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Bonaparte, and on her death it will devolve to Spain. The revenue is £160,000. Chief Towns. Parma, the capital, is on a small river of the
It has 30,000 inhabitants, and a university with about 400 students. Piacenza or Placentia is near the Po, not far from the spot where it is joined by the Trebja. It has 20,000 inhabitants. Guastalla, situated on the Po at the confluence of the Crostollo, 21 miles N. E. of Parma, has 5,500 inhabitants.
7. DUTCHY OF MODENA.
The dutchy of Modena is bounded N. by the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom from which it is separated by the river Po; E. by the States of the church ; S. E. by Tuscany and Lucca; S. W. by the Mediterranean ; and W. by Parma. The area is estimated at 2,060 square miles, and the population at 370,000. It consists of eight districts, viz. Modena, Reggio. Mirandola, Correggio, Carpi, Novellara, Massa and Carrara. The southern part of the territory is intersected by the Apennines ; the northern part has a gently undulating surface with a fertile soil,
and is watered by the Crostolo, the Panaro, and the Seccbia. This dutchy is possessed in full sovereignty by a lateral branch of the house of Austria, the archduke Francis of Este. The revenue is .computed at £110,000 sterling ; the army at 1,500 men.
Chief Towns.] Modena, the capital, is in a delightful plain be. tween the rivers Panaro and Secchia, and contains 20,000 inhabitants. Reggio, 12 miles west of Modena, has 13,300 inhabitants. Massa, situated 2 miles from the coast of the Mediterranean, bas 10,000 inhabitants. Carrara, celebrated for its beautiful marble, is 5 miles N. W. of Massa. Mirandola, 16 miles N. E. of Modena, is a regularly fortified town and contains 8,200 inhabitants.
8. DUTCHY OF LUCCA.
The dutchy of Lucca is bounded N. by Modena ; E. and S. by Tuscany ; and W. by the Mediterranean. It contains 420 square miles and 138,000 inhabitants. The territory is traversed by the Apennines,and two thirds of its surface are supposed to be covered by mountains and Jefiles ; the reminder comprises the delightful plain around the city, and a number of fertile vallies. From the middle of the 15th century till 1805 it was an independent republic. In 1805 its government was changed by the French, and in 1815 it was erected by the Congress of Vienna into a dutchy and given to the infanta of Spain, Maria Louisa. Lucca, the capital, is situated in a fertile plain on the Serchio, and has a university and 18,000 inhabitants.
9. REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO.
This small republic is in- lat. 42° 56' N. lon. 12° 24' E. and is en tirely surrounded by the papal dominions. Its territory consists oniy of a mountain 2,000 feet in height, with a small tract lying along its base ; the area of the whole does not exceed 40 square miles. The population is 7,000. It is governed by its own laws, but is under the protection of the pope. This petty state boasts an existence of many centuries:.
Malta is an island in the Mediterranean lying 50 miles S. from the coast of Sicily. It belongs to the British, together with the two small islands of Gozzo and Cerrino, which are separated from it only by a narrow channel. The area of the three islan.is is 170 square miles, and the number of inhabitants 90,000, of whom above 75,000 are in Malta, which is thus one of the most populous spots on the globe. The soil is formed of a reddish loamy mould, lying on a basis of rock and se idom exceeding 12 or 15 inches in depth. Every spot is cultivated with the greatest care ; and soil, when deficient, is supplied in ship loads from Sicily. The fields are surrounded with small inclosures of stone to prevent the earth being washed away by the raios. From 1530 to 1798 Malta was in possession of the knights of St. Joba of Jerusalem, who highly distinguished themselves on many occasions by their valiant resistance to the Turks. In 1798 the islaod fell into the hands of the French and soon after was taken by the British, and was confirmed to them by the treaty of Paris in 1814. The island is very strongly fortified. In no fortress in Europe are the defences more imposing. lp Gibraltar -admiration is excited by the work of nature; in Malta, by the work of art. Valetta, the capital of the island, is situated on a peninsula wbich projects into the sea, and contains 32,000 inhabitants,an unusual proportion of whom are foreigners from many different countries. Valetta has two harbors, one on each side of the promontory on which the town is situated.
The Ionian islands, sometimes called the Republic of the Sever islands, is a small and recently constituted republic, consisting of seven principal islands, and a number of islets extending along the S. W. coast of Turkey from 36° to 40° N. lat. and from 198 30' to 23° 10' E. loa. The seven principal islands are Corfing
Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Theaki or Ithaca, Cerigo and Paxo. The coasts of these islands are rugged and difficult of access, and their harbors insecure, with the exception of those of Theaki and Cephalonia, to which, in consequence, most of the shipping belongs. The surface is generally uneven, and contains a number of barren rocks and hills, interspersed, however, with fertile plains and vallies. The productions are corn, vines, olives, currants, cotton, honey, wax, &c. Vines and olives form the chief source of income to the inhabitants. These islands within a few years have repeatedly changed masters, having been sometimes in the hands of the French, sometimes of the English, and sometimes under the protection of Russia and Turkey. In the arrangements made at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was agreed that the republic should be put under the protection of Great Britain. A constitution for this small state was soon after drawn up and ratified by the British government in July 1817. It vests the legislative power in a senate of 29 representatives from the different islands, as mentioned in the following table.
Square miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. m Representatives. 220 60,000 272
7 352 60,000 170
8 88 40,000 454
7 130 20,000 154
The inhabitants are partly Italians, but principally Greeks. The Greek religion and Greek language are also most prevalent The principal occupations are navigation, commerce and agricultare.
Situation and Extent.] The Austrian empire is comparatively of modern origin, and at different periuds has received various important augmentations. It embraces about one third of Ger many, nearly a quarter of Italy, a portion of ancient Poland, the whole kingdom of Hungary, and several smaller states, and is thus inbabited by nations varying in their origin, langu::ge, ligion and modes of life, yet forming at the present day a firm and compact body politic. It is bounded N. by Saxony, Prussia,
the free city of Cracow, and the Russian empire ; E. by Rugsia and Turkey ; S. by Turkey, the Adriatic sea, and the river Po, (which separates it from the States of the church, Modena and Parma ;) W. by the kingdom of Sardinia, (from which it is separated by the river Tesino and Lago Maggiore) Switzerland and Bavaria. It extends from 42° 21' to 51° N, lai. and from 8° 30' to 26° 41' E. lon. The area is estimated at 267,674 square miles.
Divisions. The following table exhibits the size and population of the component parts of this great monarchy.
a sq. m. 1. German States,
80,894 9,482,000 117 1. Lower Austria or the ?
15,834 Archdutchy of Austria,
1,850,000 121 2. Taner Austria or Stiria,
8,800 795,000 90 3. The Kingdom of Illyria, 13,506 1,170,000 87 4. Upper Austria or the Tyrol, 11,448 747,000 65 5. Bohemia,
20,900 3,200,000 153 6. Moravia,
9,084 1,374,000 151 7. Austrian Silesia,
1,822 346,000 190 II. Austrian Poland or the
33,638 3,778,000 112 Kingdom of Galicia, III. The Hungarian States, 134,398 10,698,000 79
1. The kingdom of Hungary 88,660 7,515,000 85 2. Sclavonia,
6,776 528,000 78 3. Croatia,
8,272 650,000 78 4. Dalmatia,
6,050 305,000 50 5. Transylvania,
24,640 1,700,000 69 IV. Austrian Italy,
18,290 4,014,000 219 1. The government of Milan, 8,340 2,082,000 248 2. The government of Venice, 9,950 1,932,000 194
267,674 27,972,000 105
Mountains. The Carpathian mountains separate Hungary from Galicia, and Transylvania from Turkey. Branches proceed from the main range and encircle Transylvania on all sides as with a huge wall, through which there are 14 narrow passes, opening communications with the neighboring country. The highest summit in the range is the Lomnitz, 8,316 feet high. The Sudetic chain separates Moravia and Bohemia from Silesia and Saxony. The part between Silesia and Bohemia is called also the Riesengebirge monntains, and the part between Bohemia and Saxony the Erzgebirge or Metallic mountains. The Bohmera wald, or Bohemian Forest, is a chain of mountains separating Bohemia from Bavaria. The Alps proceeding in numerous branches from Switzerland, form the boundary between Germany and Italy, and under the names of Noric, Carnic and Julian Alps, overspread
all the German provinces south of the Danube, viz. Lower Austria, Stiria, Tyrol, and the kingdom of Illyria. Some of these branches proceed for a short distance into Hungary, and gradually sink away into plains, while others run in a N. E. direction and connect the Alps with the Carpathian mountains, the Sudetic chain and the Bohmerwald. The highest summits of the Alps in the Austrian empire, are the Orteles in the Tyrol, 14,466 feet high, and the Great-Glockner on the borders of the Tyrol and the kingdom of Illyria, 12,978 feet.
Face of the Country.) A large portion of the surface of the Austrian empire is covered with mountains. The most mountainous districts are the Tyrol and the other German provinces south of the Danube. Croatia, Sclavonia, and Dalmatia are also traversed by mountain ranges. Bohemia and Transylvania are completely encircled by great chains of mountains, while in the interior they are traversed by inferior ridges. Moravia has mountain barriers on the west, north and east, but is open towards the south. In the other provinces there are several very extensive plains. The principal of these is the great plain of Hungary which occupies all the central and southern portions of that country, and even extends over the Danube into Turkey. The plains of Galicia commence at the foot of the Carpathian mountains, and form a part of that immense level tract which terminates only on the Baltic, the White sea, and at the foot of the Ural mountains. Austrian Italy is another vast plain watered by the Po, and its branches.
Rivers. The principal river is the Danube, which comes from Bavaria and runs from west to east through the province of Lower Austria into Hungary, where it turns to the south and then to the S. E. and becomes for a short distance the boundary between Hungary and Turkey, after which its course lies wholly in Turkey. The principal tributaries which it receives in the Austrian dominions are, the Traun ; the Ens ; the March or Morava, which brings with it the tributary waters of nearly the whole of Moravia; the Raab ; the Waag; and the Theiss, the largest river in Hungary, which rises in the Carpathian mountains on the borders of Galicia and Transylvania, and pursuing a circuitous course through the northern and central portions of the kingdom, joins the Danube 19 miles N. W. of Belgrade on the Turkish frontier, after a course of 450 miles.
The other considerable rivers are, 1. The Elbe, which rises in Bohemia, in the Riesengebirge mountains, and after receiving the Iser, the Moldau, and the Eger, which bring with them the waters of the whole valley of Bohemia, pierces through an opening in the mountains on the northern boundary and passes into Saxony. 2. The Vistula, which rises in Austrian Silesia, in the Carpathian mountains, and after passing by the free city of Cracow, flows through Galicia into the new kingdom of Poland. 3. The Dniester which rises in the Carpathian mountains, in Galicia, and after traversing a great part of that province passes into Russia. 4. The Po, which forms the southern boundary of Aus