The principal production of the states south of Virginia and Kentucky, is cotton.' Tobacco is raised in large quantities in Maryland and Virginia. Wheat is the staple production of the Middle and Western States. In the Eastern states a considerable portion of the soil is devoted to pasturage. Rice is cultivated to a considerable extent in the swamps of Georgia and the Carolinas. The sugar cane flourishes in Louisiana as bigh as the parallel of 30° N. lat. The vine has, within a few years, been successfully cultivated in Indiana, and it is sup