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merous splendid architectural monuments, many of which still remain, particularly Pompey's pillar, the two obelisks called Cleopatra's needles, the catacombs, and the reservoirs for the supply of the city with water. In the height of its splendor it is said to have contained 600,000 inhabitants ; now, the population is estimated at only 10 or 15,000.
Rosetta is situated on the great western arm of the Nile, called by the ancients the Bolbitine, within a few miles of its mouth. It is a handsome city and contains 12,000 inbabitants. The maritime trade of Egypt is carried on principally from Alexandria ; but Rosetta forms the medium of communication between that city and Cairo.
Damietta is situated on the great eastern arm of the Nile, called by the ancients the Phatnitic, 6 miles from its mouth. It carries on an extensive commerce with Syria, Cyprus, and other parts of the Turkish empire, but suffers for want of a harbor, vessels being obliged to lie in the road at ibe mouth of the river, where they are exposed to all winds. This arm of the Nile is also becoming annually shallower, and it is feared that in a few years it will cease to be navigable for boats of large burden. The country around Damietia is a perfect garden and the rice is the finest in Egypt. The population is estimated at 40,000. Suez is on the gulf of Suez, at the northern extremity of the
It is in the midst of a desert, and from the tops of the houses the eye cannot discern a single tree or the smallest spot of verdure ; yet it is a place of considerable commerce, being visited by the caravans, and several vesseis being employed in the navigation between this port and Jidda in Arabia. The population is estimated at 5,000.
Cosseir is a port on the coast of the Red sea, 300 miles south of Suez, in lat. 26° 8' N. T'he harbor is inconvenient, and the country in the vicinity frightfully desolate, but the place is important as forming the principal point of communication between Egypt and Arabia.
Kene or Kenne, the centre of the tradle of Upper Egypt, is on the Nile, almost due west of Cosseir, from which it is 120 miles distant. Most of the goods destined for India were formerly brought up the Nile in boats to Kene, whence they were carried over land to Cosseir, and embarked on the Red sea, but this com merce has now greatly declined. The town is now chiefly supported by the great caravan from Western and Central Africa, which passes annually through it, bringing numerous pilgrims destined for Mecca and Medina.
Siut or Siout, on the west bank of the Nile, in lat. 27° 10' N. is the rende zyous of the caravans which proceed from Egypt southwart into the interior of Africa. It is also remarkable for the spacious excavations made in the neighboring mountains, supposed to be sepulchres. The population is about 25,000. Girge, on the Nile, in 26° 20' N. lat. was formerly the capital of Upper Egypt, but is now in a state of decline.
Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile, in lat. 25° 30' N. occupies part of the site of ancient Thebes. This celebrated city extended along both banks of the Nile and was 27 miles in circumference. Its magnificent ruins are now scattered over this whole space, and recent traveilers represent it to be impossible by any description to give an idea of the grandeur of the scene. The ruins cunsist of a vast assemblage of temples, columns, obelisks, colossal statues and sphinxes, paintings, sculptures, tonıbs excavated from the rock, and other astonishing specimens of the power and skill of its ancient inhabitants. The bust of Memnon, consisting of a single mass of stone weighing 10 or 12 tons, has been recently sent from this place to England by Mr. Belzoni.
Esne, on the Nile, in lat. 25° 17' N. is chiefly remarkable for the ruins of the ancient Latopolis, of which it occupies the site. Syene or Assuan, on the E. bank of the Nile, in lat. 24° N. is cele. braled for the well which was sunk by the ancient Egyptians to mark the time of the summer solstice.
Antiquities.] The objects which, above all others, attract the attention of the traveller in modern Egypt are the stupendous monuments of ancient grandeur with which it is covered. The ruins of Babylon, and of other capitals which were once the glory of Asia, are distinguishable only by enormous piles of rubbish accumulated upon their site. The masterpieces of Grecian and Roman architecture have reached us in a very shattered and imperfect condition; but the edifices of Egypt, wbichi ascend to an era prior to any record of authentic history, bear scarcely any marks of the thousands of years that have passed over them, and display to us entire the arts and the power of the first generations of men.
The most gigantic of these monuments are the pyramids, which commence immediately south of Cairo, hut on the opposite side of the Nile, and extend in an uninterrupted range for many miles in a southerly direction, parallel with the banks of the riva er. They are built on a hard, rocky plain, which is elevated 80 feet above the territory inundated by the river. The three principal pyramids are situated in the neighborhood of the village of Geeza, at the northero extremity of the range. The base of the largest is 693 feet square, covering an area of a litile more than eleven acres; the perpendicular height is 499 feet. The external part is chiefly built of great square stones, compacted together solely by their own weight, without lime, lead or cramps of any metal. At first view the pyramids present the appearance of solid masses; and it seems to have been the intention of the founders, that the openings which they contain should remain perpetually closed. The ingenuity of successive ages, however, has succeeded in finding the entrance of the great pyramid, and in tracing several lung galleries which terminate in spacious chambers.
The second pyramid, which is 655 feet square at the base and 398 feet high, defied, till lately, all attempts to penetrate into its interior. In the year 1818, however, Mr. Beizoni succeeded in
discovering the true opening, and proceeding along a barros passage, upwards of 100 feet in length, he reached the great chamber, 46 feet long, 16 wide, and 23 high. The most conspicuous object was a large sarcophagus of granite, containing a small quantity of what appeared to be human bones. This seemed to confirm the opinion that these stupendous monuments were intended as sepulchres for the kings of Egypt; but a thigh bone which was sent to England, being examined by the royal college of physicians, was pronounced to belong to a cow, whence it has been inferred that these extraordinary structures were reared in honor of that favorite object of Egyptian worship.
About 300 paces to the east of the second pyramid appears the celebrated Sphynx, or statue of a huge monster, cut in the solid rock. Formerly nothing but the head, neck and top of the back were visible, the rest being sunk in the sand. Mr. Belzoni, bowever, bas lately cleared away nd com this huge mass, and discovered a temple of considerable dimensions between the legs of the Sphynx, and another in one of its paws. The length of the statue from the fore part of the neck to the tail is 125 feet.
Population.] The population is estimated at 2,500,000. It is .composed of several distinct races. 1. The Copts, or descendants of the most ancient inhabitants of Egypt. They prove their origin by their striking resemblance to the paintings and sculptures of their ancient temples, and even to the mummies which are still preserved. They reside almost exclusively in Upper Egypt, and are supposed to be about 200,000 in number. 2. The Arabs or descendants of the Saracen conquerors. They are the most numerous class of the population, and are divided into Bedouins, or wandering Arabs, and Fellahs, or those employed in cultivation. The former occupy those vast deserts which everywhere surround the cultivated land of Egypt, and retain the same rude and predatory character which distinguish the Arabian in his Dative wastes. The Fellahs, on the contrary, fixed to one place, and exposed to insult and oppression from the ruling powers, have lost that independent and adventurous spirit which distinguished the original race. 3. The Turks, who have long been established in the great cities, and whose numbers and power have of late considerably increased. 4. The Jews, who are also numerous in the commercial cities, and are oppressed and persecuted.
Mamelukes.] The Mamelukes consisted of Georgian and Circassian slaves, who were brought into the country by the caliphs in the 13th century, and being intrusted with arms, were made a part of the military power of the state. They were thus enabled to rise against their masters, to massacre or expel them, and to assume the dominion of Egypt. By an unheard of Caprice, they transmitted their power, not to their children whom they despised and neglected, but to new bands of slaves brought like themselves from the Caucasian countries. In the beginning of the 16th century they were conquered by the Turks, but the chief f power was still left in their hands, although they nomipally acknowledged the authority of the pacha or governor appointed
by the Grand Seignor. In 1798, however, when the French invaded Egypt, the strength of the Mamelukes was broken by successive defeats, and considerable bodies of Turks having marched into the kingdom, the pacha conceived a plan for their destruction ; and haviog invited their chiefs to a feast, treacherously massacred the greater part of them. Those who es-i caped fled at first to Upper Egypt and afterwards to Nubia, where they are now established, and still cherish the hope of regaining their ancient power, though the vigor of the pacha's government seems to preclude any immediate prospect of it..
Government.] The government is despotic as in all the countries subject to Turkey. The present pacha, whose allegiance to the Grand Seignor is merely nominal, is represented as a man of very superior talents, and ambitious of improving the situation of his subjects and extending the trade of Egypt. He guarantees the security of person and property to all foreign merchants who establish themselves in the cities or traverse his dominions; and furoishes guards for the protection of merchandize ascending or descending the Nile.
Religion and Language.] The Arabs and Turks are Mahometans. The Copts profess Christianity and were formerly united with the Greek church. Their patriarcb resides at Alexandria, and claims the supremacy, not only over the churches of Egypt, but over those of Abyssinia. The Arabic language is generally spoken. The Coptic language is that of the ancient Egyptians with a mixture of Greek and Arabic. A version of the Scriptures and some religious works are written in it; but it is no longer spoken.
Commerce.] No country in the world is so well sitnated for commerce as Egypt, lying as it does between three continents, and bordering on seas which conneet it immediately with all the most populous countries on the globe. For more than 2,000 years the commerce of Europe with India passed through Egypt, and the present pacha is desirous of restoring it to its old channel. He insures goods for a small premium from the Red sea to the Mediterranean, and a number of vessels now annually arrive at Suez, laden with the products of China, Hindoostan and the Asiatic islands. This country is also the centre of an extensive commerce carried on by caravans with the interior of Africa, with Syria and Arabia. Through it pass the numerous pilgrims who come from all the Mahometan states of Africa to pay their devotions at the shrine of Mecca; and who defray the expenses of their journey by the trade which they carry on. The trade with Turkey is carried on principally from Damietta, and that wils the other European states from Alexandria.
Simation.) The Barbary states occupy that long, narrow country, lying along the Mediterranean sea on the north, and the Sahara or Great Desert on the south, and extending from Egypt on the east to the Atlantic on the west.
Divisions.) The Barbary states are five in number, viz: 1. Barca. 2. Tripoli. 3. Tunis. 4. Algiers. 5. Morocco.
Face of the Country.) The most prominent natural feature of this region is the great mountain chain of Atlas which runs completely through it from west to east. The tract between this chain and the sea is from 50 to 200 miles wide, and is mostly level, well watered and fertile. The country between the mountains and the desert, particularly the part south of Algiers and Tunis, is dry and sandy, but produces dates in such abundance that it is called Biledulgerid or the country of dates. There is no large river in Barbary, but the soil is well watered by ionumerable small streams, which rise in the mountains and after a short course discharge themselves into the sea. The country south of the mountains is also watered by some considerable streams which flow southward and are lost in the sands of the desert.
Climate. The climate is temperate and pleasant. The winter is characterised by heavy showers, but from April to October rain seldom falls. The plague occasionally visits this country, and is awfully destructive in its ravages. The leprosy is also very common. There are no volcanoes ; but various circumstances indicate the action of subterraneous heat, particularly the springs and rivulets, many of which serve the purpose of warm baths. Earthquakes are common, but they are never very violent.
Productions.] The vegetable productions do not differ materially from those of the south of Europe. Fruits are abundant and of excellent quality; the principal grains are wheat and barley. The mountains yield silver, copper, iron, lead and antimony. But the most abundant mineral is salt, which exists in immense quantities. All the lakes are nearly as salt as the sea ; salt springs are more numerous than fresh; and in the territory of Tunis there is no water fit for drinking except what falls in the form of rain. Hence the immense labor bestowed io supplying the cities with water by aqueducts, conducted often over a vast extent of country.
Animals.] The mountains and desert tracts of Barbary nourish multitudes of the fiercer tribes of animals. The lion appears nowhere armed with greater strength and ferocity ; and his attacks are frequent and formidable. Serpents of an enormous size are also common. The buska is a black, venomous serpent, 7 or 8 feet long, which coils itself up and darts to a very great distance ; the wound inflicted is small, but in a few minutes after the bite, the sufferer turns black and expires. The borders of the Sabara