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ed at only 10,000; in 1814 at 83,000. It will probably continue id increase rapidly for many years.

The settlements, at present, are confioed to tbe neighborhood of the St. Lawrence, and the shores of the great lakes; but they are fast extending into the interior. The settlers are principally emigrants froin the United States.

Face of the Country, Soil, &c.] The country on the St. Lawreace and the lakes is a fine level country, with a rich soil, well adapted for cultivation. There is a great quantity of fertile land, at present unoccupied, in this province, but the settlements are fast extending over it. Much of the interior of the province has never been explored.

Chief Towns. York is the seat of government. It is regularly laid ont, on the northwest side of Lake Ontario, has a beautiful and commodious harbor, and about 3,000 inhabitants.

Kingston stands at the egress of the St. Lawrence from Lake Ontario. It is the most flourishing town in the province, and contains about 2,000 inhabitants. It has an excellent harbor, and in time of war is the principal station for the British shipping on Lake Ontario.

Newark is at the mouth of Niagara river where it enters Lake Ontario. Queenstown is on the same river, 7 miles from Newark. Chippeway is on the same river, 10 miles above Queenstown, and 3 above Niagara falls. Fort Erie is at the head of Niagara river, at its egress from Lake Erie. Malden and Sandwich are south of etroit, on the river which connects Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie.

Lakes. Besides the great Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron, which are on the boundary of the province, there is a chain of small lakes stretching from Lake Huron to Lake Ontario. The first is Lake Simcoe, which discharges itself through Severn river into Lake Huron. Near Lake Simcoe are the Shallow lakes which run through a short river into Rice lake. Rice lake empties itself through Trent river into the Bay of Quinti, which opens into Lake Ontario near Kingston.' Lake Nepisingui is a large lake. which empties itself into the north side of Lake Hus ron, through French river.

Rivers.) The following rivers make a part of the boundary of the province : Outawas river, which separates it from Lower Canada ; the St. Lawrence, which separates it from New York ; Niagara river, which connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, and separates the province from New York; the river St. Claire which connects Lake Huron with Lake St. Clair and separates the province from Michigan Territory.

Grand river is a large stream, which falls into Lake Erie, near the east end. The land for six miles on each side of this river, from its mouth to its source, is in the possession of the Six Nations of Indians.

The Thames rises near the sources of Grand river, and hors southwest into Lake St. Clair.

Bay.) The bay of Quinti is a long narrow harbor, at the northeast end of Lake Ontario. It is 70 miles long, and from 1 to 6 broad, and affords safe navigation through its baie length.

Coinmerce ] The commerce of this province hitherto, in esilien carried on principally through the St Lawrence; but when te great canal from Lake Erie to Hulson river is com lete, the trade of the western part of the province will pria's go through that channel. The principal exports are wheat, and other agricultural productions.

Religion. The inbabitants have recently emigrated from various parts of the United States, and, as might le rxycied, ale of

many different religious denominations. The Methodists are most numerous ; next to them are the Baptists and Preslryterians. Like all newly settled countries the province is poorly supplied with regular ministers.

Roads.] Tolerably od roads have been made at the expense of the government, through ail the princ pai settlemenis. Nearly the whole revenue of the province ha-, for several years, been expended by the King in opening new roads.

Climate.] The province is in a more southern latitude than Lower Canada, and the climate is much warmer.


Situation.] New Britain comprehends all that part of British America, which lies north and northwest of Upper and Lower Canada. It is a vast country, extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the east, to the Pacific on the west ; and from Canada and the United States on the south, to the Frozen Ocean on the north.

Divisions.] Hudson's Bay divides this country into two parts, the eastern and the western. The eastern is subdivided into Labrador and East Main ; and the western into New South Wales and New North Wales.

Face of the Country.) This is a dreary desolate country. The surface, to a great extent, is naked rock, or covered with a soil so thin, that nothing but moss and shrubs, or stinted trees can grow upon it. There are innumerable lakes and ponds of fresh water scattered over the whole country.

Bays.) The two principal bays are Baffin's and Hudson's. The southern part of Hudson's Bay is called James' Bay.

Lakes.] The small lakes are too many to be enumerated. The three largest are Slave Lake, Athapescow Lake or Lake of the hills, and Lake Winnipeg.

Rivers.) Mackenzie's river, which is the outlet of Slave Lake, and Nelson's river, which is the outlet of Lake Winnipeg, are among the greatest rivers in North America.

Unjigah and

Athapescow rivers are the remote sources of Mackenzie's river; ani ibe Saskatchewine is the remote source of Nelson's river.

Churchill aout Severn rivers emply into the western side of Hudson's Bav. Albumy, oose and Rupert rivers empty into the southern part of james Bay.

Productions. The climate is so cold, and the soil so barren, that nothing of the vegetalle kind can flourish here. Wild ani. mals are abundant. The principal are beavers, bears, deer, raccoops and musquasbes.

Fur trade.] New Britain is the region of the fur trade. On all the principal lakes, and at the months and forks of nearly all the considerable rivers, ibere are trading houses, established by the English. Here the Indians bring the furs of the animals which they kill in hunting, and sell them for blankets, guns, powder, beads, &c.

The for trade is carried on by two companies of merchants ; the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Northwost Company. The trade of the former is confined to the neighborhood of Hudson's Bay; that of the laiter extends from Lake Winnipeg to the Rocky mountains and the Frozen Ocean.

The northwest company was formed in 1783, and is composed principally of Montreal merchants

. They employ in the concer: 50 clerks, 77 interpreters and clerks, 1120 canoe-men, 35 guides, and about 140 canoes. Each canoe will carry about 3,400 lbs. weight, and is pavigated by 8 or 10 men. These ca. noes compose two fleets, each of which starts every other year from Montreal, loaded with coarse linen and woollen clothe, blankets, arms, ammunition, tobacco, hats, shoes, stockings, &c. obtained from Englaud ; and spirituous liquors and provisions purchased in Canada. These goods are carried to the Indian country and exchanged for furs.

Mode of travelling.) The only mode of travelling, in this desolate conntry, is io birch bark canoes. With these the inhabi. : tants pass up and down the rivers and lakes, and when they meet with a rapid, or wish to pass from one river to another, they get out of the canoe and carry it on their shoulders. In this way, the men engaged in the fur trade travel thousands of miles, and carry all their goods.

Settlements. The Moravian missionaries have 3 small settlements aipong the Esquimaux Indians, on the coast of Labra lor, viz. Okkak Nain, and Hopedale. These, and the forts and houses established by those engaged in the fur trade, are the only settlements of white men. The principal forts are Fort Chepewyan on Athapescow Lake, Churchill, at the mouth of Churchill river, and York at the mouth of Nelson's river.

Inhabitants.] The Esquimaux Indians inhabit the coast of Labrador, and the shores of the Frozen Ocean. They are of the same race with the Greenlanders. Like them they live principally on seals and whales, and confine themselves to the sea coast. The interior is inhabited by various tribes of Knisteneaux and Chepewyan Indians. Their number is uoknown.


Situation and Extent.) The United States is the great middle division of North America. It is bounded N. by New Britain and the Canadas; E. by New Brunswick and the Atlantic ocean; S. by the gulf of Mexico; S. W. by the Spanish dominions, and W by the Pacific ocean.

The boundary on the side of the Spanish dominions, according to the treary with Spain, ratified in 1821, begins on the gulf of Mexico, at the month of the river Sabine, and proceeds along the west bank of that river to the 32d degree of N. lat. ; thence, by a line due north, to Red river; thence up that river to the meridian of 100° W. Ion. thence due north, along that meridian to the river Arkansas; thence, along the south bank of the Arkansas to its source ; thence, due north or south, as the case may be, to the parallel of 42° N. lat. and thence, along that parallel, to the Pacific ocean. On the side of the British dominions, the boundary begins in the Atlantic ocean, at the mouth of the river St. Croix, and proceeds up that river to its source ; thence, due north, to the highlands which separate the waters falling into the St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic; thence, along those highlands, in a S. W. direction, to the parallel of 45° N. lat. ; thence, along that parallel to the river St. Lawrence ; and thence, up that river, and the great lakes, Ontario, Erie, Hurou and Superior, to the most northwestern point of the lake of the Woods. By the treaty with Great Britain in 1819, the boundary line proceeds from the last mentioned point, due north or south, as the case may be, to the parallel of 49° N. lat. and thence, due west along that parallel to the Rocky mountains. The boundary between the Rocky mountains and the Pacific ocean remains unsettled.

Including Florida, which has been ceded by Spain, the territory of the United States extends from 25° to 49° N. lat. and from 66° 49' to 125° W. Jon. embracing 2,000,000 square miles.

Divisions. This extensive country is divided into 24 States, 1 District and 6 Territories. The states are usually classed under four divisions, Eustern, Middle, Southern and Western. States,

Sq, miles. Population in 1820. Pop. on 1. Maine, 31,750 298,335

10 2. New Hampshire, 9,491 244,161

26 EASTERN 3. Vermont,

10,212 235,764

23 STATES. 4. Massachusetts,

7,250 523,287

72 5. Rhode Island, 1,580 83,059

53 6. Connecticut,

4,764 275.248 7. New-York, 46,000 1,372,812 30

8. New Jersey, 8,320 277,575 33 MIDDLE 9. Pennsylvania, 46,000 1,049,398

23 STATES. 10. Delaware,

72,749 34 11. Maryland, 13,959 407,350

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Sq. miles. Population in 1820. Pop. on

a sq. n. 12. Virginia, 64,000 1,065,366 17

13. North-Carolina, 48,000 638,829 SOUTHERN | 14. South-Carolina, 24,000 490,309 20 STATES. 15. Georgia,

60,000 340,989 6 16. Alabama, 44,000 127,901 3 17. Mississippi, 45,000 75,448 2 18. Louisiana: 48,000 153,407 3 19. Tenpessee,

40,000 422,813 11 20. Kentuoky, 42,000 564,317 WESTERN 21. Ohio,

39,000 581,484 15 STATES. 22. Indiana,

36,000 147,178 3 23. Illinois,


55,211 1 ( 24, Missouri, 60,000 66,586 1 District of Columbia,


33,039 330 r Michigan, 40,000

Northwest, 140,000

Missouri, 1,000,000
( Oregon,

Florida, 50,000 15,000

Seas Bays and Sounds.] The territory of the United States is washed by three seas ; the Atlantic ocean on the east; the gulf of Mexico on the south; and the Pacific ocean on the west. The principal bays and sounds on the Atlantic border are, Passamaquoddy bay, which lies between Maine and the British province of New-Brunswick ; Massachusetts bay, between cape Ann and cape Cod, on the coast of Massachusetts ; Long island sound, between Long island and the coast of Connecticut; Delaware bay, which sets up between cape May and cape Henlopen, and separates New Jersey from Delaware; Chesapeake bay,which communicates with the ocean between cape Charles and cape Henry, and extends in a Dortherly direction for 200 miles through the states of Virginia and Maryland ; and Albemarle and Pamlico sounds on the coast of North Carolina. There are no very large bays or sounds on the coast of the gulf of Mexico or of the Pacific ocean.

Face of the Country.] This country is iotersected by two principal ranges of mountains ; the Rocky mountains in the west, which run acrose the territory in a direction nearly parallel with the coast of the Pacific ocean, at the distance of several hundred miles; and the Allegbany mountains in the east, which run nearly parallel with the Atlantic coast from Georgia, through Tennessee, Virginia and Pennsylvania to New-York. The immense valley included between these two ranges of mountains is intersected by the Mississippi river, which runs from north to south through the whole length of the United States. The country west of the Mississippi, with few exceptions, is a wilderness inhabited by savage Indians, and beyond the meridian of 94o the whites bave scarcely

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