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habitants, hut the number is now reduced to 25,000. It was formerly celebrated for the exquisite temper of its sword blades, 5. Xerez de la Frontera, 15 miles N. N. E. of Cadiz, contains 40,000 inhabitants. Its environs are celebrated for the excellent wine corruptly called Sherry. 6. Ecija is beautifully situated on the west bank of the Xenil or Genil, 55 miles E. N. E. of Seville, and contains 28,000 inhabitants. 7. Cordova, the capital of the province of the same name, is an old and famous city at the foot of a branch of the Sierra Moreni, on the north bank of the Guadalquivir, which is navigatle to this place for small vessels. Population 30,000. 8. Jaen, the capital of the province of the same name, is 36 miles N. of Granada, and contains 27,500 inhabitants. 9. Murcia is on the Segura, in the midst of a spacious and beautilul valley containing large numbers of mulberry trees. It has an extensive establishment for twisting silk. Population 35,000.
Education.] The universities of Spain, formerly 24 in number, have been gradually reduced to 11, and of these, few are either well conducted or much frequented. The antiquated system of logic and other parts of scholastic philosophy, continued to be taught until the middle of the 18th century, and though many improvements have since been adopted the Spanish universities are still greatly behind those of France, Germany or Great Britain. There are numerous schools, many of which are connected with the monasteries; and the instruction given is replete with superstitions and antiquated notions.
Population. The population in 1803 was 10,350,000, and it is supposed that the number has not increased since. Spain has for a long time been one of the least populous countries in Europe. This deficiency is attributed by some to the expulsion of the Jews and Moors, to ihe contagious fevers in the south, to the intestine wars with the Moors carried on incessantly for 7 centuries, to the emigrations to America, and to the vast number of clergy who never marry. A more operative cause than either, and perhaps than all these, may be found in the extreme indolence of the inhabitants.
Classes of Society.] In Spain, as in Germany, there prevails a great deal of aristocratic pride, and a scrupulous distinction of classes. The nobility bear the titles of duke, marquis, or count, and are styled collectively, Titulados. The gentry are called Hidalgos, a term applied io all who are of genteel birth or whose designations, such as doctor in law, or doctor in medicine, distinguish them from the mass of agriculturists, merchants and manufacturers. In some provinces these distinctions are little ata tended to, but in others, as in Biscay and Asturia, almost all the inhabitants lay claim to rank.
Character.) In respect to the character of its inhabitants, Spain exhibits great variety, having been peopled from very different quarters, and the difficulty of communication between the different provinces having prevented that approach to uniformity which constant intercourse would have produced. Indolence is the vice of the inland and southern provinces; it may in fact be
termed the vice of the nation, though striking exceptions are at: forded by the inhabitants of Biscay, Galicia, Valencia and above all, of Catalonia. The Castilian is haughty, grave, distant, digDified, mistrustful, and usually well informed and intelligent. The Andalusian is lively, idle, vain, extravagant and licentious. The Galicians leave their own country, and are employed in the rest of Spain, in the lowest occupations, as in sweeping chimnies and cleaning shoes. Most of the servants are Asturians; they are faithful, not very intelligent, but exact in the performance of their duty. All the mountebapks and tumblers come from Va. lencia.
Manners and Customs.] The dress of the Spaniards, formerly national and peculiar, now resembles that of the English and French, but the cloak, the long sword and the large round hat are still occasionally worn. The favorite national amusement of bull-fighting was discouraged by government towards the close of the last century, but has since been revived. These fights take place in amphitheatres prepared for the purpose. The animal is first attacked by horsemen, armed with lances ; then by men on foot, who carry a kind of arrow terminated like a fish-book, which gives the animal exquisite pain, and redoubles his fury. When the bull is almost exhausted, a man, called the matador, advances with a long knite, and usually with a single blow terminates his sufferings. If the animal appears deficient in spirit, a pack of dogs is let in ; several of which are commonly killed before their purpose is accomplished. Frequently six or eight of the horses are killed in a single fight, and sometimes, though rarely, one or more of the human combatants. Notwithstanding the wanton cruelty of this amusement, both sexes, of every age and rank, crowd to a bull-fight day after day with enthusiasm, and gentry and nobles do not disdain to appear as combatants.
Government. The government of Spain was long a limited monarchy, the people being represented by their Cortes, an assembly wbich, though rude and constituted on principles very different from those of true representation, performed the duty of guarding the public purse, and of making known the public grievances, But after the union in the 15th century of the different provinces into one kingdom, the concentration of power in the hands of the monarch, enabled him to dispense with the Cortes, and to encroach on the privileges of the provinces ; so that on the acces: sion of the house of Bourbon in 1700, there remained hardly any vestige of independence, except in Biscay. The dissatisfaction and indignation of the people, excited by the conduct of the present king, led, in the begioning of 1820 to open insubordination in the army, and has produced a revolution of great importance, by which the constitution of the Cortes, on an improved plan, is restored, and sich salutary restraints have been imposed on the power of the crown, as seemed best calculated for securing the rights of the people. The revolution has not been confined to changes in the form of government, but has extended to the reformation of ecclesiastical abuses, and to the abolition of the prir:
iege formerly possessed by all persons of good family, of entailing their estates, the number of these entails being considered one of the chief causes of the backward state of the country. The title of the king of Spain is “ His Catholic Majesty ;" that of the heir apparent is "prince of Asturia ;" the other princes of the royal family are called Infants, and the princesses Infantas. The affairs of the colonies are committed to the management of the eouncil and chamber of the lodies, resident at Madrid.
Religion.) The Catholic religion was, till 1820, the only religion tolerated in Spain. The Inquisition, which was abolished by Bonaparte during his temporary ascendency, was restored by the present king in 1814 ; but in 1820 it was again abolished, it is to be hoped, for ever. The clergy in Spain are excessively numerous, consisting of 8 archbishops, 61 bishops and pot less than 40,000 mioor clergy, distributed through 18,871 parishes. In addition to these, there were recently 2,000 monasteries containing nearly 50,000 monks, and 1075 convents with 20,000 nuns.
Part of these monasteries and convents are now (1821) abolished, and the inmates allowed a small pension for life, government baving appropriated their lands to the public treasury.
Army and Navy.] The army consists at present of about 50,000 men, besides the national militia. The strengih of the Spanish army has varied greatly of late years: its general character is courage in the soldiers and a want of professional knowledge in the officers. The Spanish navy suffered severely from the war with England, begon in 1796 ; and still more at the battle of Trafalgar in October 1805. It formerly contained 42 ships of the line, 30 frigates and pumerous smaller vessels ; but at present it is in a very inefficient state, and is reduced to 5 sail of the line, 10 frigates, and 65 smaller vessels.
Revenue, Debt, &c.] The revenue in 1817 was about £6,000,000. The expenditure, for several years, has constantly exceeded the revenue, and frequently by more than £1,000,000. The interest on the national debt is £1,150,000. The l'evenue from the American mines was formerly considerable, but this source of income may now be considered as finally lost.
Manufactures.] lo a country abounding with the finest wool, flourishing manufactures of that article might be expected, but such is the indolence of the Spaniards, that Spain is obliged to import a part of her woollen cloths from England and France. In like manner, nothwithstanding the productive mines of Biscay, she imports a great part of her hard-ware ; 80 that except in Catalonia, where both silks and cottons are made in large quantities, the only manufactures conducted with spirit in Spain are the twisting of silk, the tanding of leather, and the working of Esparto grass (Spanish broom) into matts, baskets, shoes and other articles.
Commerce.) The exports from Spain consist chiefly of wool, wine, brandy, fruit, olive oil, silk and salt. In return the chief imports are woollen cloth, hard-ware and cottons from England; linen from Germany and Ireland ; woollens, jewelry and paper
from France; naval stores from the Baltic; corn from the Black sea and the Baltic; and salt fish from Newfoundland. The trade with Europe is almost evtirely passive, being carried on principally by the British, French, Dutch, Danes, Swedes and NorthAmericans. The most important branch of Spanish commerce was, till recently, the trade with the colonies, consisting chiefly of the import of silver and gold from the American mines, and the export of European manufactures. This commerce was carried on by the Spaniards themselves, but since the emancipation of South America it seems to be rapidly passing into the hands of the English.
Curiosity.) Montserrat, a single mountain in Catalonia, about 30 miles N. W. of Barcelona, is remarkable for its hermitages and a rich monastery of Benedictines. It is about 24 miles in cir. cumference and rises to the height of 3,300 feet above the level of the sea. The monastery is about half way up the mountain and contains a miraculous image of the Virgin Mary, which attracts an immense number of pilgrims. All the poor who come here are fed gratis for three days ; and all the sick are received into the hospital. The monks, about 60 in number, live in a resluse manner and adhere to very rigid rules of abstinence. Higher up the mountain are 13 hermitages, each having a small chapel, a cell, a well in the rock, and a little garden. The her. mits are chiefly persons of family and fortune, who have retired from the world to devote themselves to meditation and silence. A mule is sent weekly from the convent with 1.3 baskets of provi. sions, one for each of the hermits. One of the hermitages is very curiously and awiully constructed beiween two narrow projections of the rock, and though it is 2,500 paces distant from the monastery by the path, it iinpends so much over it that the music in the church below can be heard very distinctly. The scenery of the mountain has an uncommon mixture of the sublime and beautiful. The traveller meets with delightful vallies in the midst of threatening rocks, tinds shade and verdure surrounded by sterility, and sees natural cascades rushing from the steepest points of the mountain to fertilize the scattered gardens.
Islands.] The principal Spanish islands are the Balearic islands, the largest of which are Majorca, and Minorca, and the Pithyusae islands, consisting of lvica, Formentera and several smaller islands. The two groupes, taken together, constitute the province of Majorca.
Majorca, the largest of the Balearic isles, is situated in the Mediterranean, 100 miles from the coast of Spain. It contains 1,400 square miles, and about 136,000 inbabitants, of whom no less than 3,700 are priests, monks or ouns. The surface is partly level and partly mountainous, the climate is old, and the soil generally fertile, particularly in the south and east. The principal productions are wine, oil, oranges, almonds, figs, and other fruit, all of which are exported. Polmi, the capital, is a fortified town at the bottom of a large bay on the S. W. side of the island. It has a good harbor, and considerable trade. Population 30,000.
Minorca lies 37 miles E. of Majorca. It contains 240 square miles and 31,000 inbabitants. The surface is rough and hilly. The productions are in general the same with those of Majorca. The importance of the island in a political sense has been altogether owing to the valuable harbor of Port Mahon on the S. E. side of the island. This harbor is one of the safest and most convenient in the Mediterranean, with sufficient depth and extent to hold a fleet of ships of war. It was the excellence of the harbor of Port Mahon that made the possession of Minorca an object of so much importance to the British during the last century, until the acquisition of a still better naval station in Malta. The British owned Minorca, with one short interruption, from 1708 to 1781.
Ivica, situated about 40 miles from the coast of Spain, contains 190 square miles and 15,200 inhabitants. It is full of mountains and covered with verdure, and presents at sea a grand and agreeable picture. Along the coast there are watch towers, erected on the principal elevations, from which a vessel at sea may be seen at a great distance, and an alarm given in case of danger; à necessary precaution, on account of the vicinity to Barbary, the corsairs from which used to make frequent descents on the coast. Each district furnishes its quota to form a militia to repel the inroads of these barbariaus. The climate is mild, and tbe soil fertile, producing corn, wine, oil, fruit. Alax and hemp. Salt is made here in large quantities by natural evaporation. Ivica, the capital, is a fortified town on the S. E. side of the island, with à good harbor and 2,700 inhabitants. Formentera is a small island lying south of Ivica, with 1500 inhabitants.
Gibraltar is a well known promontory in the south of Spain, at the entrance from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean, near the part where the sea between Europe and Africa is narrowest. It consists of a great rocky mountain running from north to south about three miles in length, from half a mile to three-fourths in width, and from 1200 to 1400 feet in height. On the north side is an isthmus, about a mile and a half in length and balf as much in breadth, which connects this vast mass of rock with the continent. The northern front of the rock is almost perpendicular: the east side is full of frightful precipices, while the south, being parrow and abrupt, presents hardly any posibility of approach. On none of these sides has this tremendous mass ever been attacked; there remains only the western front, which is almost ás abrupt as the others, but which may be approached by shipping from the bay. Here accordingly have the efforts of assailants been directed, and here are the great batteries and works of defence.
The importance of Gibraltar arises chiefly from its bay, which is very spacious, (9 miles long and 5 broad,) and forms a convena lent naval station, being protected from the more dangerous