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Situation and Extent.) Bavaria is bounded N. by HesseDarmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, Saxe-Meinungen, Saxe-Coburg, Reuss, and the kingdom of Saxony; E. and S. by the Austrian dominions ; W. by Wirtemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt. It lies between 47° 10' and 50° 40' N. lat. and between 9° and 13° 50' E. lon. Besides the country included within these boundaries there is a detached territory on the west side of the Rhine, lying between France, Prussia, Hesse-Darmstadt and Baden. The area is estimated at 31,966 square miles, of which about 1,800 belong to the territory on the Rhine.
Divisions.] Bavaria is divided into 8 circles, which derive their names, like the departments of France, from the rivers on wbich they are situated.
Population acc. to Hassel. The Iser,
520,000 The Lower Danube, 355,000 The Regen,
387,000 The Upper Danube, 438,000 The Rezat,
446,000 The Upper Maine, 498,000 The Lower Maine, 440.000 The Rhine,
Chief Towns. Munich, Passau. Regensburg Augsburg. Anspach. Bayreuth. Wurtzburg Speyer.
Face of the Country, &c.) The surface along the southern, eastern, northern and northwestern frontier is mountainvus; in the interior it is undulating and in some parts level. The principal rivers are, 1. The Danube, which flows ibrough the heart of iħe kingdom froin west to east, and receives in its progress the Lech, the Par, the Iser, the Vils and the Inn from the south, and the Altmıhl and Regen from the north ; 2. The Maine, which rises in the N E. part of the kingdom, and flowing west receives the Regnitz from the south. The soil of Bavaria is various, some parts being very fertile and others quite barren. The principal productions are corn, of which large quantities are exported to all parts of Germany, and the vine, which is cultivated' to a great extent in the circle of the Rhine, and along the banks of the Maine. Salt is found in abundance near Salzburg in the S. E. and iron and quicksilver in the circle of the Rhine.
Chief Towns.) Munich, the capital of Bavaria, is in the southern part of the kingdom, on the west bank of the Iser. It is the place of meeting of the Bavarian parliament, the seat of the higher courts of justice, of the government offices, and of several literary and scientific institutions, and it is to these establishments that the inhabitants chiefly owe their support, ihe irade and manufactures of the town being very limited. The Iser is
pot navigable and the roads both to the east and west are very indifferent. The population is 47,000.
Augsburg, celebrated for the confession of faith presented here by Luther and Melancthon to the emperor Charles V. in 1530, is on the Lech, 40 miles N. W. of Munich. It has considerable commerce and manufactures, and 30,000 inhabitants.
Nurnberg or Nuremberg, on a branch of the Regnitz, is celebrated for its manufactures, which consist of musical and mathematical instruments, copper plates, pins, needles, spectacles, and toys of all kinds. Printing, and bookselling are also carried on to a considerable extent. Population 27,000.
Passuu is a strongly fortified town at the confluence of the lon and the Danube, which divide it into three parts, one on the peninsula, one on the N. side of the Danube and one on the E. side of the lon. The three are connected by long wooden bridges and contain 10,000 inhabitants.
Ratisbon or Regensburg, on the S. bank of the Danube opposite the mouth of ihe Regen, was the place of meeting for the diet of the German empire from 1662 to 1805. It formerly had the exclusive navigation of the Danube, downwards to Vienna, and upwards to Ulm, and still possesses a considerable share of that traffic. Population 22,000.
Landau is a strong town in the circle of the Rhine, on the Queich, garrisoned by the troops of the German confederation. Pop. 4,000. Gerinersheim, also in the circle of the Rhine, at the conflux of the Queich with the Rhine, is at present a strong town, and its fortifications are about to be greatly increased, the diet of Frankfort baving fixed on it as one of the bulwarks of Germany, and appropriated no less than £600,000 sterling for additonal works. Population 1,500.
Wurzburg is a well fortified town on both sides of the Maine in the midst of extensive vineyards. Population 16,000. Bamberg, situated on the Regnitz, which enters the Maine a little below the town, contains 20,000 inhabitants. Anspach, on the Rezat, 30 miles S. W. of Nuremberg, has 14,000 inhabitants. Ingolstadt is a strong town on the Danube 43 miles N. of Munich, with 5,000 inhabitants.
Population, Religion, &c.] The population, according to the official returns in 1818, was 3,560,000; of this number about fourfifths are Roman Catholics, and the remainder Protestants, with the exception of 12,000 Jews. The Bavarians were formerly reckoned among the most intolerant Catholics in Europe, but since the commencement of the present century more liberal sentiments have prevailed, and the Protestants are now not only unrestrained in their worship but are eligible to civil and military offices. Education has also of late been widely diffused through the kingdom, and though formerly scarcely one man in ten could either read or write, at present the majority of the youth are instructed in all the common branches. There are universities at Wurzburg and Aschaffenburg on the Main, at Landshut on the Iser, and at Erlangen on the Rednitz.
Government and Army.) The government is a monarchy lim. ited by a diet, which consists of two chambers ; 1. The chamber of counsellors, to which belong the princes of the royal family, the mediatised princes and counts, the two archbishops, the president of the Protestant General consistory, the officers of the crown and any persons appointed by the king. 2. The chamber of deputies, which includes deputies from each of the universities, from the clergy both Protestant and Catholic, from the cities and market towns, and from the landholders. The army consists of between 40,000 and 50,000 men.
Manufactures and Commerce.) There are very few large manufacturing establishments in Bavaria. The principal exports consist of natural productions, particularly corn, wine, wood and salt.
Situation and Extent.) Wirtemberg is bounded on the east by Bavaria, and on the southwest, west and north by Baden. For a little distance on the south it is washed by the Boden See or lake of Constance. It lies between 47° 36' and 49° 45' N. lat. and between 8° 23' and 10° 26' E. lon. The area is estimated at 8,118 square miles.
Divisions.] The kingdom has been recently divided into four eircles. Circles.
Chief towns. 1. The Neckar,
Ludwigsburg 2. The Schwarzwald, 361,000
Reutlingen. 3. The Jaxt,
Elwangen. 4. The Danube,
Ulm. The cities of Stuttgard and Cannstadt are not included in either of the circles.
Face of the Country. The surface of the country is more mountainous than level. Two considerable chains of mountains, the Schwarzwald and a branch of the Alps, run through the kingdom, in many ridges, and give birth to a great number of small rivers and brooks. The principal rivers are, 1. The Danube, which runs from S. W. to N. E. completely across the kingdom, and receives the Iller near the eastern boundary 2. The Neckar, which rises in the Schwarzwald and running north receives the Kocher and the Jaxt, besides many smaller streams. The soil is fertile, except in the most elevated parts of the mountains, The principal productions are, corn in sufficient quantities for the supply of the kingdom; wine, particularly in the valley of the Neckar; wood, in abundance; fruit of various kinds; horned catile and sheep
Chief Towns.) Stuttgard, the capital of the kingdom, is situated in a delightful country on the Nasenbach, about two miles from its entrance into the Neckar. It contains 23,000 inbabitants. Ulm, situated at the confluence of the Iller with the Danube, contains 15,000 inhabitants. The diet of Frankfort have determined to
make Ulm a fortress of the first rank, and a sum of no less than 4,800,000 was voted in 1818 for completing its fortifications, Tubingen, on the Neckar, 16 miles S. S. W. of Stuttgard has a university with 300 students, a theological seminary and a college for the nobility. Population 5,765.
Population, Religion, 8.c.] The number of inhabitants, aecording to the official return in 1818, was 1,395,463, or on an average 172 10 a square mile, which is a more dense population than that
any of the other German states. Nearly 1,000,000 of the inhabitants are Lutherans and the remainder Catholics, with the exception of 8,000 Jews.
Government and Army.] The government is monarchical, and according to the plan of a constitution recently proposed by the king, his power is to be limited by a diet consisting of two chambers, one of which is composed of the nobility and the higher orders of the clergy, and the other of the representatives of the cities and the people. The army consists of about 16,000 men.
Manufactures and Commerce.) The manufactures are principally limited to the supply of the kingdom, and furnish little surplus for exportation. The principal exports are wood, which is floated in large quantities down the Neckar and the Rhine to Holland, wine, live cattle, horses and swine.
Situation and Extent.] Hanover is bounded on the N. W. by the North Sea; N. E. by Holstein, Lauenburg and Mecklenburg, from which it is separated by the river Elbe; on the S. E. by Prnssia; S.W. by Hesse-Cassel and the western division of the Prussian dominions, and W. by the kingdom of the Netherlands. It lies between 6° 50' and 11° 46' E. lon. and between 51° 18' and 53° 54' N. lat. Within these boundaries are also included the grand dutchy of Oldenburg, part of the dutchy of Brunswick, and the free city of Biemen, which are all independent of Hanover, thuugh almost sur rounded by it. The area of the kingdom is estimated at 15,004 square miles. Divisions.] Hanover is divided into 12 provinces as follows: Province s.
Square miles. Population Chief towns. 1. Calenberg,
1,046 139,250 Hanover. 2. Gottingen,
1,220 176,100 Gottingen. 3. Luneburg,
4,236 246,000 Luneburg. 4. Hoya with Diepholtz, 1,420 105,150 Diepholiz. 5. Hildesheim,
682 128,950 Hildesheim 6. Osnabruck,
920 125,050 Osnabruck 7. Verden,
520 22,550 Verden. 8. Bremen,
168,500 Stade. 9. Bentheim,
400 24,350 Bentheim. 10. East Friesland,
1,100 120,850 Emden. 11. Lingen,
Lingen. 12. Meppen,
Face of the Country, d.c.] With the exception of the Hartz and other elevated pract, which occupy the southern part of the kingdom, the territory of Hanover consists of an immense plain interrupted only by gentle undulations and sand bills. In the south the vallies between the mountains are fertile; in the north there are many barren heaths and moors: the most productive tracts are those along the coasts and the banks of the rivers, which have been reclaimed from a marshy state. The principal productions are good horses and fine cattle, particularly in the Hartz and in the marshy districts on the coast. The Hartz mountains are very rich in minerals, particularly in iron, copper, lead and silver, the mine- of which are extensively wrought and yield a considerable revenue to the government. The principal rivers are, 1. I he Elbe, which forms the boundary on the N. E. 2. The Weser, which passes through the heart of the kingdom and receives from the east the Aller. 3. The Ems, which passes from south to north through the western part of the kingdom.
Chief Towns.) Hunover, the capital, is pleasantly situated on both sides of the Leine, a navigable branch of the Aller. It has a few manufactures, but derives its support principally from the presence of the court and the residence of the gentry. The population is 25,000. Emden, situated on the Ems, at its influx into the North sea at the bay of Dollart, has a spacious and secure harbor, and is a place of considerable trade. Population 11,000, Hildesheim, on a branch of the Leine, 20 miles S. E. of Hanover, has 11,000 inhabitants. Luneburg on the Ilmenau, a branch of the Elbe, has a considerable trade in horses and salt, and 10,000 inhabitants. Osnabruck, or Osnaburg, on the Hase, a branch of the Ems, is famous for the manufacture of the coarse linen called Osnaburgs. Population 9,000. Gottingen, farnous for its university, is on the Leine, near the southern extremity of the kingdom. Population 9,000.
Population and Religion.] The population in 1818 was 1,305,351. The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, but all other sects are tolerated. The Calvinists amount only to 40,000, the Jews to 8,000 or 9,000, and the Catholics do not exceed 150,000.
Education.) A regular system of education prevails throughout the kingdom. Elementary schools are established in every village, and academies or bigher schools in all the principal towns. The university at Gortingen is esteemed one of the first in Europe. It was founded in 1734 by George II, and is on a very comprehensive plan, embracing the four faculties of divinity, philosophy, law and medicine. The number of professors is not fixed, but in general exceeds 40. In 1818 they were as follows : 3 of theology ; 7 of medicine, surgery, chemistry and botany; 7 of law; 6 of the classics and oriental languages; 4 of history, ancient and modern, statistics and the history of literature ; 2 of mathematics, logic and metaphysics ; 4 of astronomy, experimental philosophy and mineralogy ; 3 of modern languages and literalure. These are the regular and daily lecturers, but there are also 7 professors who give extraordinary lectures on subjects