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liable to piercing winds and are unsuitable to the production of various fruits, which in Italy flourish in more northern latitudes. The provinces on the Mediterranean are often visited by a scorching wind from Africa called the Solano, which lasts 10 or 12 days, and like the Sirocco of Italy, destroys, while it lasts, all the energies of body and mind
Productions ] Grain is cultivated in all the provinces, but not always in sufficient quantities for the supply of the country. la the warm climate of Granada, coffee, cotton, sugar, and cocoa are produced in abundance. Vines are cultivated in every province, but the most celebrated wines are those of Alicante in Valeucia; Malaga, in Granada; and especially Xeres de la Frontera in Seville, which produces the famous X+res, or Sherry wine. The other fruits are olives, oranges, lemons, almonds, and in the warmest provinces the pomegranate and the palm. Silk is one of the staple productions of Spain. The mineral productions are iron, copper, lead, tin and quicksilver, all in abundance. The iron works of Biscay, Aragon and Asturia have been of great note for several centuries. Spain was anciently celebrated for its mines of gold and silver, but since the discovery of much richer mines in America they have not been worth working, and now lie neglected. There are indications of coal mines in several provinces, though they are as yet wrought only in Asturia. Salt forms one of the chief products of Spain, but it is obtained chiefly by the evaporation of sea-water.
Animals.] The Spanish horses are famous for their beauty and elegance of shape, particularly those of Andalosia The horned cattle of Andalusia are also celebrated ; but these anıl every species of domestic animal are neglected except the sheep, on which great care is bestowed, and the Spanish wool has in consequence long been famous as the finest in the world. The number of sheep in Spain is estimated at 13,000,000, of which 5,000,000 are Merinos or wandering sheep. The Merinos in winter nccupy the plains of Estremadura, Andalusia and Leop. but in summer they are driven for fresh pasture to the mounfainous tracts of the Castiles and Biscay. These migrations begin at the end of April, or the early part of May, and take place in flocks, of about 10,000 sheep in each, conducted by about 50 shepherds, under the charge of a mayoral or officer of responsibility. The progress of such numerous flocks is necessarily slow, a journey of 400 or 500 miles, requiring 30 or 35 davs. In autumn a similar journey is requisite to bring the flocks from the high ground to the plains. Migrations of so frequent occurrence, and to so great an extent, necessarily require peculiar regulations, and have given rise 10 the Mesta, an association authorised by government to decide all questions between the shepherds and the farmers through whose lands the migrations take place.
Inland Communication.] Spain labours under great disadvantages of inland communication. None of the large rivers are navigable except for a short distance from their months. The
roads are also rendered difficult by the mountainous nature of the country: they are good only between the large towns, the cross roads being in general so bad as to necessitate the carriage of commodities on the backs of mules and horses.
Agriculture.) Agriculture is very backward in Spain. Scarcely a twelfth part of the land is cultivated and many of the finest tracts are allowed to lie waste. It is supposed that with proper care the soil would support three times as many inhabitants as it does at present. This neglect of agriculture is attributed to various causes; partly to the badness of the roads and the want of canals, which prevent the inhabitants from bringing their produce to market; partly to the monopolies and impolitic restrictions of the government; partly to the religion, w
which courages the observance of an absurd number of holidays; and partly to the natural indolence of the Spaniards who hate and despise all labor. The best cultivated provinces are Biscay, Galicia, Catalonia, Valencia and a parı of Granada.
Chief Towns.] Madrid, the capital of Spain. is situated near the centre of the kingdom, in New Castile, on the small liver Manzanares, in lat. 40° 25' N. and lon 3° 12' W. It stands on several small eminences in the centre of a large plain, which is elevated 2,200 feet above the level of the sea. It is surrounded by a high earthen wall but has no ditch or other means of defence. Most of the streets are strait, wide, clean, well paved, and well lighted. There are numerous squares adorned with statues and fountains but the most distinguished is the Plaza Mayor, which forms a regular oblong in the centre of the city, 1,536 feet in circuit and inclosed by 136 houses, all uniform and five stories high, with balconies and porticoes supported by pillars. This is the scene of the bull-fights and public executions. The most remarkable public building is the royal palace at the west end of the town, which is of a square form, presenting four fronts of 404 feet each, and is 86 feet in height, and incloses in the middle a court 120 feet square. It is strongly built; its walls are thick, its foundations deep, its pillars strong, and every room is vaulted, no wood being admitted into its construction. It is elegantly ornamented on the outside, and in the interior are many spacious apartments, and a large collection of paintings by the best masters of Flanders, Italy and Spain. The chief defect is the want of gardens. Of the public walks of Madrid, the principal is the Prado, wbich makes so conspicuous a figure in Spanish romances and plays. It runs along the east and north sides of the city, and is planted with trees. Madrid enjoys almost always a cloudless sky, and a pure and serene atmosphere, but the air is extremely keen, owing to the elevated situation, and produces very severe effects on weak constitutions. Madrid has, little trade and prospers chiefly from the presence of the court." The population is estimated at 168,000.
Cadiz, in the province of Seville, stands on the island of Leon at the extremity of a long tongue of land which projects in a N. W. direction. The town is walled, and on three sides sur
rounded by the sea, while strong fortifications across the isthmus secure it from attack by land. The bay of Cadiz is a vast basin, inclosed between the continent and the projecting tongue of land, and is one of the finest bays in the world, being more than 30 miles in circumference, with excellent anchoring ground, while the neighboring mountains protect it to a considerable extent from the winds. It is defended by four forts, and is the grand rendezvous of the Spanish navy. On an island in the bay there are 12 docks, and a grand arsenal with ample supplies of naval stores. The streets are narrow, but clean, well paved and well lighted. The town and the country-seats in its neighborhood make a beautiful appearance from the harbor. The manufactures of Cadiz are insignificant but the commerce is very extensive. It has long been the principal commercial town in Spain, and particularly the centre of trade with America and the West Indies. Large quantities of salt are made in the neighborhood for exportation. The population is estimated at 70,000 souls, many of whom are Irish, Italian, French, English and Dutch.
Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia, and one of the most fourishing cities in Spain, is a strongly fortified town on the shore of the Mediterranean on a plain, encircled at a short distance by bills in the form of an amphitheatre. The barbor is deep, spacious and secure, but difficult of entrance. The commerce of Barcelona is more extensive than that of any city in Spaio except Cadiz. The manufactures consist of silk, cotton and woollen goods, shoes, glass, cutlery and fire-arms, all of which are exported in considerable quantities, together with wine and brandy. Among the principal imports are corn, cod-fish and rice. The population, including the suburbs, is estimated at 140,000.
Valencia, the capital of the province of the same name, stands on the Guadalaviar about a mile and an half from its mouth, in the midst of a fertile and beautiful country, which is every where crowded with villages and orchards. It has no harbor, but only a bad road without anchorage or shelter. Vessels seldom approach nearer than half a league, and receive and discharge their cargoes by means of boats. The city is chiefly noted for its silk manufactures, which are among the most extensive in Europe, giving employment to 25,000 persons and consuming yearly 900,000 lbs. of raw silk. The trade of the town is extensive, notwithstanding its unfavorable situation, and the population is estimated at more than 100,(100.
Seville stands in a large circular plain, on the left side of the Guadalquivir, 54 miles from its mouth, in the midst of a country well cultivated and adorned with villas and orchards. It is the most extensive city in Spain, and is said to have had formerJy when in possession of the Moors, a population of 400,000 souls. It is surrounded by an old wall, 5 or 6 miles in circumference, and containing 166 turrets. After the discovery of America, Seville was invested with the monopoly of the trade between that country and Spain, but the difficulty of navigating the Guadalquivir with large vess els, led to its transfer to Cadiz. Vessels
drawing more than 10 feet water are obliged to unload 8 miles below Sevill", and the largest vessels stop at the month of the river. The manufactures of silk, leather, and some other articles, is carried on to a considerable extent. Here also is the royal tobacco manufactory, which supplies the whole kingdom with cigars, snuff and tobacco, and gives employment to 1,500 persons and 190 horses or mules. The population of Seville is estimated-at 100,000.
Granada, a celebrated city in the province of the same name, is romantically situated on the river Xenil or Genil, 123 miles E. of Seville, on two hills at the extremity of an immense plain surrounded by lofty mountains. The town makes a fine appearance to the approaching traveller, the houses rising one above another, with turrets and gilded cupolas, and the whole crowned by the Alhambra, or palace of the ancient Moorish kings, and in the back ground the Sierra Nivada covered with snow; but on entering the gates this grandeur disappears ; the streets are found to be narrow and irregular, and the buildings bear visible marks of decay. The Alhambra however still retains much of its ancient magnificence and is the grand ornament of the city. Its chambers are all paved with marble, and ornamented with marble pillars. The population of Grapada is estimated at 67,000, They are employed chiefly in manufacturing silk stuffs, woollen goods and other articles.
Malaga, celebrated for its wines, is situated on the coast of Granada, at the bottom of a deep bay, with a large plain to the north, while on the east and west it is sheltered by lofty mountains, whose sides are covered with vineyards and plantations of olive, almond, orange and lemon trees. The harbor is easy of entrance, perfectly sheltered from all winds, sufficiently capacious to contain about 400 ships, and so deep that vessels of the largest burden can come up close to the quays. The town is fortified and contains 52,000 inhabitants.
Saragossa, the capital of Aragon, stands in an extensive and fertile plain on the right bank of the Ebro, which here receives the Guerva, a considerable stream, from the south, and the Gallego, which has its source in the Pyrenees, from the north. Without being regularly fortified it is surrounded by an earthen wall, and is entered by 12 gates. The houses are built throughout of brick. It contains 55,000 inhabitants and a university founded in 1478. Saragossa is celebrated for its dreadful sieges by the French in 1808 and 1809, in which the Spaniards displayed the most unyielding fortitude.
Pampeluna, the capital of Navarre, is situated on the Arga, a branch of the Ebro. It stands partly on an eminence and partly on a plain, and is surrounded by mountains at the distance of 6 or 8 miles. The town is walled and has two citadels, and has long been accounted one of the principal strong holds in the north of Spain. Population, 14,000.
Bilboa, the capital of Biscay proper, is on a small river about 6 miles from the sea. It has a spacious harbor, and carries 04.
an extensive commerce ; the wool of Spain being mostly exported through this channel to England, France, iloiland and other couniries, while the whole of the north of Spain is supplied from this place with foreign merchandize. Population 15,000. Alicant is a well built maritime town in the province of Valencia on a peninsula, in a bay of the Mediterranean, at the bottom of a rocky mountain, on the summit of which is the castle. The commerce of the town is considerable, especially in wine and soap. Population 17.000.
Ferrol, an important sea-port and one of the principal stations of the Spanish davy, is on the north coast of Galicia at the influx of a small river into the bay of Corunna. The harbor is deep, safe and capacious, and the entrance narrow and well defended by forts. The town is strongly fortified. Here are marine barracks for the accommodation of 6,000 men, dock-yards, arsenals, ropewalks and magazines of naval stures of all kinds. Population 10,000. Carthagena, the principal station of the navy in the Mediterranan, is an old and well known'sea port on the coast of Murcia, founded by the Carthaginian general, Asdrubal. The harbor is the hest in the Mediterranean, if not in Europe. It consists of a natural basin of great deptb, reaching close to the town and secured from every wind by the surrounding bills and by an island near the entrance. The town stands on a peninsula in this basin and contains 25,000 inhabitants.
Arunjuez, the residence of the court during a part of the year, is on the Tagus, 20 miles from Madrid, with which it is connected by a superb road, constructed on the model of the ancient Roman roads. Here is a beautiful royal palace with elegant gardens. Population 10,000. Escurial is a village of 2,000 inbabitalis, situated in a dreary uncultivated country, 20 miles N. W, o: Martrid, but celebrated for its palace, which is a magnificent structure erected at an expense of £3,000,000 sterling. St. Ildefonso is a small town 40 miles north of Madrid, containing the royal palace of La Granja with its beautiful gardens. It is the bighret royal residence in Europe, being at an elevation of 3,800 feet above the level of the sea. Population 4,300.
The other considerable towns are, 1. Burg's, the capital of the province of the same naine, which is on the river Arlanzon, 112 miles N. of Madrid, and has considerable commerce in the exportation of the wool of Old Castile, most of which passes through this town to Bilboa. Population 9,000. 2. Salamanca, celebrated for its university, is 153 miles W.N.W. of Madrid, on the river Tormes, a branch of the Duero. Population 13,600. 3. Budajos, the capital of Estremadura, is in a beautiful plain on the Guadiana. It was always a place of strength and now forms an important barrier fortress on the side of Portugal, from which it is distant only 4; miles. It was taken by storm by the British, under lord Wellington, after a memorable condict on the 6th of April 1812. Population 14,500. 4. Toledo is on the Tagus, 32 miles S. S. W. of Madrid, on a rock alm ist surrounded by the river. Two centuries ago it is said to have contained 200,000 in