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3. Frankfort-on-the-Maine, now the permanent seat of the Ger. manic diet, is situated on both sides of the Maine, ahont 20 miles above its influx into the Rhine. Frankfort was formerly fortified, but most of its outworks are now converted into gardens and promenades. The commerce of the town is very extensive, and is greatly promoted by the navigation of the Rhine and Maine, as well as by the two great fairs held here annually in spring and autumn, at which merchandise of all kinds, and from all parts of Europe are offered for sale. The territory of Frankfort contains 110 square miles, and 47,850 inhabitants, of whom 41,000 are within the city. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran. There are, however, 8,000 or 9,000 Jews, who formerly lived in a separate quarter of the city, blocked up at one end, and regularly shut at night, but they are now allowed to live in other parts of the town, though not yet entirely exempted from vexatious treat ment.
4. Lubeck is 36 miles N. E. of Hamburg, on the Trave, a navigable river which joins the Baltic about 8 miles below. Its harbor is properly at Travemunde, at the mouth of the river, where ships drawing more than 10 feet water discharge part of their cargo. The trade of Lubeck consists chiefly in the export of corn from the adjoining country, and the import of wine and British manufactures; the whole to no great amount, Hamburg having great advantages, from its easier access to the ocean, and more extensive communication with the interior. The territory of Lubeck contains 120 square miles, and 40,650 inhabitants, of whom 25,500 are in the city. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran.
Situation and Extent.] The Prussian states consist principally of two territories, entirely detached from each other. The eastern and much the largest division is bounded N. by the Baltic; E by Russia and the new kingdom of Poland; S. by Austria, the kingdom of Saxony, and the Saxe dutchies; and W. by HesseCassel, Hanover, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg. The western division is bounded N. by the Netherlands and Hanover; E. by Waldeck, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt, and the Bavarian circle of the Rhine; S. by France, and w. by the Netherlands There is besides, the canton of Neufchatel in Switzerland, which is subject to Prussia. The eastern division contains 87,169 square miles, the western division 18,271, and the canton of Neufchatel 330; in all, 105,770.
Divisions.) Prussia was divided, by a decree of 20th April 1815, into 10 provinces, each of which is agaia subdivided into two or
more governments, which derive their names from their chief towns. The number of governments is 28, and each is subdivided into 8, 10, 12 or more districts.
Provinces. Sq, miles. Population. Pop. on a sq. m. Chief towns. 1. East Prussia, 15,884 855,244 54 Konigsberg 2. West Prussia, 10,373 560,128 54 Dantzic. 3. Brandenburg, 15,471 1,191,121 77 Berlin. 4. Pomerania, 12,815 665,836 52 Stettin. 5. Silesia, 15,400 2,017,057 131 Breslau, 6. Posen, 7,040 544,641 77 Posen. 7. Saxony, 10,186 1,148,041 112 Magdeburg 8. Westphalia, 7,832 991,899 127
Munster, 9. Cleves & Berg, 3,773
908,185 240 Cologne, 10. Lower Rhine, 6,666 971,597 146 Aix-la-Chapelle
105,440 9,853,749 Add Neufchatel, 330 50,800
Face of the Country. The eastern division forms an extensive plain, skirted on its southern border by the high Sudetic mouna tains in Silesia, and in tiie province of Saxony by the Thuringerwald and the Hartz. The western division is traversed by ranges of rough bills and mountains, particularly in the part on the east side of the Rhine. Along the coast of ihe Baltic, in Pomerania, the land is so low that dikes are necessary to protect the country from inundation.
Sea-coast.] The Baltic washes the northern coast for more than 400 miles, and in this distance receives several considerable rivers. At the mouths of all the principal rivers there are large lakes or bodies of fresh water cailed Haffs, which communicate with the Baltic through narrow straits. The first is the Kurische Haff, on the coast of East Prussia at the mouth of the Niemen. It is 70 miles long and 30 broall, and is separated from the Baltic by a long narrow tract of land, but communicates with it through a narrow strait at Memel. 2. The Frische Hoff, at the mouth of the Vistula, is 70 miles long and 14 broad, and communicates. with the Baltic through a narrow strait at Pillau. 3. The Haff, sometimes called the Stettin Haff, on the coast of Pomerania, at the mouth of the Oder, communicates with the Baltic through three straits formed by the islands of Wollin and Usedom and the shore.
Rivers.] The principal rivers, beginning in the east, are, 1. The Niemen or Memel, which rises in Russia, and flowing N. of W. discharges itself into the Kurische Haff through iwo mouths. 2. The Vistula, which rises in Austrian Silesia, in the Carpathian mountains, and after passing by the free city of Cracow, flows. through Galicia and the new kingdom of Poland, and enters Prussia near the city of Thorn, whence it proceeds in a northerly di
rection till it divides itself into two arms; the eastern arm under the name of the Nogat, falls into the Frische Haff near Elbing; while the western divides itself into two new arms, one of which, turning to the right, discharges itself also into the Frische Haff, and the other turning to the left, passes by Danizig to the Bastic. Its most important tributaries, are the Drewenz, wbich joins at 4 milee above Thorn, and the Brahe, which falls into it a little below that city. 3. The Oder, which is almost wholly a Prussian river, rises in Moravia, and flowing in a N. W. direction through Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania, discharges itself into the Haff or Stettin Haff, after a course of 400 miles, during nearly the whole of which it is navigable. It passes by Ratibor, Oppeln, Breslau, Frankfort, Custrin and Stettin. Its principal tributary is the Warta or Warthe, which rises near the free city of Cracow, and after running at first in a northerly direction through the new kingdom of Poland, turns to the west and entering Prussia, passes through the provinces of Posen and Brandenburg, receives the Netze and discharges itself into the Oder at Custrin. 4. The Elbe comes from Saxony and flowing through the kingdom in a N. W. direction passes into Hanover, after having received in its progress the Schwartz Elster or Black Elster ; the Mulde, which joins it in Anhalt; the Saale, one of whose tributaries is the White El. ster ; and the Havel, whose principal tributary is the Spree, which rises in the eastern part of the kingdom of Saxony, and flowing north pas-es by Berlin and joins the Havel at Spandau. 5. The Rhine passes from S. E. to N. W. througb the heart of the great western division of Prussia, and in its progress receives the Nahe ; the Moselle, which comes from France and being joined by the Sarre near Treves, falls into the Rhine at Coblentz; the Sieg, which joins it two miles below Bonn ; the Ruhr and the Lippe.
The other considerable rivers are, the Pregel,a navigable stream; which falls into the Frische Haff, a little below Konigsberg ; the Stolpe, the Wipper and the Persante, which fall directly into ibe Baltic, between the months of the Vistula and the Oder after a short course ; and the Uçker, which falls into the Haff or Stettin Haffat Uckermunde.
Canals.] The principal canals are, 1. The Bromberg canal, 20 miles long, which connects the Brahe with the Netze, and thus opens a communication between the Vistula and the Oder. 2. The Frederick-William or Mullrose canal, 15 miles long, which begins at Newbruck on the Spree and terminates on the Oder, a little above Frankfort, and thus connects the Oder with the Elbe. 3. The Finow canal, 24 miles long, which connects the Oder with the Havel. 4. The Plauen canal, which connects the Havel witi the Elbe, and shortens the navigation between Berlin and Magdeburg
Soil and Productions.] The soil in the eastern division is for the most part sandy and covered with heath, but there are also along the coasts and rivers rich marshes and fertile low lands. The western division has many tracts in the highest degree fertile, intermixed with others that are rocky and barren. In most of
the provinces the soil is highly cultivated, but in others, particularly in those east of the Oder, the agriculture admits of much improvement. Wheat, oats, barley and potatoes are raised in sufficient quantity for the supply of the country. Flax, hemp and tobacco are also cultivated, but not to such an extent as to prevent importation. The vine flourishes in the western division, along the banks of the Rhine, the Moselle and the Nahe. Cattle and sheep are raised in almost all the pryvinces, but the horses for the cavalry are imported from Russia and Holstein. Westphalia has long been celebrated for its hams, and Pomerania fur its poultry. In the mountainous districts of the western provinces and in the Hartz are found iron, copper, lead, silver and other minerals., Salt from brine springs is also abundant in some parts of Prussian Saxony.
Chief Towns.) Berlin, the capital of the Prussian states, and the residence of the king, is situated in a sandy plain on loth sides of the Spree, and is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. The circumference of its walls is 11 miles. The streets are for the most part broad and straight, and the squares regular and spacious, and adorned with numerous elegant buildings. Berlin is indebted for its chief embellishments to the celel rated Frederick II. who is supposed to have expended yearly in the improrem nt of the city 400,000 dollars. Among the most remarkable public buildings is the royal castle, which is 430 feet long and 276 hrvad. In it is the king's library, which contains upwards of 200,000 volumes. The city is highly distinguished for its manufactures : the principal articles are silk, woollen, linen and cotion goods, jewelry, porcelain, &c. The number of manufacturers in the various establishments is al:out 16,000, of which number nearly 3,000 are in the extensive sık manufactories, and 500 in the royal porcelain manufactory. The population has greatly increased during the last 150 years ; in 1661 it was only 6,500; in 1818 it was 182,387, or including the military 188,485.
Breslau, the capital of Silesia, stands on the left bank of the Oder, at the influx of the small river Ohlau which runs through the town. It is surrounded with strong walls and other fortifications. Breslau is the centre of trade for the whole of Silesia, and the manufactures of the town employ several thousand workmen. Four fairs are held here annually. The population, incluuing the military, is 76.813.
Konigsberg, the chief town in East-Prussia, is on the Pregel, 4 miles from its mouth. The river flows from east to west, and approaches the city in two arms, which join and form a small ob. long island. On this island is built a part of the city, and the rest stands opposite to it, on the north bank of the river. The houses have their foundations on piles as at Amsterdam. Konigsberg is connected with the interior by the Pregel, and carries on a considerble trade with foreign countries. The population is 63,239.
Dantzic, an opulent commercial city of West Prussia, is situated on the left bank of the Vistula, about 5 miles from its mouth. It is surrounded with ramparts, but a more effectual defence consists
in the power of laying the country on one side under water, and of resisting assailants on the other from fortified heights. The barbor is formed by the mouth of the Vistula, and is also defended by forts. The commerce of Dantzic is very extensive, and consists chiefly in the export of corn, potash, timber, hemp, flax, &c. from Prussia and Poland, and the inport of merchandise from all parts of Europe. The population is 52,821.
Cologne, in the province of Cleves-Berg, is situated in a flat country, on the left bank of the Rhine, and is built in the form of a crescent, close to the river. The walls have a pumber of towers, and form a circuit of nearly 7 miles. The streets are in general parrow, winding and gloomy, and the houses ill-built. Cologne carries on considerable commerce, and is celebrated for the manufacture of the famous Cologne water. The population is 54,938.
Magdeburg, in the province of Saxony, is situated in a very beautiful, though flat country, on both sides of the Elbe. It is one of the strongest fortresses in Germany, and in the citadel, which stands on an island in the river, are shown the cells where baron Trenck and La Fayette were succe
ce-sively confined. The manufactures of Magdeburg furnish the basis of a flourishing trade. The population in 1817 was 35.448.
Aix-la-Chapelle, celebrated for its warm baths, and for two treaties of peace concluded here, is in the province of the Lower Rbine, 36 miles W. S. W. of Cologne. It was long the favorite residence of Charlemagne, and for some time the capital of bis empire. It is now distinguished for the manufaciure of fine broad cloth and needles. The population is 32,300.
Stettin, on the left bank of the Oder, 60 miles from its mouth, carries on an extensive trade, consisting principally of the export of the manufactures of Silesia, and the impori of colonial gonds and foreign fabrics required by that province as well as hy Berlin and some other towns in Brandenburg. Vessels of more than 100 tons are obliged to stop at Swinemunde, at the mouth of the river. The population is 25,000.
Potsdam is 15 miles W. S. W of Berlin, on the north bank of the Havel, which here spreads its waters in one expanse after another, like a succession of small lakes. Potsdam is to Berlin what Versailles is to Paris, having been since the close of the 17th century, the occasional residence of the court, but indebted for its chief improvements to Frederick II. The streets are reg. ular and spacious, and in some of them the houses resemble rows of palaces. The royal palace on the hank of the Havel is a magnificent structure. The town is surrounded by a wall and ditch; the population in 1818 was 23,642.
Halle, in the province of Saxony, on both sides of the Saale, 56 miles S. by E. of Magdeburg, is chiefly celebrated for its literary institutions, particularly its university. In one of the suburbs is the orphan-house, and Capstein's establishment for printing the Scriptures, erected in 1712, which is said to have produced since