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missionaries. The labors of both have been attended with the happiest effects. The Hottentots, at the several settlements now cultivate the fields, own large numbers of cattle, exercise various trades, and contribute liberally to the support of religious and charitable institutions, exhibiting a wonderful proof of the power of Christianity to elevate men from the lowest point of intellectual and moral depression. Gnadenthal, the principal missionary settlement of the United Brethren in South Africa, is 120 miles from Capetown, in a direction nearly due east. Bethelsdorp, the principal establishment of the London Missionary society, is near the shore of Algoa bay, 500 miles east of Capetown.
Political importance.] This colony was originally planted by the Dutch, but in 1806 it fell into the hands of the British, and was confirmed to them, in 1815, by the Congress of Vienna. Its principal importance, in a commercial view, is derived from its convenience, as a place of refreshment to vessels sailing between Europe and the East Indies. It also consumes British manufactures to a large amount. The value of merchandize imported into the colony from Great Britain, in 1809, was £311,016. The principal exports are wine and brandy.
Situation.] Caffraria, Kaffraria, or the country of the Kaffers, is most properly the territory extending along the coast of South Africa, in a N. E. direction irom the Great Fish river, which separates it from the colony of the cape of Good Hope, to Key's river, which divides it from the country of the Tambookies. The name, however, is sometimes applied to all that part of South Africa which is not included in the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, the tribes wbich inhabit this country, so far as Europeans are acquainted with them, being mostly of Kaffer origin.
Inhabitants.] The principal tribes known to Europeans in Caffraria, taken in its largest sense, are the Kaffers, Boshuanas, Damaras and Tambookies. 1. The Kaffers, or inhabitants of Caffraria proper, differ in every respect from the bordering race of Hottentots. There is not perhaps in the world a finer race of men as to external figure; they are tall, robust, muscular and handsome. Though black, or very nearly so, they have not a line of the African negro, either in their countenance or persons. They are more addicted to agriculture than the Hottentots, but pastúrage is the favorite and general occupation. Their general habits are peaceable, but with the savage Bosjesmans they are frequently at war. They have had occasional contests with the colonists, but the blame is said commonly to have been with the latter ; and when victors, they have never been guilty of any cruelty. European mariners shipwrecked upon their coast have been treated with the greatest humanity.
2. The Boskianas consist of numerous tribes, inhabiting the country north of the Cape colony and reaching for an indefinite extent into the interior of Africa. They are evidently of the saine original stock with the Kaffers, but somewhat altered ; interior in bodily strength and stature, but superior in civilization and the arts of life. Their towns are of considerable magnitude. Latakoo contains 7 or 8,000 inhabitants. Nothing was known of the Boshuanas till 1801, when two English travellers penetrated into the country. Since that time Latakoo has been visited by Dr. Litchtenstein and Mr. Campbell. It is the capital of the Matchappin tribe, the only one among the Boshuanas yet visited by Europeans. Beyond them are numerous others which appear to be farther advanced in agriculture and the arts, and the race seems to improve as you progress northward.
3. The Damaras are a Kafler race inhabiting the country between Orange river and the tropic. 4. The Tambookies live on the eastern coast, immediately north of the Kaffers. Very little is known about either of these tribes.
Situation and Divisions.] East Africa includes' all the cotintries lying on the eastern coast of Africa between the tropics. It may be divided into 1. Nubia. 2. Sennaar. 3. Abyssinia. 4. The countries south of Abyssinia.
Situation.) Nubia is bounded N. by Egypt; E. by the Red sea; S. by the kingdom of Senpaar, which is sometimes considered as a part of Nubia ; and W. by unknown regions of Central Afri.
It extends on both sides of the Nile from 170 to 24° N. lat. Face of the Country.). With the exception of the immediate banks of the Nile, Nubia consists almost entirely of sandy and rocky deserts, extending on the east to the Red sea, and on the west to the Sahara. The eastern bank of the Nile is much better fitted for cultivation than the western, being more easily and abundantly watered. This is rather remarkable, since all the splendid ruins for which this region is distinguished are on the opposite bank. Hence we may suspect this last to have been formerly more fertile and populous, but reduced to its present state by the continual encroachments of those immense moving sands which extend to the westward. As the Nile here seldom or never overflows its banks, the territory is irrigated exclusively by the sakies or wheels constructed for the purpose of raising the waters of the river to the level of the adjacent grounds.
Climate.) The climate of the districts on the Nile, though ir summer intensely hot, is said to he remarkably healthy; but the deserts are liable to the simoom or poisonous blast which often proves
fatal to those who are overtaken by it. The only resource for the traveller, when he sees it coming, is to fall tat opon the ground, with bis face to the earth, till tbe noxious wind has gone by. Another curious phenomenon is the losty pillars of sand, which sometimes move across the desert with such rapidity that the swifiest horse would in vain attempt to escape them. When they pass between the traveller and the sun, they have the appearance of pillars of fire.
Chief Towns.] Dongola, the largest town, is on the Nile, in lat. 19° 20' N. Since the expulsion of the Mamelukes from Egypt, they have taken possession of Mongola, and established here a petty state. Their number, however, does not exceed 500, with 3000 or 4000 negro slaves. Suakem, on an island in the Red sea near the coast, in lat. 19° 20' N. is the rendezvous of the caravans which cross the desert on their way to Jidda in Arabia, and carries on considerable trade with Arabia, Egypt and the East Indies. It is under the government of an Arab sheich, who is nominally subject to the Grand Seignor. Ibrim, is a small town on the Nile, 120 miles S. of Syene.
Inhabitants. The population is composed of pumerous tribes of independent Arabs, some carrying on trade in towns, obers coltivating the ground, and a still greater number roaming over the extensive wastes which cover this part of Africa.
Government. The country. on the Nile is divided into a series of small independent states, each governed by its owa chief. The governors of these little districts are described as very violent and arbitrary in their proceedings, and rude in their treatment of strangers; yet, under the protection of the pacha of Egypt, Europeans may now travel in perfect safety as far as Ibrim, all the principal forts between this place and the Egyptian frontier being in possession of the pacha's troops; but beyond Ibrim, they must incur the hazards usual in barbarous countries.
Antiquities. One of the most remarkable features of this region consists in the splendid remains of antiquity with which it is covered. Some of these exceed in size the colossal monuments of Thebes. The most magnificent is the temple of Ipsambul, which was recently discovered by Mr. Burckhardt, and is situated immediately on the banks of the Nile between Ibrim and Syene. It is excavated from the solid rock, and when discovered was nearly two-thirds buried under the sand, which has probably covered it for more than 2,000 years. After great labor Mr. Belzoni succeeded in clearing away the sand, and arrived at the door way of the temple. On entering, he found the interior divided into numerous chambers, and spacious halls, supported by massy pillars, and adorned with colossal statues. The walls are covered with beautiful paintings representing battles, storming of castles, triumphs over the Ethiopians, sacrifices, &c. The
outside of the temple is 117 feet wide and 86 feet high. In front there are 4 enormous sitting colossi, the largest in Egypt or No. bia, except the great sphinx at the pyramids, to which they approach in the proportion of about two thirds. On the top of the temple there is a row of monkeys, 21 in oumber, in a sitting posture, and each 8 feet high and 6 across the shoulders.
Commerce.) The chief trade of Nubia consists in slares imported from the interior of Africa, and either conveyed northwards into Egypt, or across the Red sea by Suakem to Arabia. The number annually imported is estimated at 5,000, of wbom 2,500 are for Arabia and 1,500 for Egypt.
Situation. Sennaar is bounded N. by Egypt ; E. and S. by Abyssinia ; and W. by Kordofan. It extends from 14° to 17° Ñ. lat. A great part of Seonaar being nearly inclosed between the Nile and the Tacazze, formed what was called by the ancients the island of Meroe, the central seat of the empire of ancient Etbiopia, which repeatedly conquered Egypt.
Soil and Productions.) The country contains many desert tracts, over which the Arabs wander with their flocks; but there is also much fertile land on the banks of the Nile and the Tacazze, where rice, grain, melons, tobacco and the sugar cane grow luxuriantly.
Chief Towns.) Sennaar, the capital and residence of the king, is situated on the Bahr-el-Azrek, about two bundred miles above its junction with the Bahr-el-Abiad, or main branch of the Nile. It is a large city and is supposed to contain 100.000 inhabitants, but the houses are in general poorly built and only one story high.
Population.) The population is estimated at 2,000,000. It consists principally of three distinct classes. 1. The Shilluks, a race of negroes who originally inhabited the country on the upper part of the Bahr-el-Abiad, but in the beginning of the sixteenth century they conquered Sennaar, and their descendents have ever since been the ruling people. 2. The Nubians, or original inhabitants. They are negroes, and make the largest class of the population. They profess Christianity, but have connected with it many Pagan superstitions. 3. The Arabs, who inhabit the desert.
Government and Army.) The government is despotic, the power of the king being unlimited; but several of the provinces are governed by tributary chiefs, and the Arabs of the desert are virtually independent. The standing army, stationed in the vicinity of the capital, consists of about 16,000 men, of whom 1,800 are cavalry and equal to any in the world.
Commerce.] Considerable commerce is carried on at the city of Sennaar, the caravans passing through it on their way to Abyssinia, Arabia, Egypt and the interior of Africa. The commodities drawn from interior Africa, for export to Egypt and
Arabia, are gold dust, ivory, civet, but above all, slaves. The gold has the reputation of being the purest and best in Africa. The foreign commodity chiefly sought after is blue cotton cloth from Surat.
Situation and Extent.] Abyssinja is bounded N. W. and N. by Sennaar; E. by the Red sea ; S. and S. W. by the country of the Galla. The limits are not accurately known, but the area is estimated by Hassel at about 500,000 square miles.
Face of the Country.) Abyssinia is entirely a mountainous country. A lofty range, called Lamalmon, bars the entrance from the Red sea. The mountains of Samen, which run along the western bank of the Tacazze, are still more elevated. The mountains of Gojam, which give rise to the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Abyssinian Nile, are not supposed by Mr. Bruce to exceed half a mile in height, and are cultivated to the summit. A lofty range is said to run along the whole southern frontier and is supposed to form a part of the Mountains of the Moon. The height of none of these mountains has ever been accurately ascertained, but some of the summits in the ridge of Samen are known to be covered with snow during the greater part of the year.
Rivers.] The two principal rivers are the Bahr-el-Azrek or Blue river, and the T'acazze. 1. The Bahr-el-Azrek rises near lat. 11° N. and lon. 37° E. and flows almost immediately into the lake of Dembea, through which it passes without mixing its waters, so that the current remains always visible. It issues from the lake at its southern extremity, and pursuing a semicircular course, turns gradually to the north, and flows in this direction through Sennaar, till in lat. 16° N. it unites with the Bahr-elAbiad or principal branch of the Nile. In Abyssinia, and in Europe, till the middle of the last century, this river was always considered as the head of the Egyptian Nile, but the superior mag. nitude of the Bahr-el-Abiad seems now to be clearly proved. The principal tributaries of the Bahr-el-Azrek are the Dender and the Maleg. 2. The Tocazze rises near lat. 12° N. lon. 39° E. and running in a N. W. direction through Sennaar, joins the Nile in lat 17° 45' N.
Divisions.] Three centuries ago the whole of Abyssinia was firmly and happily united under one sovereign, but internal dissensions and the inroads of the Galla, a barbarous people from the south, have gradually dismembered the finest provinces of this once flourishing empire. The country is now divided into three principal independent states: 1. The kingdom of Tigre, comprehending the provinces between the Red sea and the l'acazze, viz. Tigre proper, Agame, Enderta, Wojjerat, Wofila, Lasta, Avergale, Samen, Zemben, Sire and the kingdom of Babarnegash. 2. Amhara, comprehending the provinces west of the Tacazze, the principal of which are Ambara proper, Dembea, Damut, Gojam, and Begemder. 3. The provinces of Shoa and