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Situation.] Nova Scotia is a narrow peninsula, more than 300 miles long, stretching from southwest to northeast. It is bounded on the north by the Gulf of St. Lawrence; on the west by the Bay of Fundy; on the northwest by the province of New Brunswick ; and on all other sides by the Atlantic Ocean.
History.] No settlements, of any consequence, were made in this country till the year 1749. In that year the English government sent out a colony of about 3000 persons, who settled at Halifax. For several years, they were much disturbed by the French from Canada, and the Indians; but the conquest of Canada .by the English in 1760, put an end to these troubles; emigrants then came over from England in great numbers, and the colony has ever since advanced rapidly in wealth and population.
Divisions.] Nova Scotia is divided into 9 counties, which are subdivided into 37 townships.
Counties. Halifax, Hants, King's, Annapolis,
Chief Towns. Shelburne. Liverpool. Lunenburgh. Manchester. Cumberland.
Population.] The population is estimated at more than 100,000. The great body of the people are of English origin ; principally emigrants from New England. After these, the Scotch and Irish settlers are most numerous. The Mickmack Indians were the aborigines of the province, and still inhabit the shore east of Halifax. They are diminishing in numbers.
Religion and Learning.) The established religion is that of the Church of England. There is one Bishop, whose diocese includes Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the islands of Cape Breton and Prince Edward.
There is a College at Windsor, which has a valuable library, and several scholarships. Schools are established in all the villages.
Chief Towns. Halifax, the capital, is situated on Chebucto Bay, in the centre of the peninsula. It has a spacious and commodious harbor, of a bold and safe entrance. It is the principal naval station, belonging to Great Britain, in North America. The population is 15,000.
Liverpool is on the Atlantic coast, 45 miles S. W. of Halifax, and has considerable trade. Pictou, on the gulf of St. Lawrence, 100 miles N. E. of Halifax, has a fine harbor. Great quantities of timber are exported from Pictou to Great Britain.
Roads and Commerce.] Intercourse between the different parts of the country is easy. Roads have been made at considerable expense, from Halifax to all the towns in the province; and packets carry the mail regularly, between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, over the Bay of Fundy.
The commerce and wealth of Nova Scotia have increased, of late, with great rapidity. Fish and lumber are the staple commodities, and are exported in great quantities to Great Britain, and the West Indies.
Soil.] The N. E. shores present a gloomy and barren aspect. But the counties to the S. W. of Halifax, and along the Bay of Fundy, have a rich soil, and produce good crops of grain.
Bays.] The bays and harbors on the coast of Nova Scotia are very numerous. The Bay of Fundy is remarkable for its tides, which rise in some parts to 40 feet, and in some to 60. The rise of the tide is so rapid, that cattle feeding on the shore, are often suddenly overtaken by it, and drowned.
Islands.] Prince Edward's island, formerly called St. John's, is more than 100 miles long. It is in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton, and near the northern coast of Nova Scotia. The principal town is Charlottetown. The population of the island is about 5000.
Situation.] New Brunswick is bounded on the N. by Lower Canada; on the E. by the Gulf of St. Lawrence; on the S. E. by Nova Scotia, and the Bay of Fundy; or the W. by Maine and Canada.
Chief Towns.] Frederickton is the capital. It is on St. John's river, about 80 miles from the mouth, at the head of sloop navigation.
The city of St. John's is the largest town. It is near the mouth of St. John's river, and contains upwards of 2,000 inhabitants.
Population.] The population of the province is estimated at more than 60,000.
Bays.] The principal bays are Passamaquoddy, bordering on Maine ; the Bay of Fundy; Chignecto bay, which is an arm of the bay of Fundy; Merramichi and Chaleur bays, which communicate with the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Rivers.) St. John's river is the principal river in the province. It rises in Maine, and empties into the Bay of Fundy. It is navigable for sloops 80 miles, and for boats, 200. The common route from the city of St. John's to Quebec is up this river.
Merramichi river empties into Merramichi bay. It abounds with salmon.
Soil and Productions. The lands on the rivers. St. John's river and its branches, are very rich ane pines on this river are the largest in British Amei considerable supply of masts for the British navy.
The timber with which the uplands are covere. fish, salmon, and herring, which abound in the rive coasts, are the principal productions of the count: ported in considerable quantities.
Situation.] Lower Canada lies on both sides Lawrence, from its mouth to Lake St. Francis. by New Britain ; E. by the Gulf of St. Lawrence New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Ve York. S. W. and w. by Upper Canada.
Name.] According to father Hennepin, “th the first who discovered Canada ; but at their ing discovered nothing considerable in it, the country, and called it Ii Capo di Nada, that is, hence by corruption sprung the word CANADA.
Divisions.] Lower Canada is divided into subdivided into counties. The counties are ships, seignories, and parishes.
Chief Towns.' QUEBEC, the capital of Low British America, stands on the north side of t its confluence with the river St. Charles, abou
The town is divided into Upper and 1 town, which is built on a high steep rock, natural strength, and is extremely well fo town is much the smallest part, and is inha tradesmen and sailors. It is situated at the 1 from the fortifications of the Upper town, yi as from a very high steeple; when the cann. are discharged, the balls fly far above th houses. The population of the city, in 18 country around Quebec presents a most scenery.
Montreal is situated on the east side of ar rence, at the head of ship navigation. It is bec, and 200 below Lake Ontario. The
P estimated at 25,000. The commerce of the principal branch is the fur trade.
Trois Rivieres or Three Rivers is pleasant. side of the St. Lawrence, half way betwee 90 miles from each. It was formerly the ernment. It contains about 2,500 inhabit
Sorelle is on the S. side of the St. Lawrence, half way between Montreal and Three Rivers, 45 miles from each.
Population. Lower Canada contains about 300,000 inhabitants, a majority of whom are of French origin. The principal settlements are along the banks of the St. Lawrence.
Religion.] A majority of the inhabitants are of the Roman Catholic religion ; but Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and other Protestant sects are fast increasing in numbers.
History.) This country was settled by the French in 1608, and remained in their possession until 1753, when an English army, under General Wolf, took Quebec; and soon after, the whole province surrendered to the British.
At the commencement of the American revolution in 1775, this province was invaded by the American troops ;-Montreal was taken, and an attack was made upon Quebec, but it failed; General Montgomery was lain, and his troops were routed.
Manufactures and Commerce.] Ship-building is carried on at Quebec and Sorelle with considerable success. Flour, biscuit, and pot-ashes, are extensively manufactured for exportation. The sugar consumed in the interior is manufactured from the sap of the maple. A few coarse linen and woollen cloths are made for home consumption.
The imports of Canada, before the conquest by the British, in the most flourishing years, amounted to 160,0001. sterling, and its exports to 80,0001. Twelve vessels only were engaged in the fishery, and six in the West India trade. The exports, at that time, consisted wholly of furs and fish. In 1802 the exports exceeded half a million sterling. Besides furs and fishi, there were exported in that year 1,010,000 bushels of wheat, 38,000 barrels of flour, 32,000 cwt. of biscuit, large quantities of pot-ashes, and considerable quantites of American ginseng. In the export of these articles 211 vessels were employed, amounting to 36,000 tons. In 1810, the number of vessels had increased to 661, and their tonpage amounted to 143,393.
Climate.] Winter commences early in November, and lasts till April. The cold is so intense that the largest rivers are frozen over, and even the mercury in the thermometer often reduced to a solid state. The ice on the rivers is usually two feet thick, and that close to the banks of the St. Lawrence, is commonly 6 feet. The snow usually lies from 4 to 6 feet deep. The spring is extremely short, and vegetation surprisingly rapid. The thermometer, in July and August, frequently rises above 80° and sometimes above 90°.
Face of the country, &c.] Several ranges of mountains run from the coast into the interior, in parallel ridges. The valleys between, have a fertile soil, yielding grass and grain in abundance. The greater part of the try is still covered with forests.
Rivers.] The St. Lawrence runs through this province from southwest to northeast, and empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The Outaxas river empties into the St. Lawrence, near Montreal. It rises in the high lands, between Lake Huron and Hudson's Bay.—The Sorelle and the St. Francis empty into the St. Lawrence from the south, between Montreal and Quebec. The Sorelle is the outlet of Lake Champlain.—The Chaudiere comes from the south, and empties into the St. Lawrence near Quebec.
Natural Curiosities.] The celebrated falls of Montmorency are near the mouth of a river of the same name, which empties into the St. Lawrence, 9 miles below Quebec. The river pours over a precipice, and instantly falls perpendicularly to the astonishing depth of 246 feet, presenting a scene of wonderful beauty and grandeur. These falls are in full view, as you sail up and down the St. Lawrence.
Island. The island of Cape Breton, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is attached to this province. It lies northeast of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated by a narrow strait, called the Gut of Canso. In 1743, when this island belonged to France, the fisheries on its shores were very productive, and employed no less than 27,000 seamen. At present, the principal employment of the inhabitants is the working of the coal mines. The population of the island is about 3,000.
Situation.] Upper Canada is that peninsular tract of country which lies between the river Outawas and the great Lakes, Ontario, Erie and Huron. It is bounded on the east, south and west by the United States, from which it is separated by the St. Lawrence and the Lakes; on the northeast by Lower Canada, from which it is separated by Outawas river; on the northwest by New Britain.
Divisions.). The settled part of this province is divided into 8 districts, which are subdivided into 24 counties, and these are again divided into 156 townships.
Population.] Cpper Canada is a newly settled country, and the population increases with great rapidity. In 1783 it was estimat