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The area, including the island of Sardinia, is estimated at 27,400 square miles.

Divisions. The kingdom is composed of the following territories, several of which are again subdivided.

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Natural Features. Sardinia is almost encircled, except to wards the east, by lofty mountains; the Alps forming the western and northern boundaries, and in the N. W. separating Piedmont from Savoy, while the Apennines run along the southern border. As you proceed from these lofty ranges towards the interior, the surface presents a succession of mountains and hills, gradually diminishing in height till they terminate in the beautiful plains, which occupy the central and eastern portions of the kingdom and extend into Lombardy. The principal river is the Po, which rises on the western frontier and traverses the country in its whole breadth, receiving the numerous streams that descend op all sides from the mountains. The soil is very fertile, the plains yielding abundantly wheat, rye, barley, maize, and in the low grounds, rice, while the hills are covered with flourishing vineyards, and rich pastures The mountains present one of the richest mineral districts in Europe. Savoy, which is separated from the rest of the kingdom by the loftiest part of the Alps, has a rugged and rocky surface and is naturally one of the poorest countries in Europe, but by diot of skill and industry, the inhabitants raise enough to supply their wants.

Chief Towns.] Turin, the capital, and one of the most regularly and beautiful cities in Italy, is situated in a broad plain on the Po near its confluence with the Doria. Its citadel is reputed one of the strongest in Europe. It has a university and 88,000 inhabitants.

Genoa stands on the declivity of a hill on the gulf of Genoa. On the land side it is surrounded by a double wall and is a place of great strength. The harbor is in the form of a semicircle, about a mile in diameter, and is deep enough for ships of 80 guns, but the entrance is difficult. When viewed from the harbor, Gepoa and its environs present the form of an amphitheatre. The white buildings, erected on successive terraces, form a contrast

with the naked appearance of the Apennines and give the town an air of great magnificence, but the interior does not altogether correspond to these impressions. Genoa exports rice, fruit, and olive oil, also her own manufactures, yiz. silks, damasks and vel. Vets. T'he chief business is carried on under foreign flags, from a dread of the Barhary corsairs. The population is 76,000.

Alessandria is a strong town on the right hank of the Tanaro, 44 miles €. of Turin. It has fairs in April and October, which are attended by merchants from all parts of Italy, and even from France and Switzerland. The population is 35,000. The village of Marengo, celebrated for the battle between the French and Austrians on the 14th of June 1800, is 5 miles S. E. of Alessandria.

Nice is delightfully situated on the Mediterranean at the foot of an amphitheatre of bills, and is much resorted to by invalids on account of the salubrity of the climate. The harbor is spacious and the trade considerable. Population 18,500. Chamberry, the capital of Savoy, is situated on a branch of the Rhone, near the French border, and contains 12,000 inhabitants.

Government, Revenue, &c.] The government is an unlimited monarchy. . Some of the territories, however, possess privileges which were guaranteed to them when they were incorporated with the rest of the kingdom. This is particularly the case with Genoa, which was added by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and which is still governed by its own laws, and preserves its senate, its supreme court of justice, and provincial councils, whose assent is necessary to the imposition of new taxes. l'be revenue is about £1,500,000. The standing army, amounting to nearly 60,000 men, is larger in proportion to the population and resources than that of almost any state in Europe.

Island OF SARDINIA.] The island of Sardinia is situated to the $outh of Corsica, from which it is separated by the strait of Bonifacio. It extends from 38° 55' to 41° 17' N. lat. and from go to 10° W. lon. It contains 9,200 square miles and 520,000 inhabitants. The surface presents a pleasant variety of hill and dale, and a chain of mountains runs through the island from north to south. The soil is generally fertile, producing wheat, vines, olives and other fruit in abundance. The climate is healthy wherever the land is elevated, but unhealthy in the vallies and low grounds, where the marsh vapors generate disease. The lower classes of people live in extreme ignorance and poverty, and are constantly oppressed by the barons. The interior of the island exhibits a degree of barbarism which can with difficulty be believed to exist in Europe. The shepherds are dressed in the skins of goats and sheep, and roam with their focks over the uninhabited tracts. They yo constantly armed to protect themselves from the banditti in the mountains. Cagliari, the capital, and residence of the viceroy, is in the southern part of the island, on a gulf of the same name, and bas a spacious and secure harbor. The inhabitants, who are about 30,000 in number, carry on con: siderable trade in oil, wine, and especially salt.

2. LOMBARDO-VENETIAN KINGDOM.

The Lombardo-Venetian kingdom forms part of the Austrian empire, and will be more properly described under that head.

3. KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES.

Situation and Extent.] The continental part of the kingdom of the two Sicilies is called the kingdom of Naples. It occupies the southera part of the peninsula of Italy, and is bounded N W. by the States of the church, and on all other sides by the Adriatic and Mediterranean: from Sicily it is separated by the strait of Messina, which in the parrowest part is not more than two miles broad. It extends from 13° to 19° E. Jon. and from 37° 50' to 42° 55' N. lat. The area of the whole kingdom is estimated at 43,600 square miles, of which Naples contains 31,000 and Sicily 12,600.

Divisions.] The kingdom of Naples is divided into the following provinces. Provinces. Population Provinces

Population. 1. Naples,

752,000
9. Molise,

207,000 2. Terra di Lavoro, 519,500 | 10. Terra di Bari, 331,000 3. Principato Citra, 444,300 11. Terra d'Otranto, 292,000 4. Principato Ultra, 357,000 | 12. Basilicata,

378,000 5. Abruzzo Ultra, l. 157,000 | 13. Calabria Citra, 341,000 6 Abruzzo Ultra, II. 223,000 | 14 Calabria Ultra, I.

419,000 7. Abruzzo Citra, 232,500 | 15. Calabria Ultra, II. 7. Capitanata, 255,000

Face of the Country, f-e.) The Apennines pass through the whole extent of the kingdom, from N. W. to S. E. and in Ahruzzo there are several summits more than 8,000 feet high. Below the mountains there are many fertile hills, and extensive plains and vallies, which under the influence of an invariably mild climate present a remarkable luxuriance of vegetation. Marsbes are found on various parts of the sea-coast and by their insalubrity render some of the most fertile districts uninhabitable. The soil is in general very fertile,producing corn, tobacco, vines, olives, &c. in abundance, bụt owing to the indolence of the people agriculture is much neglected. In many parts the grain is still separated from the straw hy the trampling of cattle.

Voleanoes.] This kingdom is exposed to volcanoes and to earthquakes, which have sometimes buried whole cities in their ruins. The most celebrated volcano is Vesuvius, a solitary moustain, 6 miles E. of Naples. It rises to the height of 3,600 feet above the sea, and has been liable to frequent eruptions. The first on record is that of the year 79, when Pompeii and Herce

laneum were completely buried by the lava. A very destructive eruption occurred also in 1794, which almost buried a town in the neighborhood, and totally destroyed 5,000 acres of rich vineyards.

Chief Towns.) Naples, the capital of the kingdom, and the fourth city in Europe in point of population, is delightfully situated on the margin of a spacious bay, 12 miles in diameter, the shores of which rise gradually from the water, and are covered with villas and gardens, with mulberry, orange and olive groves, and with many extensive vineyards and flourishing villages. The view of the bay and surrounding country from the castle of St. Elmo, on the west of the town, is celebrated as one of the finest in Europe. The city is surrounded by a wall, but is not strongly fortified. The streets, though in general narrow,are straight, and handsomely paved with lava. The Strada di Toledo, extending half the length of the city, is one of the finest streets in Europe, being broad, straight, well paved and bordered in its whole length with elegant buildings. The principal manufactures of Naples are silk fabrics. The trade, though great for so inactive a country as the south of Italy, is small when compared with that of the crowded sea ports of England, and Holland. All classes of the inhabitants, are noted for their indolence. Naples literally swarms with nobility without fortunes, priests without benefices, and beggars of all descriptions The Lazzaroni are a part of the populace without either dwellings or regular occupation. They may be said to spend their life in the streets, sauntering about during the day, and sleeping at night under a public portico, or on the steps of a church. Their number was formerly between 30,000 and 40,000 and is still considerable. The envirous of Naples are highly interesting to the antiquary and classical scholar. Vesuvius, the baths of Nero, the tomb of Virgil, and the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii are all in its vicinity. The population is 330,000.

Taranto, on a peninsula at the head of the gulf of Taranto, contains 18,500 inhabitants. Bari, capital of the province of the same name, is on the Adriatic, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Salerno is on the gulf of the same name, 28 miles S. E. of Naples, and has 10,000 inhabitants. Reggio, in Calabria Ultra, nearly opposite Messina in Sicily, has 16,000 inhabitants.

Population Government, &c.] The population of the whole kingdom is 6,618,000, of whom 4,963,000 are in Naples, and 1,655,000 in Sicily. The government is an hereditary monarchy, and the power of the king is limited by a parliament in which the clergy, the nobility, the land-holders, the universities and the merchants are represented. Sicily is governed by a viceroy and has its separate parliament. The revenue is about 12,000,000 dollars, and of this sum Sicily yields about $4,000,000. The army contains 50,000 iroops, including 16,000 furnished by Sicily. The navy is inconsiderable and consists almost entirely of small vessels.

Manufactures and Commerce.) Manufactures are in a very backward state, many articles being imported from foreign countries. The commerce is principally carried on by foreigners, particularly the British. The exports consist entirely of raw produce, such as oil, silk, wool, and fruit.

Curiosities.] The most remarkable curiosities are the ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Pompeii is an ancient city 14 miles from Naples, at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, which was buried by an eruption of the volcano in the year 79, from which time it had been forgotten almost to its name, until discovered about the middle of the last century, The volcanic matter covering Pompeii being a little more than an accumulation of ashes; about a fourth part of the city has been cleared, and severaltemples and columns and numerous ancient buildings have been discovered in a state of perfect preservation. Herculaneum, which was buried at the same time with Pompeii, is 5 miles E. by S. of Naples. Several streets have been cleared, and are found to be paved and flagged on the sides. Many bronze statues have been found, likewise paintings, many of them in high preservation,various ornaments of dress, kitchen utensils, household furniture, surgical instruments, and other implements of all kindsi The whole is calculated to convey a complete idea of the manners of the age, and to correct a number of erroneous ideas of the arts and habits of the ancients. The most valuable remains, however, are the manuscripts. These are all calcined, and a number of them sunk into dust when exposed to the air. About 1700, however, have been preserved, and there is reason to expect that many more may still be found, and among them, perhaps some of the missing classics. It appears that the inhabitants of this city had time to escape when it was destroyed, as very few skeletons are found, while at Pompeii the number of skeletons is very considerable.

JSLAND OF Sicily. Situation and Divisions.] Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean, is of a triangular shape, and lies between lat. 36° 40' and 38° 12' N. and between 12° 42' and 16° E. Bon. It is separated from the continent by the narrow strait of · Messina, on the opposite sides of which are the rocks of Scilla and the whirlpool of Charybdis, so celebrated by the ancients : the latter is on the Sicilian coast, and the former in Calabria. The area of the island is estimated at 12,600 square miles, and the population at 1,655,000. Sicily was formerly divided into three parts, viz. the Val di Mazzara, Val di Demone, and Val di Noto; but in 1815 it was divided into 7 intendancies, which derive their names from their principal towns, viz. Palermo, Messina, Catania, Girgenti, Syracuse, Trapani and Calatanisetta.

Face of the Country, Soil, s.c.] A chain of mountains proceeds through the island from east to west, and throws off branches towards the south. Between the ridges are beautiful vallies, and along the coasts are extensive plains. The soil bas long been noted for its fertility, Sicily having been anciently styled the

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