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make Ulm a fortress of the first rank, and a sum of no less than 4,800,000 was voted in 1818 for completing its fortifications, Tubingen, on the Neckar, 16 miles S. S. W. of Stuttgard has a university with 300 students, a theological seminary and a college for the nobility. Population 5,765.

Population, Religion, 8.c.] The number of inhabitants, aecording to the official return in 1818, was 1,395,463, or on an average 172 10 a square mile, which is a more dense population than that

any of the other German states. Nearly 1,000,000 of the inhabitants are Lutherans and the remainder Catholics, with the exception of 8,000 Jews.

Government and Army.] The government is monarchical, and according to the plan of a constitution recently proposed by the king, his power is to be limited by a diet consisting of two chambers, one of which is composed of the nobility and the higher orders of the clergy, and the other of the representatives of the cities and the people. The army consists of about 16,000 men.

Manufactures and Commerce.) The manufactures are principally limited to the supply of the kingdom, and furnish little surplus for exportation. The principal exports are wood, which is floated in large quantities down the Neckar and the Rhine to Holland, wine, live cattle, horses and swine.


Situation and Extent.] Hanover is bounded on the N. W. by the North Sea; N. E. by Holstein, Lauenburg and Mecklenburg, from which it is separated by the river Elbe; on the S. E. by Prnssia; S.W. by Hesse-Cassel and the western division of the Prussian dominions, and W. by the kingdom of the Netherlands. It lies between 6° 50' and 11° 46' E. lon. and between 51° 18' and 53° 54' N. lat. Within these boundaries are also included the grand dutchy of Oldenburg, part of the dutchy of Brunswick, and the free city of Biemen, which are all independent of Hanover, thuugh almost sur rounded by it. The area of the kingdom is estimated at 15,004 square miles. Divisions.] Hanover is divided into 12 provinces as follows: Province s.

Square miles. Population Chief towns. 1. Calenberg,

1,046 139,250 Hanover. 2. Gottingen,

1,220 176,100 Gottingen. 3. Luneburg,

4,236 246,000 Luneburg. 4. Hoya with Diepholtz, 1,420 105,150 Diepholiz. 5. Hildesheim,

682 128,950 Hildesheim 6. Osnabruck,

920 125,050 Osnabruck 7. Verden,

520 22,550 Verden. 8. Bremen,


168,500 Stade. 9. Bentheim,

400 24,350 Bentheim. 10. East Friesland,

1,100 120,850 Emden. 11. Lingen,


Lingen. 12. Meppen,

700 26,200


Face of the Country, d.c.] With the exception of the Hartz and other elevated pract, which occupy the southern part of the kingdom, the territory of Hanover consists of an immense plain interrupted only by gentle undulations and sand bills. In the south the vallies between the mountains are fertile; in the north there are many barren heaths and moors: the most productive tracts are those along the coasts and the banks of the rivers, which have been reclaimed from a marshy state. The principal productions are good horses and fine cattle, particularly in the Hartz and in the marshy districts on the coast. The Hartz mountains are very rich in minerals, particularly in iron, copper, lead and silver, the mine- of which are extensively wrought and yield a considerable revenue to the government. The principal rivers are, 1. I he Elbe, which forms the boundary on the N. E. 2. The Weser, which passes through the heart of the kingdom and receives from the east the Aller. 3. The Ems, which passes from south to north through the western part of the kingdom.

Chief Towns.) Hunover, the capital, is pleasantly situated on both sides of the Leine, a navigable branch of the Aller. It has a few manufactures, but derives its support principally from the presence of the court and the residence of the gentry. The population is 25,000. Emden, situated on the Ems, at its influx into the North sea at the bay of Dollart, has a spacious and secure harbor, and is a place of considerable trade. Population 11,000, Hildesheim, on a branch of the Leine, 20 miles S. E. of Hanover, has 11,000 inhabitants. Luneburg on the Ilmenau, a branch of the Elbe, has a considerable trade in horses and salt, and 10,000 inhabitants. Osnabruck, or Osnaburg, on the Hase, a branch of the Ems, is famous for the manufacture of the coarse linen called Osnaburgs. Population 9,000. Gottingen, farnous for its university, is on the Leine, near the southern extremity of the kingdom. Population 9,000.

Population and Religion.] The population in 1818 was 1,305,351. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, but all other sects are tolerated. The Calvinists amount only to 40,000, the Jews to 8,000 or 9,000, and the Catholics do not exceed 150,000.

Education.) A regular system of education prevails throughout the kingdom. Elementary schools are established in every village, and academies or bigher schools in all the principal towns. The university at Gortingen is esteemed one of the first in Europe. It was founded in 1734 by George II, and is on a very comprehensive plan, embracing the four faculties of divinity, philosophy, law and medicine. The number of professors is not fixed, but in general exceeds 40. In 1818 they were as follows : 3 of theology ; 7 of medicine, surgery, chemistry and botany; 7 of law; 6 of the classics and oriental languages; 4 of history, ancient and modern, statistics and the history of literature ; 2 of mathematics, logic and metaphysics ; 4 of astronomy, experimental philosophy and mineralogy ; 3 of modern languages and literalure. These are the regular and daily lecturers, but there are also 7 professors who give extraordinary lectures on subjects connected with the above. The number of students varies from 1,000 to 1,200, and is greater than at any other university in Germany. The library consists of about 200,000 volumes, and is perhaps more valuable than any other in Europe, an unusual proportion of the collection being modern and useful books. The regular funds for the purchase of books are about £800 sterling a year. Gottingen is the resort of students from various parts of Germany, from England, and of late even from America.

Government. Revenue, &-c.] The government is a monarchy limited by a diet consisting of two chambers, ope composed of the nobility and the higher order of the clergy, and the other of deputies from the cities, the university, and the landholders. No lax can be levied or new law made, without the consent of the states. The crown is hereditary, and the succession is limited to the male line. The king of Great Britain is also king of Hanover, but although the two countries have been governed for a century by the same soverign, they are still politically distinct. There have in fact been several instances of the same prince making peace with an enemy in the capacity of elector of Hanover, while the king of Great Britain continued at war; and in the convention of 26th of August 815, for keeping up an army on the French frontier, the king of Great Britain bound himself, in dve diplomatic form, to pay a subsidy to the king of Hanover. The king is represented in Hanover by a viceroy, who at present is the duke of Cambridge. The revenue amounts to £900,000; the public debt is small, not exceeding £1,500,000. The army contains about 20,000 meo.


Situation and Extent. Saxony is bounded N. and N. E. by Prussia ; S. E. and S. by Austria, W. by Reuss and Prussia. It lies between 50° 10' and 51° 30' N. lat. and le'ween 12° apd 15° E. Ion. The area is estimated by Hassel at 7,436 square miles. Previous to 1814 the kingdom contained nearly Iwice as many square miles and twice as many inhabitants as it does at present, (exclusive of a part of Poland which was also subject to this crown) but at the Congress of Vienna the king was punished for his adherence to Bonaparte, by the loss of all hi- Polish territories, and one balf of his hereditary dominions which are now incorporated with the Prussian states, and Saxony is reduced to the smallest kingdom in Europe.

Divisions.] Saxony is divided into 5 circles.

Circles. Meissen, Leipsic, Erzgebirge, Vogtland, Upper Lusatia,

Square miles,

45 ,000

1584 1386 2574

704 1188

95,000 170,000

Chief towns. Dresden. Leipsic. Freiberg Plauen. Bautzen

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Face of the Country, &c.] The Erzgebirge mountains run along the southern frontier separating the kingdom from Bohemia. The descent from these mountains, though sleep on the side of Bohemia, is gentle and undulating on that of Saxony, and it is only in the northern half of the kingdom that it subsides into plains. The principal river is the Elbe, which passes through the kingdom from S. E. to N. W. The soil in the southern and mountainous parts of Saxony is well cultivated only in the vallies, but in the level districts of the north, particularly in the circles of Meissen and Leipsic, tillage is general. The products are wheat, barley, oats and other grain, also some tobacco and hops. Of the domestic animals, the chief care has been bestowed on the sheep, Merino rams having been imported about 50 years ago, and the Saxon wool rendered by continued good management, the best in Germany. Few countries equal Saxony in mineral riches, the Erzgebirge mountains abounding in mines of iron, copper, lead, silver, cobalt, zinc and coal, all of which are extensively and skilfully wrought. Porcelain clay also is found in the neighborhood of Meissen.

Chief Towns.) Dresden, the capital of the kingdom, and one of the best built towns in Europe, is beautifully situated on both sides of the Elbe, at the influx of the Weisseritz. Many of the public buildings are in a fine style of architecture, and there is a magnificent stone bridge across the Elhe, which was accounted the finest in Germany until injured by the French in 1813. The city has long been distinguished for the cultivation of the fine arts; the patronage of the sovereigns, and the collection of the works of great masters, affording inducements for artists to reside

It has manufactures of mirrors, tapestry, lace, jewellery, porcelain, earthenware, and plaited straw. Dresden has suffered repeatedly and severely from war, and the population bas in consequence declined. In 1755 it was 63,000, in 1817 only 45,000.

Leipsic or Leipzig, on the Pleisse, a branch of the Saale, is celebrated for its university, its fairs, and the battles fought in its vicinity. It is the chief commercial city in the interior of Germany, its central position and other circumstances having giving it a decided advantage over other places. A great part of its business is transacted at the three great fairs, which take place at the new year, Easter and Michaelmas. These fairs are attended by an immense concourse of people, not only from every part of Germany, but from almost every country in Europe. The total valve of the business transacted here in a year is computed at 18,000,000 of dollars, exclusive of the book trade, which forms a remarkable and a peculiar feature in the commerce of Leipsic. Here the booksellers of every large town in Germany assemble at the Easter fair to exchange their respective publications. The num ber of booksellers settled at Leipsic is between 50 and 60, and the number from other parts who attend the fair, varies from 200 to 300. The new publications exhibited for sale, are computed at an average of 5.000 distinct works. Leipsic and its neighborhood

have been repeatedly the scene of military conflicts. The most celebrated was that between the French and the allies on the 16th October 1813. The opposing armies were among the greatest of which we read in authenticated history: the allies were 240,000 strong, the French were 160,000. The latter were defeated with the loss of 40,000 or 50,000 men. The population of Leipsic is 33,000.

Freyberg, 20 miles S. W. of Dresden, is a celebrated mining town, and the residence of the officers who have the superintendo ance of all the mines throughout the kingdom. A mining academy was established here in 1765 wbich has been rendered famous by the names of Werner, Charpentier, Lampe and others. The whole of the neighboring district is full of mines; those in a state of activity amount to 250 and employ about 5,000 workmen. The population of the town is 9,000 Meissen, on the Elbe, 15 miles N. W. of Dresden, is celebrated for its porcelain manufacture. It has 6,000 inhabitants. Plouen, in the S. W. part of the kingdom, has extensive muslin manufactures, which extend to the towns in its vicinity. Population 6,000. Bautzen, on the Spree, 30 miles E. N. E. of Dresden, is celebrated for the bloody battle fought in its vicinity in June 1813, between the French and allies. It has 11,000 inhabitants.

Population, Religion and Education. The population is 1,200,000, and the country is more thickly settled than any other state in Germany except Wirtemberg and Baden. The great majority of the inhabitants are of the Lutheran religion, but the reigning family are Catholics. The institutions for education are numerous and well conducted, it being a common remark that in no country except Scotland and some parts of Switzerland are the lower classes so generally taught to read and write.' The Saxons have also cultivated liierature and the elegant arts with more success than any other people in Germany, and in no country of equal extent is the number of printing and bookselling establishments so great. The university at Leipsic is one of the most frequented of the German universities, although it perhaps yields the palm to Gottingen in the reputation of its professors. The number of students varies from 900 to 1,200. The number of regular professors is 27, exclusive of extra professors, private lecturers, and teachers of the living languages and fashionable exercises.

Government, &c.] Saxony is a kingdom, and the power of the sovereign is limited by the states, without whose consent no law can be made, and no tax imposed. The revenue amounts to £850,000, and the public debt is stated at £3,700,000. The army on the present peace establishment amounts to 12,000 men.

Manufactures and Commerce Saxony is more distinguished for its manufactures than any other part of Europe, except Eng. land, the Netherlands and the north of France. The principal article is linen, which is manufactured in almost every village in the kingdom, but particularly in Upper Lusatia. Woollens are

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