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Snhabitants. Hanau, the largest manufacturing town and the chiei commercial place of Hesse-Cassel, is situated on the Kinzig not far from its junction with the Maine, 13 miles E. of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, in the midst of one of the most fertile districts in Germany. It contains 12,000 inhabitants. Schmalcalden, the capital of the lordship of the same name, is 56 miles S. E. of Cassel, in lat. 50° 47' N lon. 10° 26' E. Marburg, on the Labo, 45 miles S. W. of Cassel, has a university and 6,500 inbabitants.

IV. Hesse-HOMBURG. This is a small principality, containing only 132 square miles and 20,000 inhabitants, and belonging, with the title of landgrave, to a younger branch of the family of HesseDarmstadt. Small as it is, however, it consists of two detached territories, viz. the county of Homburg, lying on the east side of the Rhine, 8 or 9 miles N. of Fraukfort-on-the-Maine, and the lordship of Meisenheim situated west of the Rhine, between the Bavarian circle of the Roine and the Prussian territories

V. MECKLENBURG. This territory is bounded N. by the Baltic; E. and S. by the Prussian states ; S. W. by the kingdom of Hanover, from which it is separated by the Elbe ; and W. by the dutchy of Lauenburg and the territory of the free city of Lui eck. It is divided into !wo grand dutchies, which are nanied, after their principal towns, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The former, which is much the largest, contains 4,928 square miles and 358,000 inhabitants; the latter, 902 square miles and 71,769 inhabitants. The principal production is cora of wbich considerable quantities are exported. The inbabi. tants are almost entirely Lutherans. The principal towns in Mecklenburg-Schwerin are, Schwerin, which lies on the west side - of a lake of the same name, 60 miles E. of Hamburg, and con

tains 8,500 inhabitants; and Rostock, on the Warnow, 8 miles from its mouth, a place of flourishing trade, with a university and 13,000 inhabitants. The chief town in Mecklenburg-Strelitz is Strelitz, which lies in the S. E. part of the territory, near ibe Prussian boundary.

VI. The Dutchy of Nassat. This territory lies in the west of Germany, and is bounded N. by a part of Prussia; E by HesseCassel, Hesse-Homburg, and Hesse-Darmstadt; S. hy Hesse-Darmstadi, and W. by a pari of Prussia, from which it is separated by the river Rhine. The area is estimated at 2,225 square miles. The face of the country is mountainous and billy. The rivers are the Rhine, the Maine and the Lahn. The culture of the vine and the rearing of cattle form the chief employments of the inhabitants.' The population is 302,767, of whom about one half are Protestants and one half Catholics. The power of the sovereign is limited by the states.

VII. The Grand Dutchy of OLDENBURG lies in the N. W. part of Germany, and is bounded N. by the German ocean ; E. by Hanover and the territory of the free city of Bremen; S. and W. by Hanover. The Weser forms part of the eastern boundary. There are besides, two small detached territories, viz. 1. The

principality of Eutin, lying a little north of Lubec and surrounded on all sides by the dutchy of Holstein, aod 2. the lordship of Birkenfeld, lying west of the Rhine, along the Nahe, near the boundáry between the Bavarian circle of the Rhine and the Prussian territory. The area of the whole is estimated at 2.640 square miles, of which the principality of Eutin contains 200 and the lordship of Birkenfeld 170. The surface of Oldenburg proper is level, and near the coast so low that dikes are necessary to prevent inundation from the sea. The principal productions are horses, cattle, flax, hemp and hops. The population is 217,769. The prevailing religiour is the Lutheran. The power of the grand duke is as yet (1820) unlimited, he having delayed to convoke a representative assembly, though bound to do so. Oldenburg, the capital, is on the river Hunte, 76 miles W. S.W. of Hamburg, and contains 5,000 inhabitants.

VIII. The Dutchy of BRUNSWICK consists chiefly of t*o detached territories lying between the two divisions of the Prussian dominions, and separated from each other by a part of the kingdom of Hanover, which also forms the boundary of both divisions on the north, and of the western division on the south. The area of the whole is estimated at 1,562 square miles. The northern division is level and has a fertile soil; the southern division lies partly on the Hartz, and is rich only in minerals. The population is 209,600, principally Lutherans The power of the sovereign is limited by the states.

Chief Towns.] Brunswick, the capital, is situated on the Ocker, a branch of the Aller. It has 30,000 inhabitants and a college with 20 professors. The manufactures are numerous, and the trade extensive, particularly at the great Brunswick fairs which are held twice in the year, and next to those of Leipsic and Frankfort are the most important in Germany. Wolfenbuttel, on the Ocker, 7 miles S. of Brunswick, formerly the residence of the dukes of Brunswick, has 7,000 inhabitants.

IX. The Grand Dutchy of SAXE-WEIMAR consists of several detached territories in the centre of Germany, the largest of which lies on the Saale, and is surrounded by Saxe-Gotha, the Prussian territories, and Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt. The whole contains 1,450 square miles and 201,000 inhabitants, who are principally Lutherans. The title of the sovereign is grand duke, and his power is limited by the states, without whose consent no law can be made and no taxes levied.

Chief Towns.] Weimar, the capital, is on the Ilm, a branch of the Saale, 46 miles S. W. of Leipsic. It is celebrated as a seat of literature, owing to the liberal patronage of the grand ducal family. The palace of the grand duke contains a library of 100,000 volumes, a cabinet of medals, a museum, and a gallery of paintings. Jena, on the Saale, is celebrated for its university, which has more than 30 professors and 600 students, and also for the great battle of the 14th October 1806 between the French and Prussians, in which the former were victorious. The population.

is 5,000. Eisenach, 40 miles W. of Weimar, in one of the detached territories of the grand dutchy, contains 8,000 inhabitants.

X. The Dutchy of Saxe-GOTHA coosists of two principalities nearly equal in extent. 1. The principality of Gotha, which is surrounded by the Prussian states, Saxe-Weimar, SchwartzburgRudolstadt, Saxe-Meinungen and Hesse-Cassel; and 2. The principality of Altenburg, which is made up of several detached territories, the largest of which lies on the Pleiss and is surrounded by the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian states, Saxe-Weimar and Reuss. The whole dutchy contains 1188 square mile and 185,682 inhabitants, a inajority of whom are Lutherans. The power of the duke is limited by a diet. Gotha, the capital, is 31 milęs W. of Weimar. The castle, in which the duke resides, contains a library of 60,000 volumes. Population 11,600. Altenburg, the capital of the principality of the same name, is on the Pleisse, 20 miles S. of Leipsie, and contains 10,000 inhabitants.

XI. The Dutchy of Saxe-COBURG consists principally of three territories detached from each other. 1. The principality of Coburg which is surrounded by Bavaria, Saxe Meinungen, Rudolstadt and Saxe-Hildburghausen. 2. The principality of Saalfeld, which lies between Rudolstadt and Reuss. 3. The newly-acquired lordship of Baumholder, en the west side of the Rhine, between the Bavarian circle of the Rhine, the Prussian territories, and the small districts belonging to Oldenburg and Hesse Homburg. These three divisions are nearly equal in extent and population, and contain in all 594 square miles and 80,012 inhabitants. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran in the two first divisions, and Roman Catholic in the lordship of Baumholder. Coburg, the capital, is on the Itz, a branch of the Maine, and contains 7000 inhabitants.' Saalfeld, on the Saale, 20 miles N. N. E. of Coburg, contains 3,100 inhabitants.

XII. The Dutchy of Saxe-MEINUNGEN consists of two separate territories, the largest of which lies along the Werra and the Bavarian boundary, and the other in the Thuringerwald between Saxe-Coburg and Rudolstadt. Together they contain 400 square miles and 54,400 inhabitants. Meinungen, the capital, is on the Werra, and .contains 4,200 inhabitants.

XIll. The Dutchy of Saxe-HILDBURGHAUSEN lies on the south side of the Thuringerwald, around the sources of the Werra. It contains 240 square miles and 27,706 inbabitants. Hildburghausen, the capital, is on the Werra, 20 miles N. W. of Coburg and contains 2,500 inhabitants. XIV. The SCHWARTZBURG PRINCIPALITIES.

1. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, which lies on the sides of the Thuringerwald, and is surrounded by the Prussian territories and the dominions of the house of Saxe. It contains 484 square miles and 53,937 inhabitants. Rudolstadt, the chief town, is on the Saale, and contains 4,100 inhabitants. 2. Schwartzburg Sondershausen Jies further north, and is entirely surrounded by the Prussian territories. It contains 506 square miles, and 45,117 inbabitants.

These are,

XV. Lippe-DETMOLD. This principality lies south of the Weser, on the borders of the kingdom of Hapover and the western divis sion of the Prussian states. It contains 440 square miles, and 69,082 inhabitants. Detmold, the capital, contains 2,400 inhabitants.

XVI. SCHAUENBURG-LIPPE, a principality composed of parts of the counties of Schauenhurg and Lippe, lies principally on the north side of the Weser, and is almost surrounded by the kingdom of Hanover. It contains 220 square miles and 24,000 inhabitants.

XVII. The Principality of Anhalt is wholly surrounded by the Prussian dominions. The Elbe passes through it, and here receives the Mulda and the Saale. The surface is almost entirely level and the soil fertile. Anhalt is at present divided into three paits, belonging to three different branches of the reigning family, and each division is called a dutchy, and takes its name from its principal town. 1. Anhalt-Dessau contains 374 square miles and 52,947 inhabitants. Dessau, the chief town, is on the Molda dear its junction with the Elbe, and contains 9,200 inhabitants. 2. Anhalt-Bernburg contains 352 square miles and 37,046 inhabitants. Bernburg, the principal town, is on the Saale and contains 4,800 inhabitants. 3. Anhalt-Cothen contains 330 square miles and 32,454 inhabitants. Cothen, the chief town, contains 5,200 inhabitants.

XVIII. The Principality of Reuss. This territory lies on the Saale and the Elster, and is surrounded by Saxony, Bavaria and the territories of the Saxe dutchies. It contains 629 square miles and 74,460 inhabitants. The princes of Reuss are of a very old family, repeatedly divided and subdivided into lesser brancbes. At present it consists of two principal lines, the elder and the younger.

| The elder or Reuss-Greita line possesses 154 square miles and 22,255 inhabitants. Greitz, the chief town, has 5,000 inhabitants. 2. The younger line is subdivided into, a. The Schleitz line. b. The Lobenstein-Lobenstein line. c. The Lobenstein-Ebersdorf line. d. The Gera line, which is now extinct. All these take their names from the principal towns. The four branches of the younger line possess 475 square miles and 52,205 inhabitants, and are together entitled to only one vote in the general assembly at the diet of Frankfort.

XIX. The Principality of WALDECK consists of the counties of Waldeck and Pyrmont; the former of which lies between Hesse. Cassel and the Prussian territories, and the latter, near the Weser, between Lippe-Detmold and the kingdom of Hanover. Waldeck contains 477 square miles and 51,877 inhabitants.

XX. HOHENZOLLERN is a small principality in the S. W. of Germany, on both sides of the Danube, and surrrounded by Wirtemburg and Baden. It is divided between two branches of the reigning family into, 1. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which contains 440 square miles and 35,360 inhabitants. 2. Hohenzollern-Hechingen, which contains 110 square miles and 14,500 inhabitants.

XXI. The Principality of LICHTENSTEIN lies on the Rhine before it enters the lake of Constance, and is bounded on the E. and S. by the Austrian territories. It contains 55 square miles and 5,546 inhabitants.

FREE CITIES.

i Hamburg, the greatest commercial city in Germany, stands on the north bank of the Elbe, about 80 miles from its mouth, The Elbe, expanded by the tide, is here from 3 to 6 miles broad, and receives from the north the Alster, which flows into it, after forming a basin and several islands within the city. Hamburg covers a large extent of ground, but nearly a third of the space included by the walls is occupied by canals, piers, and the basin formed by the Alster. The streets of the town are narrow, crowded and irregular, and the houses awkward and old-fashioned. Several nianufactures are prosecuted here to a great extent, particularly the refining of sugar, and the printing of cotton, linen and bandkerchiefs. The foreign trade extends to almost every part of the world. The internal trade, by means of the Elbe, extends to Saxony, and even to Bohemia. There is also a canal from the Alster to the Traye, which opens a communication with the Baltic.

The established religion in Hamburg is Lutheran, but complete toleration prevails. The government is an aristocracy, checked by the authority of the citizens at large. The aristocratic part consists of the senate to the number of 28, who receive an annual salary, and constitute the executive power. They have no he. reditary right, but they have the privilege of electing their own members. The citizens act by delegation. The senate alone can propose a law, its adoption or rejection rests with the repre.. sentatives of the citizens. The territory of Hamburg contains 140 square miles It consists of the city and a small district lying around it, of the town and bailiwic of Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the Elbe, and several yillages scattered in the dutchy of Holstein. The population is 129,800, of whom 115,000 are within the city. Hamburg is connected with Frankfort, Lubeck and Bremen, in some commercial regulations; and they still retain the old name of Hanse-towns.

2. Bremen is 54 miles S. W. of Hamburg, on the Weser, by wbich it is divided into two parts, called the old and new towns, both of which are fortified. The harbor is at a place called Elfsleth, 6 miles nearer the sea. The trade of Bremen is extensive, and is in part founded on its manufactures of refined sugar, cotton and woollen cloths, &c. but chiefly on the exportation of the praduce of the countries lying on the Weser, and the importation of such foreign goods as find a market in these parts of Germany. The territory of Bremen contains 7.7 square miles, and 48,500 inhabitants, of whom 37,700 are within the city.

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