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thousands of the inhabitants. The population is variously estimated from 300,000 to 500,000; about one half are Turks, and the remainder Greeks, Armenians, Franks and Jews.
Adrianople, the second city in European Turkey, in respect to population, is situated in a beautiful country, on the Marissa, 130 miles N. W. of Constantinople, and contains 130,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000 are Greeks.
Salonica is pleasantly situated at the N. E. extremity of the gulf of the same name. It contains 70,000 inhabitants, and in regard to trade this place ranks first after Constantinople. The city occupies the site of the ancient Thessalonia, to whose inhabitants St. Paul addressed two of his epistles.
Belgrade is a famous town and fortress in Servia, near the confluence of the Save and the Danube. It commands the Danube and is regarded as the key to Hungary, and has therefore been frequently an object of fierce contention between the Austrians and the Turks. The population is 30,000.
Bukarest, the capital of Wallachia, is situated nearly in the centre of the province on a branch of the Danube and contains 80,000 inhabitants. Jassy, the capital of Moldavia, is situated near the Pruth on the eastern border of the province, and contains 15,000 inhabitants. Sophia, the capital of Bulgaria, is on the high road from Constantinople to Belgrade, and has 50,000 inhabitants, and an extensive trade, which is chiefly in the hands of Greeks and Armenians.. Galatz, in Moldavia, on the Danube, near its confluence with the Pruth, is a small place but has a good barbor which admits large ships to come up to the town, and almost all the trade between Constantinople and the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia passes through it. Joannina, the capital of Albania, and the residence of Ali Pacha, the celebrated independent chief, is situated 115 miles S. W. of Salonica, in lon. 21° 38' E. lat. 39° 30' N. and contains between 35,000 and 40,000 inhabitants.
Athens, anciently the capital of Attica, and the birth.place of the most distinguished orators, philosophers, and generals of antiquity, is now an insignificant town in the province of Livadia. It stands on the rivulets of Ilissus and Cephissus, a few miles from the shore of the gulf of Egina. Its ruins, unlike those of Delphos, Delos, Olympia, Argos, Sparta, Corinth and other once famous places of Greece, remain for the most part in a state little inferior to their original splendor. Here are still to be seen the citadel, which is now occupied by the Turks as a fortress; the temple of Minerva, the grand display of Athenian magnificence, now converted into a mosque ; the areopagus or hill of Mars, which is now used as a burying place by the Turks; the ruins of the ancient walls and numerous other monuments of of Athenian grandeur. The population at present is about 10,000, of whom one fourth are Turks and the remainder Greeks.
Corinth, formerly one of the most flourishing cities of Greece, is situated near the isthmus of Corinth, 48 miles E. of Athens, ļt
contains at present only 1300 inhabitants. Philippi is a village situated at the foot of Mount Pangæus, 60 miles E. by N. of Salonica, and 8 miles from the sea. The adjacent plains are famous for the battle in which Brutus and Cassius were slain. Mis. itra or Mistra in the southern part of the Morea, 28 miles S. of Tripolizza, is within two miles of the site of the ancient Sparla. Pharsalia, in Thessaly, 18 miles S. E. of Larissa, contains 5,000 inhabitants. It lies adjacent to the plain so well
known for the decisive victory gained by Cæsar over Pompey. Thebes, anciently the capital of Boeotia, is 28 miles W. N. W. of Athens, and contains at present 5,000 inhabitants. Platæu, the scene of the famous battle with the Persians, is 8 miles S. of Thebes.
Dardanelles.) The Dardanelles are two old and strong castles on the Hellespont, (sometimes called from them the strait of the Dardanelles) between the sea of Marmora and the Greecian Archipelago. One is situated in Europe, the other stands on the Asiatic side of the strait. There are on each side 14 great guns, adapted to discharge granite balls; they are of brass, with chambers like mortars 22 feet long, and from 25 to 28 inches in the bore. These castles are called the Old Dardanelles, to distinguish them from two others built at the entrance of the strait, about 10 miles to the southwest, one of which stands in like manner in Asia, and the other in Europe.
Population.] The population is variously estimated from & to 10,000,000. Of the whole number about one quarter are Turks, one third Greeks, and the remainder Sclavonians, Wallachians, Armenians, Jews, gypsies and Franks. The Turks are most numerous in the province of Rumelia, the Greeks in the peninsula below the parallel of 41° 30' N. lat. ; the Sclavonians in Bulgaria, Servia and Bosnia; and the Wallachians in Wallachia and Moldayia.
Greeks.] The modern Greeks, oppressed by a despotic goyernment, bear but a faint resemblance to their ancestors. They discover, however, an active and enterprising disposition, and the commerce of the Turks is carried on principally by Greek mariners, and there are many wealthy Greek merchants on the continent and among the islands. Much bas been said of late in Europe of the restoration of ancient Greece, and the Greeks themselves have begun to direct their attention to literary pursuits. Their progress in the ancient Greek language and in general literature, during the last 30 years, has been very considerable. With their literary improvement, their desire for independence has been increased, and among the higher class of citizens, there prevails a very acute feeling at their present degraded state, and a degree of enthusiasm and veneration for their ancient heroes, poets, philosophers and statesmen, which would do honor to any nation.
Religion. The established religion of Turkey is Mahometan, but at least two thirds of the inbabitants are Christians attached to the Greek church. The Mufti is the head of the Mahometan religion. He is appointed by the Sultan and is the second sub
ject in the empire. The priests are called imams. The dervises are monks, and live in cloisters. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the head of the Greek church, and enjoys an ample revenue. Christians of all denominations are allowed to reside in the empire, but they must pay a heavy poll-tax and are subject to severe oppression.
Government.) The government is an unlimited despotism. The Emperor, who is also styled Grand Sultan and Grand Seignor, has absolute power of life and death, and sometimes exercises it with brutal cruelty. The Grand Vizier is his first officer, and the most powerful subject in the empire, uniting in his own person the authority of prime minister, chief justice, and commander in chief of the army. The Captain Pacha is the first admiral and minister of marine. The provinces are termed pachaliks, and their governors, called pachas, have a power almost as unlimited as that of the emperor. The pachas frequently rebel against the sovereign and sometimes successfully. The celebrated Ali Pacha, one of these rebel chiefs, has brought under his own dominion not only the whole of Albania proper, but a considerable part of the adjoining territories. The extent of his dominions is said to be 30,000 square miles; the population, between 1 and 2,000,000 ; the revenue, £500,000; and the regnlar army about 10,000 inen. Joannina is his capital.
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia are not properly a part of the Turkish empire. They were originally independent, but the inhabitants, being overpowered by the Turks, entered into a treaty, in which they agreed to pay a certain tribute annually, but expressly reserved to themselves the entire management of their internal concerns. This treaty is still binding, but the Turkish government has gradually encroached upon its provisions, so that they have now become a mere dead letier. The Grand Sultan has for a long time assumed the power of appointing the princes or Voivodes of these principalities, and from motives of policy, they have uniformly been for nearly a century wealthy Greeks from Constantinople, who have purchased the office by extravagant bribes and an entire subserviency to the will of the Sultan. The oppressed people regard the Russian government as their natural protector, and it has frequently interfered in their behalf.
Manners and Customs.] The Turks differ greatly in their manners from other European nations. Polygamy is practised, every Mussulman being allowed by the Koran to have four wives and as many concubines as he pleases. The concubines are usually slaves purchased in the market. In eating, the Turks make no use of knives and forks, but divide their food with their fingers. They are extravagantly fond of opium, and spend a great deal of time in chewing and smoaking, and in the indulgence of the reverie which they occasion. Their dress consists of loose flowing robes, and the men use turbans instead of hais.
firmy and Navy.) The Turkish army consists of about 300,000 men, of whom 40,000 are Janissaries or regular infantry, 20,000
artillery and 20,000 regular cavalry. The rest are a mère rab. ble of irregular troops. The Turkish soldiers are brave and rush with enthusiasm to an attack, firmly believing that if they fall in battle they shall be immediately received into paradise; but they are without discipline, and in their late wars with Russia, they have been uniformly beaten. The Turkish government is fully sensible of the advantages to be derived from the improved European tactics, and about 20 years ago actually introduced them, but the prejudices of the common people in favor of the old mode of fighting, and the violent clamor of the Janissaries have forced the government to abandon all attempts at innovation. The nary in 1806 consisted of 20 ships of the line, 15 frigates, and 32 smaller vessels, but it is now greatly reduced.
Revenue.] The public revenue is estimated at about 16,000,000 dollars. The public debt in 1807 was between 50 and $60,000,000. The private revenue of the Sultan, arising from the royal domains, escheats, presents, and extortions from the rich Christians and from public officers is very great.
Manufactures and Commerce.] Notwithstanding the abundance and variety of raw materials, the manufactures of this country are not flourishing. The Turkey carpets, bowever, have been long distinguished for their beauty; as have the printed muslins of Constantinople, and the crapes and gauzes of Salonica. The brass capnon of the Turks are admired, and their sword blades are held in great estimation by foreigners. Morocco leather is also manufactured in large quantities and of the best quality. The commerce is considerable, but is carried on principally by the Greeks, Armenians, and Jews. The exports, besides the above mentioned manufactures, are corn, wine, oil, figs, currants, &c.
Candia, the ancient Crete and one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean, is situated to the south of the Archipelago. It contains 4,318 square miles and more than 280,000 inbabitants, of whom 130,000 are Greeks and 150,000 Turks. A chain of mountains runs through the island from E. to W. in the centre of which rises the lofty Pseloriti, the Ida of the ancients, and near which is the famous labyrinth. The climate is pleasant and the soil fertile, yielding corn, wine, oil, raisins, &c. but the insecurity of property under the Turks represses all attempts at extensive cul. tivation.
Negropont, the largest island in the Archipelago, lies along the eastern coast of Greece, from which it is separated by a narrow channel. It contains 482 square miles and about 50,000 inhabitants. Negropoot, the capital, is on the west coast of the island, and connecied with the continent by a bridge, the channel at this
place being only 200 feet wide. Here is generally stationed a Aotilla of Turkish gallies.
Hydra is a small island, only 10 miles long and 2 broad, lying near the east coast of the Morea. It is rocky and little cultivated but very populous and commercial. The number of vessels belonging to Hydra amounts to 200, carrying from 100 to 400 tons each. They trade not only to the ports of the Archipelago and Mediterranean, but to France, Spain, Italy and other countries. The Hydriot sailors are considered the most intrepid navigators in the Archipelago, and 'several of the merchants are very wealthy. Population about 20,000.
The Cyclades is the name given by the ancients to a large group of islands lying S. E. of Negropont. Andros is the most northerly, and Santorin the most southerly; the others of note are Tino, Zea, Myconi, Naxid, Paros, Antiparos, Milo, Não; Ainorga, and Stainpalia. Of these Paros is celebrated for its marble, and Antiparos for its subterraneous cayern or grotto.
Skyro lies east of the island of Negropont, Scopelo near the mouth of the gulf of Şalonica, and Lemnos nearly east of Mount Athos. The other considerable islands in the Archipelago will be more properly described under Turkey in Asia.
Situation and Exlent.) Asia is bounded on the N. by the Arco tic or Frozen ocean; E. by the Pacific ocean ; S. by the Indian ocean; and W. by Africa, the Mediterranean sea and Europe. It extends from 20 to 77° N. lat. and from 26° to 190° E. lon. The area is estimated by Hassel at 16,728,000 square miles.
Divisions.] Asia will be most conveniently described under the following divisions. 1. Turkey in Asia. 2. Russia in Asia. 3. Arabia. 4. Persia. 5. Cabul, including Beloochistan. 6. Hindoostan or Hither India. 7. Farther India. 8. Chinese empire. 9. Japan. 10. Asiatic islands.
Seus, Bays and Gulfs.] Along the southern coast are the Red sea or Arabian gulf, 1,400 miles long, lying between Asia and Africa; the Persian gulf, between Arabia and Persia ; and the bay of Bengal, between Hindoostan and Farther India; all these communicate with the Indian ocean. On the eastern coast there are four seas; the China sea in the south, the Yellow sea and the sea