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produce also the boa constrictor, the most enormous of the serpent species, and at the sight of which, according to ancient report, whole armies have fled. It is often 80 feet long, and as thick as a man's body, but is not venomous. It has immense strength, however, and inoves with such swiftness that it is impossible to escape from it. It will twist itself round an ox or a tiger, and after crushing their bones to a jelly, will swallow them wbole, and then lie supinely on the ground, for two or three days, unable to move. In this torpid state it may be killed or taken alive without danger. Scorpions are a constant source of annoyance in this country, and in summer frequently enter the houses and even the beds, but, in general, their bite is not mortal.
The locust is a plague of a very destructive nature. It is bred in the desert tracis, whence, at periods which cannot be foreseen, its swarms pour down in vast bodies upon the fertile regions. They move in a close and regular mass which bids defiance to all attempts to arrest or retard their progress. Every green substance is soon entirely consumed, and tracts covered with all the bloom of vegetation are at once converted into a desert.
Inhabitants.] The inhabitants may be divided into 4 classes : 1. The Moors, who are the ruling people, and constitute the mass of the population in all the cities. The term, Moor, is very vaguely applied, but is generally understood to mean that portion of the Mabometan conquerors of northern Africa, who have adopied a settled mode of life. 2. The Jews, wbo are the principal merchants, and are continually insulted, and most cruelly oppressed by the Moors. 3. The Arabs, who wander with their flocks and serds in the interior districts, on the borders of the great desert. They are governed by their own chiefs or sheichs, and merely owe tribute and military service to the sovereign in whose territory they are situated ; and whenever the government is weak or disputed, the sheichs refuse to submit to it. 4. The Brebers, who are descendants of the ancient natives, and inhabit the mountainous regions. They live in fixed villages and cultivate the ground, but like the Arabs are governed by their owo chiefs, and pay very little respect to the regular government. All these classes, except the Jews, are Mahometang.
Piracy.) The Moors are pirates, and formerly committed great depredations on the commerce of Christian nations in the Mediterranean. They carried on the business systematically, and their prisoners were condemned to the most galling slavery. Within a few years, however, the spirited exertions of the Americans and the English bave given them a check, and it may be hoped, put a tinal period to their depredations.
Barca lies along the coast of the Mediterranean between Egypt and Tripoli,
and extends so far into the interior as to include the small states of Siwah and Augila. It is a sandy desert,
except a few oases or fertile spots inhabited by wandering Arabs, the whole number of whom is estimated at 300,000. They are divided into four or five tribes, under their own chiefs, who are in a great measure independent, but acknowledge a species of subjection to the bashaw of Tripoli. Derne, the chief town, lying on the coast in lov. 22° 10' E. was taken by the American general Eaton in 1805.
Situation and Extent.] Tripoli extends on the coast of the Mediterranean from the gulf of Syrtis or Sidra to the gulf of Cabes. It is bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean; E. by Barca; S. by the Sahara ; and W. by Tunis. Including Barca, the area is estimated at 210.000 square miles.
Government.] The government is despotic, and the sorereign is calle' pacha or bashaw. The country was formerly dependent on Trkey, and the pachas were appointed every three years by the Grand Seignor, but a revolution took place about a century ago, which ended in establishing the ancestors of the present monarch upon the throne, and the office is now considered hereditary in his family. All his sons take the title of bey.
Population, Army, &c.] The population is estimated by Ali Bey at 2,000,000. The only troops maintained in time of peace are the body guard of the pacha, consisting of 300 Turks and 100 Mamelukes, but in time of war it is said that the Arab tribes can furnish an army of 10,000 cavalry and 40,000 infantry. The navy consists of 11 vessels, mounting in all about 100 guas. The revenue of the pacha is only about $200,000 per annum.
Chief Town.} Tripoli, the capital, is situated on the coast in lon. 13° 21' E. It is surrounded by a wall, and has a convenient harbor defended by a fort. The population is estimated at only 12,000 or 15,000.
Commerce.] Considerable commerce is carried on with the European countries on the Mediterranean. The principal exports are olive oil, saffron, wax, honey, wool, salt and dates, all of which are productions of the country ; together with gums, ostrich feathers and several other articles brought by the caravans from the interior of Africa. The great caravans from western Barbary pass through Tripoli on their way to Mecca.
Situation.) Tunis is bounded N. and E. by the Mediterranean; S. E. by Tripoli ; S. by Biledulgerid, and W. by Algiers.
Government, Population, &c.] At the head of the government is a Bey, who is under the protection of the Grand Seignor, but is entirely independent, and his power is hereditary. The populas tion is variously estimated from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000. In time
of peace, the army consists of 10,000 or 15,000 troops, but on an emergency can be increased to 50,000 or 60,000. The navy is composed of 15 or 20 small vessels. Tunis is reckoned among the piratical states, but the inhabitants are more civilized, and less disposed to robbery and violence than their neighbors. The revenue of the bey is estimated at 600.000 dollars.
Chief Towns.1 Tunis, the capital, is situated on the west bank of a salt-water lake, about 6 miles from the head of the gulf of Tunis, with which the lake is connected by a parrow outlet. The town is surrounded by walls and contains about 120,000 inhabitants, many of whom are engaged in the manufacture of velvet, tapestry, turbans, and particularly the red caps for which Tunis is famous. An extensive commerce is carried on partly with European states, and partly by means of caravans with the interior of Africa.
Ruins of Carthage.] The remains of this great city, the ancient emporium of northern Africa and empress of the sea, are situated on a promontory 12 miles E. N. E. of Tunis, but can now scarcely be distinguished by a superficial observer. The harbor bas been filled by the action of the winds and a change in the bed of the river which fell into it. There are no remains of ibe an. cient walls, no triumphal arches or splendid pillars. The cisterns, however, still remain almost entire, and are on a magnificent scale. The great aqueduct which brought the water from a distance of 50 miles, may still be traced through the whole of its course, and the arches in many places remain almost entire.
Situation and Extent.] Algiers is bounded N. by the Mediterranean ; E. by Tunis ; S. by the Atlas mountains, which separate it from Biledulgerid, and W. by Morocco. It extends from about 8° 30' E. to 1° 30' W. lon.
Divisions. Algiers is divided into three provinces. 1. Mascara, which borders on Morocco, and contains the towns of Tlemsan and Oran. 2. Titterie, or Algiers proper, which forms the central province and contains the capital and Boujeiah. 3. Constantina or the eastern province, a very fertile region, which formerly belonged to Tunis, but has been wrested from that state by the Algeripes. Its principal towns are Constantina and Bona.
Chief Towns.] Algiers, the capital, is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean in lon 3° 30' E. It is built on the declivity of a bill, and the houses, rising successively one above another in the form of an amphitheatre, and being all painted white, present a fine appearance from the sea. The harbor, which is about 800 feet long, 500 broad and 15 deep, is formed by two moles, one running directly north and the other northeast, and is strongly defended with forts and batteries. The city was bombarded by an American fleet under Commodore Decatur in 1816; and
afterwards, the same year, by a British feet under Lord Exmouth. The population is variously estimated from 100,000 to 200,000.
Constantina is on a rocky peninsula formed by the small river Rummel, 160 miles E. of Algiers. It occupies the site of the an. cient Cirta, celebrated as the bulwark of Numidia, and is still a strong town both by nature and art. The population, according to Hassel, is 100,000.
Oran is a strong town 170 miles S. W. of Algiers. It was in possession of the Spaniards between 1509 and 1708. The popuJation is about 20,000. In 1790 the city was almost destroyed by an earthquake, in which many of the inhabitants perished.
Bona is a sea-port in loc. 7° 45' E. 66 miles N. N. E. of Cone stantina. It has a good harbor and carries on considerable trade. The population is about 8,000. Boujeiah is a considerable seaport 80 miles E. of Algiers.
Population and Government. The population, according to Hassel, is 1,800,000. The government is a tumultuous and ill-reg." ulated despotism. Tbe dey is elected by the soldiery, or rather, when a vacancy occurs, the boldest and most popular seizes the spyereignty, which he is either allowed to retain, or is strangled to make way for a more fortunate rival. The soldiers are gene rally Turks and are about 12,000 in number.
Navy.] Two centuries ago the fleet of the Algerines equalled that of the first maritime states in Europe, and the ferocious and lawless manner in which this great power was exercised, rendered them truly an object of terror. They attacked the vessels of all Christian nations indiscriminately, and condemned their prisoners to the most galling slavery. For some time past, however, their vayy has been declining, and a few years since contained only 8 frigates of from 36 to 50 guns each, and 10 or 12 smaller vessels, In 1816 it was almost anoihilated by the English and Americans, and the dey was at the same time compelled to liberate all his prisoners, and to agree to the perpetual abolition of Christian slavery in his dominions.
Conimerce.] The maritime commerce, till within the last 30 years, was chiefly in the hands of a French company, established at Marseilles. They bad formed establishments at Bona, and sev. eral other places on the coast of the province of Constantina, particularly with a view to the extensive coral fishery, carried on near that shore, and which is capable of employing annually above 100 boats. They exported besides, wool, bees-wax, ship timber, ostrich's feathers, corn and hides, to the amount of nearly $200,000 annually. During the long war between England and France the French lost this branch of their commerce, and in 1806 the British government stipulated with the dey of Algiers for the possession of the ports which the French formerly occupied, agreeing to pay for the privilege $50,000 annually.
Biledulgerid. This name is given to an extensive region sity. ated immediately south of Algiers and Tunis, from which it is separated by the Atlas mountains. It forms the transition from the førtile plạins of Barbary to that desert of sand which covers sa
large a portion of Central Africa. The only product is dates. The inhabitants are wandering Arabs, wbo are under a nominali subjection to the states of Algiers and Tunis.
Situation and Extent.] Morocco is bounded N. by the straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean ; E. by Algiers ; S. by the Sahara and W. by the Mediterranean. It extends from 29° to 36° N lat. and contains, according to Hassel, upwards of 300,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The empire of Morocco comprehends the former kingdoms of Fez, Morocco, and Tafilet. Fez and Morocco border on the coast and are fertile and populous ; Tafilet lies on the east side of the Mount Atlas chain, and its soil, though at first fertile in dates and wool, passes gradually into the Sahara.
Chief Towns.] Morocco, the residence of the sovereign, is situated in a pleasant plain, at the foot of the Atlas mountains, in lat. 31° 37' N. 120 miles from the sea. It is surrounded by a wall, 7 miles in circunference, and is said to have contained formerly 700,000 inhabitants, but the population has been reduced by wars and the plague, and is now estimated at only 30,000. The city still retains numerous temples, splendid mosques, and other vestiges of its ancient grandeur.
Fez, the capital of the former kingdom of Fez, and the most splendid and populous city in the empire, is about 200 miles N. E. of Morocco, in lat. 34° 6' N. It lies in a valley, which is sur. rounded on all sides, except the porth and north-east, with lofty hills, the higher parts of which are covered with orange groves and orchards, forming a delightful amphitheatre. A river winds through the valley, refreshing the flelds, turning various machinery, and supplying the city with water. The city formerly contained 700 temples and mosques, and was held in such veneration by the Mahometans that when the road to Mecca was shut up, pilgrimages were made to Fez, as a city almost equally sacred. It was no less famous for its literary institutions, at a time when knowledge was almost exclusively in the possession of the Saracens. Its numerous schools for philosophy, physic and astronomy were resorted to by Mahometans from all the neighboring countries. There are still some remains of these institutions, but the studies are confined to the Koran, the first principles of grammar, and the antiquated logic and astronomy. The population is estimated at 100,000.
Mogodor, the principal sea-port, and the centre of almost all the commerce with Europe, is 120 miles west of Morocco. It is built on a low, sandy soil, and is surrounded on all sides, for several miles, by a desert of flying sand. The population is about 10,000.