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likewise manufactured in a number of towns. Cotton spinning and weaving acquired a rapid extension towards the close of the last century, and have of late years been benefitted by the introduction of improved machinery. The manufactures connected with the mines are of considerable extent, particularly at Freyberg. The principal exports from Saxony besides manufactured articles are wool and minerals.


1. THE GRAND DUTCHY OF BADEN. This country lies in the S. W. corner of Germany, along the Rhine, which separates it on the S. from Switzerland, and on the W. from France and the Bavarian circle of the Rhine ; on the N. it is bounded by HesseDarmstadt and Bavaria, and on the E. by the kingdom of Wirtemberg. The surface is in some parts motintainous, but is made up principally of fertile and well-cultivated vallies which supply the inhabitants with all the necessaries of life, and furnish corn, wood and wine for exportation.

The population is 1,000,000, of whom 600,000 are Catholics, 300,000 Lutherans, and the remainder principaily Calvinists. The government is monarchical ; the title of the sovereign is Grand Duke, and since 1818 his power has been limited by the states, which are divided into two chambers.

Chief Towns.] Carlsruhe, the residence of the grand duke and his court, is a beautiful town, about 3 miles from the Rhine, in lat. 49° N. It is laid out on a regular plan with streets diverging from a centre in the form of radii. The houses are almost all of stone, and the population is 15,000. Manheim, situated at the conAuence of the Neckar with the Rhine, is also regularly laid out, and is said to be the most beautiful town in Germany. If contains 18,000 inhabitants. Heidelberg, on the Veckar, 10 miles from its mouth, is celebrated for its university, which has 26 professors and between 500 and 600 students. Of late it has been liberally patronised by the government, and its reputation as a place of education is increasing. The population of the town is 10,000. There is another university at Freyburg with 300 students. Constance is situated on the lake of Constance, at the point where the Rhine flows from the upper into the lower lake. It has 4,500 inhabitants.

II. HESSE-DARMSTADT or the GRAND DUTCHY OF Hesse. This state consists of two distinct territories, detached from each other, one lying on the north and the other on the south side of the Maine. The northern division is bounded on the north, east and south by Hesse-Cassel, on the S. W. by the territory of the free city of Frankfort, and on the west hy Nassau and part of Prussia. The southern division lies along the Maine and on both sides of the Rhine, and is bounded N. by Nassau, the territory of Frankfort, and Hesse-Cassel ; E. by Bavaria ; S. by Baden; S. W. by


the Bavarian circle of the Rhine, and N. W. by a part of Prussia. The two parts are nearly equal in extent and contain together 4,246 square miles. The surface is more mountainous than level, yet in many parts it is very fertile. particularly in the part on the west side of ihe Rhine. The population is 619,500, of whom the greatest proportion are Lutherans; there are, however, a num. ber of Catholics and Calvinists; also a few Jews. The government is a monarchy limited by the states, but they have not for a long time been assembled, and although the grand duke has re. tently promised to restore them, no step for that purpose bas as yet (1820) been taken.

Chief Towns.] Darmstadt, the capital, is a neat town, 14 miles S. of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, and contains 18,000 inhabitants. Mentz, the largest town, is on the west bank of the Rbine, immediately below the influx of the Maine. It is built in the form of a semicircle, of which the Rhine forms the diameter, and is the strongest fortress in Germany. The greatest defect of the works is their extent, which is such as lo require a garrison of 30,000

The population of the town is 25,000. Giessen, the larg. est town in the northern division of the grand dutchy, is 36 miles N. E. of Mentz, and has a university and 8,000 inhabitants. Offenbach, the largest manufacturing town, is on the suuth bank of the Maine, 4 miles above Frankfort, and has 9,000 inhabitants. Worms, celebrated as the place where the reformation commenced in 1525, is on the west side of the Rhine, 25 miles S. of Mentz.

III. HESSE-CASSEL. This state is bounded on the N. E. by Hanover and Prussia ; E. by Weimar and Bavaria ; S. by Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt ; W. by Hesse-Darmstadt; and N W. by a part of Prussia and Waldeck. Besides the country included in these boundaries there are two small detached territories belonging to Hesse-Cassel. 1. The lordship of Schmalcalden, lying to the east, in the Thuringerwald, surrounded by the Saxe dutchies. 2. The lordship of Schauenburg, lying to the north, on the Weser, surrounded hy Lippe and the kingdom of Hanover. The whole area is 4,422 square miles, of which the lordship of Schmalcalden contains 121, and the lordship of Schauenburg 200. The surface is generally mountainous, iuterspersed with some ler tile vallies. The principal productions are grain, potatoes, fax and hemp; and near the southern boundary the vine is extensively coltivated. The mountains abound with wood, and in the lordship of Schmalcalden with many valuable metals and mine. rals. The population is 540,000, a majority of whom are Cairinists. The government is a monarchy limited by the states, which consist of the prelates, the nobles and the representatives of the towns and peasants

. The title of the sovereign is “ Elector of Hesse, and grand duke of Fulda.”

Chief Towns ) Cassel, the capital, is in the northern part of the electoraic, on the Fulda. It contains 18,000 inhabitants. Fulda, the capital of the territory from which the sovereign takes the title of grand duke, is on the river Fulda, and contains 7.50) Snhabitants. Hanau, the largest manufacturing town and the chiei commercial place of Hesse-Cassel, is situated on the Kinzig not far from its junction with the Maine, 13 miles E. of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, in the midst of one of the most fertile districts in Germany. It contains 12,000 inhabitants. Schmalcalden, the capital of the lordship of the same name, is 56 miles S. E. of Cassel, in lat. 50° 47' N lon. 10° 26' E. Marburg, on the Labo, 45 miles S. W. of Cassel, has a university and 6,500 inbabitants.

IV. Hesse-HOMBURG. This is a small principality, containing only 132 square miles and 20,000 inhabitants, and belonging, with the title of landgrave, to a younger branch of the family of HesseDarmstadt. Small as it is, however, it consists of two detached territories, viz. the county of Homburg, lying on the east side of the Rhine, 8 or 9 miles N. of Fraukfort-on-the-Maine, and the lordship of Meisenheim situated west of the Rhine, between the Bavarian circle of the Roine and the Prussian territories

V. MECKLENBURG. This territory is bounded N. by the Baltic; E. and S. by the Prussian states ; S. W. by the kingdom of Hanover, from which it is separated by the Elbe ; and W. by the dutchy of Lauenburg and the territory of the free city of Lui eck. It is divided into !wo grand dutchies, which are nanied, after their principal towns, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The former, which is much the largest, contains 4,928 square miles and 358,000 inhabitants; the latter, 902 square miles and 71,769 inhabitants. The principal production is cora of wbich considerable quantities are exported. The inbabi. tants are almost entirely Lutherans. The principal towns in Mecklenburg-Schwerin are, Schwerin, which lies on the west side - of a lake of the same name, 60 miles E. of Hamburg, and con

tains 8,500 inhabitants; and Rostock, on the Warnow, 8 miles from its mouth, a place of flourishing trade, with a university and 13,000 inhabitants. The chief town in Mecklenburg-Strelitz is Strelitz, which lies in the S. E. part of the territory, near ibe Prussian boundary.

VI. The Dutchy of Nassat. This territory lies in the west of Germany, and is bounded N. by a part of Prussia; E by HesseCassel, Hesse-Homburg, and Hesse-Darmstadt; S. hy Hesse-Darmstadi, and W. by a pari of Prussia, from which it is separated by the river Rhine. The area is estimated at 2,225 square miles. The face of the country is mountainous and billy. The rivers are the Rhine, the Maine and the Lahn. The culture of the vine and the rearing of cattle form the chief employments of the inhabitants.' The population is 302,767, of whom about one half are Protestants and one half Catholics. The power of the sovereign is limited by the states.

VII. The Grand Dutchy of OLDENBURG lies in the N. W. part of Germany, and is bounded N. by the German ocean ; E. by Hanover and the territory of the free city of Bremen; S. and W. by Hanover. The Weser forms part of the eastern boundary. There are besides, two small detached territories, viz. 1. The principality of Eutin, lying a little north of Lubec and surrounded on all sides by the dutchy of Holstein, aod 2. the lordship of Birkenfeld, lying west of the Rhine, along the Nahe, near the boundáry between the Bavarian circle of the Rhine and the Prussian territory. The area of the whole is estimated at 2.640 square miles, of which the principality of Eutin contains 200 and the lordship of Birkenfeld 170. The surface of Oldenburg proper is level, and near the coast so low that dikes are necessary to prevent inundation from the sea. The principal productions are horses, cattle, flax, hemp and hops. The population is 217,769. The prevailing religiour is the Lutheran. The power of the grand duke is as yet (1820) unlimited, he having delayed to convoke a representative assembly, though bound to do so. Oldenburg, the capital, is on the river Hunte, 76 miles W. S.W. of Hamburg, and contains 5,000 inhabitants.

VIII. The Dutchy of BRUNSWICK consists chiefly of t*o detached territories lying between the two divisions of the Prussian dominions, and separated from each other by a part of the kingdom of Hanover, which also forms the boundary of both divisions on the north, and of the western division on the south. The area of the whole is estimated at 1,562 square miles. The northern division is level and has a fertile soil; the southern division lies partly on the Hartz, and is rich only in minerals. The population is 209,600, principally Lutherans The power of the sovereign is limited by the states.

Chief Towns.] Brunswick, the capital, is situated on the Ocker, a branch of the Aller. It has 30,000 inhabitants and a college with 20 professors. The manufactures are numerous, and the trade extensive, particularly at the great Brunswick fairs which are held twice in the year, and next to those of Leipsic and Frankfort are the most important in Germany. Wolfenbuttel, on the Ocker, 7 miles S. of Brunswick, formerly the residence of the dukes of Brunswick, has 7,000 inhabitants.

IX. The Grand Dutchy of SAXE-WEIMAR consists of several detached territories in the centre of Germany, the largest of which lies on the Saale, and is surrounded by Saxe-Gotha, the Prussian territories, and Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt. The whole contains 1,450 square miles and 201,000 inhabitants, who are principally Lutherans. The title of the sovereign is grand duke, and his power is limited by the states, without whose consent no law can be made and no taxes levied.

Chief Towns.] Weimar, the capital, is on the Ilm, a branch of the Saale, 46 miles S. W. of Leipsic. It is celebrated as a seat of literature, owing to the liberal patronage of the grand ducal family. The palace of the grand duke contains a library of 100,000 volumes, a cabinet of medals, a museum, and a gallery of paintings. Jena, on the Saale, is celebrated for its university, which has more than 30 professors and 600 students, and also for the great battle of the 14th October 1806 between the French and Prussians, in which the former were victorious. The population. is 5,000. Eisenach, 40 miles W. of Weimar, in one of the detached territories of the grand dutchy, contains 8,000 inhabitants.

X. The Dutchy of Saxe-GOTHA coosists of two principalities nearly equal in extent. 1. The principality of Gotha, which is surrounded by the Prussian states, Saxe-Weimar, SchwartzburgRudolstadt, Saxe-Meinungen and Hesse-Cassel; and 2. The principality of Altenburg, which is made up of several detached territories, the largest of which lies on the Pleiss and is surrounded by the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian states, Saxe-Weimar and Reuss. The whole dutchy contains 1188 square mile and 185,682 inhabitants, a inajority of whom are Lutherans. The power of the duke is limited by a diet. Gotha, the capital, is 31 milęs W. of Weimar. The castle, in which the duke resides, contains a library of 60,000 volumes. Population 11,600. Altenburg, the capital of the principality of the same name, is on the Pleisse, 20 miles S. of Leipsie, and contains 10,000 inhabitants.

XI. The Dutchy of Saxe-COBURG consists principally of three territories detached from each other. 1. The principality of Coburg which is surrounded by Bavaria, Saxe Meinungen, Rudolstadt and Saxe-Hildburghausen. 2. The principality of Saalfeld, which lies between Rudolstadt and Reuss. 3. The newly-acquired lordship of Baumholder, en the west side of the Rhine, between the Bavarian circle of the Rhine, the Prussian territories, and the small districts belonging to Oldenburg and Hesse Homburg. These three divisions are nearly equal in extent and population, and contain in all 594 square miles and 80,012 inhabitants. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran in the two first divisions, and Roman Catholic in the lordship of Baumholder. Coburg, the capital, is on the Itz, a branch of the Maine, and contains 7000 inhabitants.' Saalfeld, on the Saale, 20 miles N. N. E. of Coburg, contains 3,100 inhabitants.

XII. The Dutchy of Saxe-MEINUNGEN consists of two separate territories, the largest of which lies along the Werra and the Bavarian boundary, and the other in the Thuringerwald between Saxe-Coburg and Rudolstadt. Together they contain 400 square miles and 54,400 inhabitants. Meinungen, the capital, is on the Werra, and .contains 4,200 inhabitants.

XIll. The Dutchy of Saxe-HILDBURGHAUSEN lies on the south side of the Thuringerwald, around the sources of the Werra. It contains 240 square miles and 27,706 inbabitants. Hildburghausen, the capital, is on the Werra, 20 miles N. W. of Coburg and contains 2,500 inhabitants. XIV. The SCHWARTZBURG PRINCIPALITIES.

1. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, which lies on the sides of the Thuringerwald, and is surrounded by the Prussian territories and the dominions of the house of Saxe. It contains 484 square miles and 53,937 inhabitants. Rudolstadt, the chief town, is on the Saale, and contains 4,100 inhabitants. 2. Schwartzburg Sondershausen Jies further north, and is entirely surrounded by the Prussian territories. It contains 506 square miles, and 45,117 inbabitants.

These are,

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