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that time nearly 1,000,000 testaments, and 2,000,000 bibles. Population, including the suburbs 25,000.
Frankfort-on-the-Oler is a place of considerable trade, having three annual fairs. It contains 15,453 inhabisants. Elbing, near the mouth of the Nogat or eastern arm of the Vistula, 30 miles S. E. of Dantzic, exports large quantities of Prussian and Polish produce. It contains 18,000 inhabiiants. Stralsund is a commercial town on the strait which separates the island of Rugen from the main land, and contains 15,876 inhabitants Erfurt, on the Gera, 12 miles W. of Weimar, is in a territory almost detached from the rest of the Prussian dominions, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Wittenberg, on the Elbe, 60 miles N. of Dresden, is celebrated as the residence of Martin Luther, and in one of the churches lie his remains and those of Melancthon. Naumburg, 28 miles W. S. W. of Leipsic, has two yearly fairs. Population 12,000.
Coblentz is in a delightful country at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, opposite the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. The situation is highly favorable for trade, as it has a direct intercourse with France by the Moselle, and with Germany and Switzerland by the Rhine. The population is 10,500. Dusseldorf, on the Rhine, 20 miles below Cologne, contains 19,000 inhabitants. Munster, on the small river Aa, about 6 miles from its junction with the Ems, contains 14,000 inbabitants. Treves, on the Moselle, has 12,750 inhabitants. Bonn, on the Rhine, 14 miles above Cologne, bas a university established in 1818 and 10,000 inhabitants. Cleves, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is a nearly built town 2 miles from the west bank of the Rhine, containing 5,000 inhabitants. Elberfeld, 20 miles N. E. of Cologne, is extensively engaged in manufactures of various kinds. Population 18,000.
Posen the capital of the province of the same name, is on the Warta, 144 miles E. of Berlin, and contains 22,700 inhabitants. Thorn, on the Vistula, 70 miles S. of Dantzic, is famous as the birth-place of Copernicus. It contains 9,000 inhabitants.
Education. In respect to the cultivation of literature, Prussia holds a high rank among the European states. There is an academy of sciences at Berlin, established by Frederick II. and associations of a similar nature, but on a smaller scale, are established in most of the great lowns. The most celebrated universities are at Halle, Berlin, Breslau and Konigsberg; and in many other towns there are colleges or higher schools for instruction in mathematics and the ancient and modern languages. T'he elementary schools in Brandenburg, Saxony, and part of Prussia proper are numerous and in general well conducted.
Population and Religion.] The population of the Prussian states, in 1818, according to Hassel was 10,154,549, of which Dumber 60,800 were in Newfchatel, and 250,000 in the army. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, but that of the royal family is Calvinistic. All sects enjoy equal rights. The number of the principal denominations a few years since, was as follows; Lu.
therans 6,100,000, Calvinists 350,000, Catholics, 3,500,000, Jews 75,000. In the year 1817 the Lutherans and Calvinists of the Prussian states agreed to lay aside their distinguishing appellations, and to unite in one body under the name of Evangelical Christians This praise-worthy example will probably be followed in several of the Protestant stiits.
Govern nent. Prussia has formerly a representative body under the nime of -tates The powers and privileges of the pobility were also very extensive. By degrees the power of the crown, acting with the vigor of unity and concentration, reduced that of the aristocracy; and the sovereign found means to conduct the public business without the intervention of states, so that the government during the 18th century was an absolute monarchy. Recen:ly, however, the people have manifested an anxious desire for the restoration of the states, and i his has been promised by the king, but as yet (1820) nothing satisfactory has been done.
Debt. Revenue and Army.] The public debt amounts to about £10,000,000 sterling. T'he revenue is about £6,000,000. The army exceeds 150,000 men, but the whole number of men connected with the military establishment, according to Hassel, is 250,000.
Manufactures.) The manufactures have been patronized to an extraordinary extent by the government, and are in a very flourishing condition. Many articles are produced in greater abundance than is necessary for the supply of the country, and furnish a large surplus for exportation. The most industrious provinces are Cleves-Berg, Silesia, Brandenburg, Saxony and some parts of Westphalia. The principal manufactures are linen, of which Silesia alone produces to the value of several million dollars ; woollen goods, for which Silesia is also the most distinguished ; and iron ware, which is the staple in Cleves-Berg. Besides these three principal articles, there are cotton goods, leather, tobacco, and numerous others of less imporance. Berlin is more distinguished for its manufactures than any other city, and is particularly famous for silk, porcelain and cotton gouds.
Commerce.] The situation of Prussia on the Baltic, the many Davigable rivers and canals by which it is traversed, and the fine roads which connect ihe principal towns in the interior, are very favorable to commerce. The foreign trade, however, is pot extensive, but there is a very active internal commerce. The principal seaports are Dantzic, Stettir, Kongsberg, Elbing and Stral. sund. The principal places of trade in the interior are Berlin, Breslan, Magdeburg. Aix la-Chapelle, Coblentz, Cologne, Muno ster, Naumburg and Frankforl-on-the-Oder. The exports are linen, corn, wool, 1:mber. pitch, tar, potash, &c. and the value of the whole may be estimated on an average at £7,000,000 or £8,000,000. The principal trade is with Great Britain,
Island. The island of Rugen is opposite Stralsund on the coast of Pomerania, from which it is separated by a channel about a mile broail. It contains 360 square miles and 28,000 inhabitants, and formerly belonged to Sweden, but was ceded to Prussia in 1814.
Siuation and Ertent.] Spain is bounded N. by the bay of Biscay ; N. E. by France, from which it is separated by the Pyrenees; E. by the Mediterranean; S. by the Mediterranean and the Atlantic; W. by Portugal and the Atlantic. It extends from 36° to 43° 17' N. lat. and from 9° 13' W. to 3° 15' E. lon. The area is estimated at 182,000 square miles.
Divisions.) Spain is at present divided into 31 provinces. The names of several of the old divisions, however, are still in
Both are given in the following table.
Provinces. Square miles, 1. Seville, 9,080
2. Granada, Andalusia,
9,720 3. Cordova, 4,202 4. Jaen, 5,036 5. Murcia, 7.957 6. Valencia, 7,764 7. Catalonia, 12,111 3. Aragon,
14,822 9. Navarre, 2,475 10. Biscay,
1,280 Biscay, 11 Guipuzcoa,
628 12. Alava, 1,093 13. Asturia, 3,725 14. Galicia, 16,060 15. Leon, 5,943 16. Palencia, 1,751
17. Valladolid, 3,272 Leon, 16. Zamora,
1,606 19. Toro, 1,992 20. Salamanca, 6,128
( 21. Burgos, 7,752 Old 22. Soria,
4,118 Castile, ) 23. Segovia, 3,502
24. Avila, 2,600
R 25. Madrid, 1,330 New
26. Guadalaxara, 1,970
27. Cuenca, 11,410 Castile,
28. Toledo, 8,863 29. La Mancha, 7,620 30. Estremadura, 14,478 31. Majorca, 1,775
Pop. on a sq. m.
82 71 60 64 48 106 71 44 89 87 166 62 97 61 40 67 57 41 49 34 61
46 45 172
42 27 29 105
Capes.] The most noted capes are cape Ortegal and cape Finisterre in the N. W.; cape Trafalgar near the strait of Gibraltar in the S. W.; and capes Gata, Palo, Nao, Oropesa, Tortosa, and St. Sebastian, on the coast of the Mediterranean.
Mountains.] The Pyrenees form the boundary between Spain and France. All the other mountain ranges in Spain spring from the Pyrenees in the following manner. The Cantabrian chain runs west, parallel with the northern coast, separating Biscay from Navarre and Asturia from Leon, and termiates at Cape Finisterre. Near the middle of the Cantabrian chain (about lon. 4° 15' W.) the Iberian range separates from it, and stretching at first to the S. E. and then to the south divides Aragon from the two Castiles, and extends under various names in a long irregular line all the way to cape Gata in the province of Granada, while short branches are thrown off from it towards the east which terminate at cape Palo and cape Oropesa. From the Iherian range four great chains proceed in a W. S. W. direction, parallel with each other, to the Atlantic ocean. The most northerly of these four chains is called the Mountains of Castile. They ron near the boundary between the two Castiles and along the northern frontier of Estremadura into Portugal, where they take the name of Sierra de Estrella, and terminale at cape la Roca a little west of Lisbon., The second chain is the Sierra de Toledn, which proceeds through the southern part of New Castile and Estremadura into Portugal, and terminates at cape Espichel a little south of Lisbon. The third chain is the Sierra Morena, which commences on the eastern boundary of the province of La' Mancha, proceeds along the northern frontier of Andalusia, and terminates at cape St. Vincent, the S. W. extremity of Portugal. The fourth chain is the Sierra Nivada, which is principally cenfined to the province of Granada, and terminates on the coast of the Mediterranean in various points, the most southern of which is the rock of Gibraltar. The highest single mountains of Spain are in the Sierra Nivada, the loftiest summit of which is 12,762 feet above the level of the sea. The highest mountain on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees is 7,518 feet, and the highest summit of the Iberian range 6,861 feet above the level of the sea. The Sierra de Toledo and the Sierra Morena are low ranges, being no where higher than 2,700 feet.
Rivers.] The course of the rivers is determined by the direction of the mountain ranges. No large river falls into the bay of Biscay, the Cantabrian chain forming a barrier along the whole northern coast. The great rivers are, 1. The Ebro, in the northeast, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Pyrenees and the Iberian chain. It rises in the province of Toro, near the point where the Iberian range separates from the Cantabrian, and running in a S. E. direction, divides Alava and Navarre from Burgos and Soria, flows through Aragon and Catalonia, and discharges itself into the Mediterranean, near cape Tortosa. The principal towns which it passes in its course are Tudela, Saragossa and Tortosa. The river is in general very
rapid, and unfit for navigation, being full of rocks and shoals. 2. The Guadalquiver, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Siera Nivada and the Sierra Moreda. It rises in the Sierra Nivada, and in its circuitous course through Andalusia passes by Andujar, Cordova and Seville, and falls into the Atlantic ocean about 20 miles N. W. of Cadiz. It is navigable for large vessels to Seville, and for small vessels to Cordova. 3. The Guadiana, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Sierra Morena and the Sierra de Toledo. It rises in the province of La Mancha, and running westward passes by Ciudad Real, Merida and Badajoz, after which it turns to the south, and in the latter part of its course forms the boundary between Spain and Potugal. It is navigable for 40 miles from its mouth. 4. The Tagus, which drains the waters of the valley included between the Sierra de Toledo and te mountains of Castile. It rises in that part of the Iberian range which separates Aragon from New Castile, in the province of Cuenca, and passing through the provinces of Toledo and Estremadura into Portugal, discharges itself into the Atlantic 10 iniles below Lisbon, after a course of 450 miles. It is pavigable only 100 miles from its mouth on account of the rocks, rapids and shallows. 5. The Duero, which drains the waters of the wide valley included between the mountains of Castile and the Cantabrian chain. It rises in the Iberian range on the borders of Aragon, and flowing to the westward traverses Old Castile and Leon, forms for some distance the boundary between Spain and Portugal and finally discharges itself into the Atlantic a little below Oporto. It is navigable only 70 miles from its mouth on account of its rapid course.
The rivers of secondary importance are, 1. The Minho, which rises in the province of Galicia, near the western extremity of the Cantabrian chain, and flowing in a S. W. direction falls into the Atlantic 15 miles below Tuy, after forming for some distance the boundary between Spain and Portugal. 2. The Segura, which rises in the southern part of the Iberian range, and after traversing the province of Murcia in an easterly direction, falls into the Mediterranean 16 miles S. S. W. of Alicante. 3. The Jucar or Xucar, which rises in the Iberian range in the province of Cuenca, and flowing in a S. E. direction passes through the province of Valencia and falls into the Mediterranean.
Face of the Country, Soil and Climate.Chains of mountains intersect the country in all directions. The tracts included between the different ranges consist generally of plains, some of which are elevated, particularly in the two Castiles where they form an extensive table land several thousand feet above the level of the ocean. The soil is generally light, and where well watered very fertile, but when water fails it is dry and barren. The most fertile districts are Asturia, Estremadura and the Mediterranean provinces, especially Andalusia and Valencia. The climate is very various. The elevated plains in the interior are